Surface to air missile is a missile designed to destroy Aircrafts and other missiles. Surface-to-air missiles were developed to protect ground positions and ground troops from hostile air attacks. In modern warfare SAMs are turned out to be one of the most important assets for any country. Modern SAM systems are highly mobile, able to set up and pack away in minutes prior to and after firing. They are also supported by point-defense systems, electronic warfare assets and deception measures such as decoys. This makes them very difficult to reliably track, target and destroy from long ranges. They are also increasingly equipped with digital radars capable of frequency-hopping, offering much better resistance to jamming interference and also making them harder to detect when in operation.
In this article you can read about SAM systems and Radar systems of India and China. We are purposefully making Indian part short.
Chinese Air Defense Systems
China acquired, reverse engineered and developed a wide variety of air defense systems, most of them are older platforms and obsolete. Even though the latest generation Chinese air defense systems are very much capable and the recent addition of S400 system to Chinese inventory increased the lethality. The PLAAF possesses one of the largest forces of advanced long-range SAM systems in the world.
In this article we provided more details about HQ-9, HQ-16, HQ-19, mainly because they forms the backbone of Chinese air defense along with S-400. Information about the newest Chinese SAM/BMD such as HQ 22, HQ 26, and HQ 29 are scarce and misleading. Older Chinese SAM systems are possibly upgraded with latest technology still it is less capable compared to the newest systems , even though they are older they are working in a highly networked Chinese integrated air defense system makes it deadly for the adversaries.
The HQ-9 is a medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile. China claims HQ 9 is similar in capability to the Russian S-300 and American Patriot systems. The naval variant, HHQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant. HHQ-9 is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C Lanzhou class destroyer in VLS launch tubes. HQ-9 system likely has a limited capability to provide point defense against tactical ballistic missiles. The HQ-9 system is designed to track and destroy aircraft, cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles, and tactical ballistic missiles. The system was unveiled for the first time to the public during the military parade for the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Most land-based HQ-9 variants can hit targets at ranges of up to 200 kilometers and altitudes of up to 30,000 meters. While its single-shot kill probability is as high as 90 percent against airplanes, it may be much lower—about 30 percent—against ballistic missiles.
Each HQ-9 launcher contains four missiles stored in individual containers and is transported on Taian TA5380 8×8 high mobility chassis. The most basic formation of HQ-9 batteries consisted of one Type 305B search radar, one tracking radar, one 200 kW Diesel generator truck, and eight transporter erector launchers (TELs) each with 4 missiles, totaling 32 rounds ready to fire. These equipment's are usually mounted on Tai'an trucks. This basic formation can be expanded into more capable larger formation, with the addition of, TWS-312 command post, one site survey vehicle based on Chinese Humvee, one main power grid converter, additional transporter / loader vehicles with each vehicle housing four missiles. HQ-9 can use a variety of radar sensors to detect different targets, including ballistic missiles and stealth objects. A battery may include HT-233 engagement radar, H-200 mobile engagement radar, and a number of search radars like the Type 120 low altitude acquisition radar, Type 305A 3D acquisition radar, or Type 305B 3D acquisition radar.
In the Chinese Armed Forces, an HQ-9 battery includes a command vehicle(TWS 312), six control vehicles, 6 targeting radar vehicles, 6 search-radar vehicles, 48 missile-launch vehicles, and 192 missiles; plus a positioning vehicle, a communications vehicle, a power supply vehicle and a support vehicle. A battalion reportedly contains 8 missile launch vehicles.
Similar to the Russian S-300V HQ-9 is a two-stage missile. The first stage has a diameter of 700 mm and the 2nd stage 560 mm, with a total mass of almost 2 tons and a length of 6.8m. The thrust vector control (TVC) of HQ-9 is the most obvious visual identification that distinguishes it from S300V: TVC of HQ-9 is exposed and thus can be observed from the side, while TVC of S300V is not exposed. The system first used a missile in a box-like launcher canted at an angle, just like the MIM-104 Patriot. However the missile was very large because of China's limited experience with solid-fuel rockets in the 1990s. Due to Russian assistance and technology transfers, the missile and launcher are in their present form, a transporter erector launcher with missiles inside a cylindrical container.
Accompanying the land-mobile HQ-9 LR-SAM SAM batteries are the RWE-1 radio-frequency band active missile approach warning system (MAWS) and CETC-built TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communications systems. The MAWS is used for protecting LR-SAM batteries from attack by high-speed anti-radiation missiles, and is employed to trigger emitter shutdown and activation of active emitting decoys. The MAWS has a detection range of 40km/21.6nm. DF capability is via amplitude comparison between channels, providing 10-degree DF accuracy, adequate for cueing decoys, or cueing point-defense weapons to acquire, track and engage the inbound missiles. The TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communication system is deployed extensively to support LR-SAM batteries by providing digital connectivity to the integrated air defense network.
For point-defense of the HQ-9 battery, the Yi Tian wheeled self-propelled very short-range air defense system (VSHORADS) is employed. The system uses the WMZ-551 6 x 6 wheeled armored fighting vehicles on which there is a mast mounted Type-120 rotating planar-array low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) radar. Against a helicopter or non-stealth attack aircraft the radar provides surveillance out to 18km, tracking at 12km, and engagement at 10km. Against an inbound cruise missile the surveillance range drops to 8km. with the missile firing at 6km from an oncoming target. The eight SAMs are carried by a 4 x 4 vehicle carrying two square quad box launchers each containing a FB-6A short-range missile, plus a fire-control system comprising a CCD day/night sight, thermal imaging sight, and a laser rangefinder. The FB-6A can intercept a target with a maximum speed of 400 meters/second (1,440kph) and the reaction time is given as 8 seconds. A Yi Tian air-defense battalion comprises a battalion headquarters and three self-supporting air defense companies.
Warhead : 180 kg
Maximum speed : Mach 4.2
Maximum range : 200 km
Altitude : 30 km.
Detonation : Proximity fuses (effective range of 35m, goes active when the missile is 5km away from its target.
Guidance : INS, mid-course uplink, active radar homing.
Range : 100km (FT-2000), 200Km (FD 2000), 250Km (9A), 300Km (9B)
Speed : 4.2 Mach
Propulsion : Two Stage, Solid rocket motor
Launch Platform : Taian TA580/TAS5380 8×8 transporter erector launcher (TEL),Type 052C destroyer, Type 052D destroyer, Type 055 destroyer
To reduce the cost, the HQ-9 is designed to be flexible enough to employ a wide range of radars, both the search/surveillance/acquisition radar and the tracking/engagement/fire control radar (FCR). A battery of HQ-9 consists of 6 TEL trucks linked to HT-233 3D C-band mono-pulse planar phased array radar, under the control of a TWS-312 battery command post. It operates in the 300 MHz bandwidth and has a detection range of 120 km and a tracking range of 90 km. The radar can detect targets in azimuth (360 degrees) and elevation (0 to 65 degrees), and is capable of tracking some 100 airborne targets and simultaneously engaging more than 50 targets. Several search radars can be used with HQ-9, including anti-ballistic radars and anti-stealth radars, as the search radar Type 305B, the low altitude radar Type 120, the search radar Type 305A, the passive radar YLC-20 and the passive radar DWL002.
Many FCRs of other Chinese SAM can be used for HQ-9, such as FCR used in KS-1 SAM, SJ-212, itself an enlarged and improved version of the SJ-202 fire control radar (FCR) used in HQ-2J. H-200 & SJ-231 FCRs of latter models of KS-1 SAM are also compatible with HQ-9.
To maximize the combat effectiveness of HQ-9, a dedicated FCR for HQ-9 was developed, and it is most commonly seen with HQ-9. Designated as HT-233, this radar is the most advanced FCRs HQ-9 could employ, and it has greater similarities to the MIM-104 Patriot's MPQ-53 than the S-300's 30N6 (Flap-Lid) series, working in the NATO G-band (4–6 GHz) also as a search and targeting radar. This could be due to an alleged transfer of a Patriot missile to China from Israel. The radar can search a 120 degree arc in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation out to 300 km, with a peak power output on 1MW (average 60 kW). The radar is credited as being able to track 100 targets and guides up to 6 missiles to 6 targets, or alternatively, to 3 targets with a pair of missile for each target.
In comparison to earlier H-200 radar used by early models of KS-1 SAM which uses a simple horn instead of lens arrangement, HT-233 radar adopts lens arrangement of AN/MPQ-53. In comparison to SJ-231 radar used by the latest model of KS-1, HT-233 has a thousand more phase shifter on its antenna array, totaling four thousand, as opposed to the three thousand of SJ-231. In contrast, both AN/MPQ-53 & 30N6E radars have ten thousand phase shifters on their antenna arrays respectively.
HT-233 radar is mounted on Tai'an TAS5501 10 x 10 high mobility cross country truck, and operates in C-band at 300 MHz. When deployed as search radar TH-233 is fielded at brigade level, while FCR radars deployed would be SJ-212, H-200 or SJ-231. HT-233 is credited with a detection range of 120 km, scanning 360 degrees in azimuth and 0-65 degrees in elevation. It can track 100 targets and designate 50 for engagements.
Type 305A radar
Type 305A (also known as LLQ-305A) radar is search radar for HQ-9 system. This AESA radar is designed maximize the anti-ballistic capability of HQ-9, and it resembles Thales Ground Master 400 AESA radar. Very little info is released about this radar other than it can also act as fire-control radar. Type 305A 3D acquisition radar is unique and does not resemble any known Chinese radar designs. It is carried on the same Mercedes-Benz NG 80 derived chassis as the Type 120 and Type 305B radars.
Type 305A, most probably on based the same technology used in the KJ-2000 AWACS and KJ-200 AEW&C AESA radars. The antenna design physically resembles existing Western S-band AESAs such as the Thales Ground Master series, or the very much larger Israeli IAI/Elta EL/M-2080 Green Pine ABM radar series - reliable, difficult to jam, and difficult to locate, with agile beam-steering of the kind seen in US systems like the Aegis SPY-1. The depth of the primary antenna and its structural frame is typical for AESA designs in this category, using a stacked modular feed network arrangement; this is well documented in a number of Russian AESA designs.
The rear face of the antenna frame is largely occupied with voluminous equipment housings, of similar depth to the antenna frame itself, and of equal height. These would be consistent with the installation of low voltage AESA power supplies, cooling equipment, receiver, and exciter hardware.
Chinese sources have identified the radar as a long range 3D high altitude acquisition and search design, intended to support missile guidance applications. This type of functionality is consistent with a number of extant dual role acquisition radars, built to support long range acquisition of aerial targets at medium to high altitudes, and acquisition of Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) category targets.
Type 305B AESA radar
Type 305B (also known as LLQ-305B) radar is the standard search radar for HQ-9(and HQ 12). The Type 305B 3D acquisition radar appears to be a variant of the existing YLC-2V. Type 305B is a modern mechanically steered planar array with electronic beam-steering for height-finding. It is similar to a good number of US and EU radars in this category, but is built for greater mobility in the field, making it harder to engage and destroy.
305 B is 3-D radar which has an antenna height of 3.5 meters, and employs sixty 350 mm waveguide feeds. It operates in the S-band at a wavelength of 11.67 cm. Chinese sources describe this radar as optimized for search and acquisition of aerial targets. The principal distinction between the established YLC-2V and the Type 305B would appear to be the absence of the IFF/SSR array mounted across the top of the antenna.
The hydraulically folded antenna used with the Type 305B has 58 element rows and will employ frequency scanning like other radars in this family of designs. Row spacing suggests S-band operation, like the YLC-2V.
Type 120 radar
Type 120 (also known as LLQ-120) radar is the low altitude search radar, it is a telescoping radar with an antenna height of 2.3 m folded, and 7 m unfolded, using a feed network of sixteen 230mm wave guides. It rotates at a maximum of ten revolutions per minute, and operates in the L-band at a wavelength of 23.75 cm. Like the Belarus Vostok D/E series, it uses a hydraulically elevated mast to increase low altitude coverage. Use of L band clearly intended to improve detection range against stealth aircraft and cruise missiles, most of which are difficult to detect at operationally useful ranges in the S-band.
Type 120 is 2D low-altitude acquisition radar. 2D capability implies that the radar system acquires range and azimuth data on a given target, but not altitude data. As such, the Type 120 is best suited for a complementary role supporting other radar systems. The Type 120 is reportedly a derivative of the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 2D radar system. While no performance specifications yet exist for the Type 120, the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 generated 72 target tracks with an operational range of 200 kilometers. The more refined Type 120 may improve on these specifications, but they are a logical baseline.
YLC-20 passive sensor
The Chinese YLC-20 is conceptually based on the KRTP-91 Tamara, but incorporates both precision DF and DTOA capabilities to locate airborne and surface based emitters. YLC-20 is intended to detect, locate and identify:
It is likely that much of the YLC-20 design is based on documentation acquired during the abortive attempt to procure six Czech Vera E DTOA ELS systems. The YLC-20 was first disclosed in 2006.
DWL002 passive sensor
DWL002 passive detection system was displayed during the 9th China International Defense Electronics Exhibition in Beijing in May. DWL002 passive radar is incorporating Kolchuga passive sensor, four of which were sold to China. It comprises one master reconnaissance station and two slave stations. The systems can be expanded to four stations and outfitted on trucks. The DWL002 has a detection range of 400 kilometers for fighter aircraft and 600 kilometers for airborne early warning and control aircraft. According to some radar experts “Its range is limited by its parameter set and is most unlikely to achieve anywhere near 500 kilometers unless it is sited on a 10,000-foot mountain targeting aircraft at 30,000 feet,”
Chinese media says the system provides a target capacity of 100 batches and a range of detectable signal types including pulse, frequency agility, pulse duration, tactical air navigation system, distance measuring equipment, jitter/stagger radar, and identification friend or foe.
Chinese sources repeatedly claim DWL 002 as a credible counter to conventional stealth military aviation. The DWL002 is an emitter locating system (ELS) which partially iterates on innovations found in older Russian designs, including the KRTP Tamara series and ERA Vera-E. The DWL002 is a more advanced ELS compared to YLC-20 system .United States and other Western European countries have abandoned the use and development of passive-detection radar systems, citing poor accuracy.
DWL002 will have a likely range of around 400-500 kilometers and is comprised of three stations that operate in tandem, placed kilometers apart. The DWL002, if it lives up to its touted capabilities, would severely hamper stealth fighter-based attempts at establishing aerial control over Chinese territory provided Chinese air defense systems are operational. With the DWL002 ELS, Chinese air defense systems would be significantly more effective at detecting hostile stealth aircraft. Another claimed feature of the DWL002 is its ability to track aircraft without notifying pilots that they have been detected by radar.
DWL002 apart from its other ELS predecessors is it uses “paired primary wideband apertures, displaced in elevation.” The resulting phase and time differences between the upper and lower antennas permit height finding, otherwise problematic in earlier single aperture designs. The primary apertures are housed under cylindrical radomes, in an arrangement similar to the KRTP-91 Tamara and ERA Vera systems.
The lower primary aperture is on a telescoping mast, the upper primary aperture on the articulated folding main mast, which employs hydraulic actuators. Below the upper primary aperture is a package of steerable parabolic antennas, likely operating in the upper X-band or Ku-band. These are employed to provide high data rate links between the three or four networked DWL002 systems when deployed. The aft of the equipment container also mounts three Yagi antennas, the purpose of which has not been disclosed. It is most likely that these are employed for data linking target track data from the networked DWL002 systems to other air defence assets. The system is carried on a North Benz ND1260 (Mercedes-Benz NG 80) 6 x 6 military truck.
The strategic significance of the DWL002 is that it is the first DTOA technology ELS which has been designed from the outset with the intention of providing robust height finding capability when passively tracking an emitting target. The ability to generate near-real-time or soft real-time 3D target tracks would be especially valuable in supporting SAM systems like the S-300PMU2 or HQ-9, as this could be employed to cue the SAM engagement radar very precisely to the inbound target. Should the accuracy of the ELS be sufficiently high, it could be employed to generate post-launch midcourse tracking corrections for outbound SAMs.
The CETC brochure describes the system thus:
“DWL002 Passive Detection System, also called as passive radar, is mainly used in air-defense or seashore monitoring to perform the detection to perform the detection and location to airborne, ship borne or lands based emitters in complex electromagnetic environment and display the target flight path in real time. The system can also operate together with active detection system to form a mutual supplementary surveillance network.
Typical configuration of DVL002 Passive Detection 'system is composed of three reconnaissance stations. One of them serves as master station and the other two as slave stations. The system can be expandable to four station configuration with perfect performance of full spatial coverage and altitude information of air target. Each station is carried by an individual vehicle.
* Real-time & Accurate Location and Tracking
* Signal Analysis and Identification
* Long Range Detection and Early Warning
* Real Time
* Very Good Mobility
DWL002 Passive Detection System is a three station configuration (expandable to four station configuration). Each station including antenna and power generator is housed and carried by one vehicle. which ensures the good mobility of the system
* Remote Control
* Advanced techniques
Long base line time difference of arrival (TDOA) location technique combined with AOA: Wideband digitized receiver technique; Multilevel correlation processing technique with good flight track processing result: Automatic set up. Chassis leveling techniques and automatic north calibration technique to ensure fast deployment and flexible operation.”
HQ-9: Base Variant with TVM.
HHQ-9: Naval version. It appears to be identical to the land-based variant. It is used on modern Chinese guided-missiles destroyers. These missiles are launched from vertical tubes;
HQ-9A: Upgraded version, first tested in 1999 and service entry in 2001. Chinese sources claim that the HQ-9 family of systems employ much newer computing technology than imported Russian S-300PMU/PMU1/PMU2 systems, because HQ-9 is developed more than a decade later, thus allowing it to incorporate advancement in microelectronics. Due to the superior computing capability for signal processing, data processing and guidance support, this missile can have an optional semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode, because more info can be processed on board the missile itself. ). Improved electronic equipment and software provide the 9A with higher accuracy and probability of kill.
HHQ-9A: Ship-borne naval version of HQ-9A. Eight 6-cell vertical launch silos, of cylindrical shape and using "cold launch" method, mounted on the Type 052C destroyer (48 missiles in total). Naval variant identical to HQ-9A
HQ-9B: reportedly tested in February 2006. According to Jane's Information Group, this missile has a dual seeker that incorporates both SARH & infrared homing mode. Longer 300 km range; an additional seeker provides semi-active radar homing and infrared homing modes
HQ-9C: Currently under development, incorporating active radar homing mode. Currently in development; incorporates fully active radar homing.
FD -2000: Identical to original HQ-9, but designed for export with minor electronic improvements. First revealed in the 8th Zhuhai Airshow, the export version of HQ-9, providing extra anti-stealth capability by incorporating YLC-20 passive radar sensor as an option.FD-2000 made its name by once securing Turkish surface-to-air missile contract, later cancelled due to political reasons. FD2000's reaction time from radar contact to missile engagement is around 12–15 seconds. It covers an area of 49000 square kilometers. FD-2000 was on exhibition in Zhuhai Airshow 2014.
FT-2000: Anti radiation version that was the first model of HQ-9 family being completed. First revealed in 1998, FT-2000, which was designed engage airborne warning and control system (AWACS) and other electronic warfare aircraft at long ranges. Despite being regarded as the first of its kind in the world, the real effectiveness of the FT-2000 in operation was somehow doubtful. The missile caught great attention when it was first revealed in 1998, but did not enter production due to lack of interest from either domestic or international market.
The HQ-19 is a long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) intended to engage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites and ballistic missiles. The missile is planned to be deployed as part of the HQ-19 air defense system and the Type 055 destroyer in 2020. HQ-19 might “fill the midtier of China’s BMD network”.
HQ 19 is a vastly upgraded version of HQ-9. According to Chinese military sources, it is an equivalent of the American THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense). HQ-19 is armed with a dual purpose exosphere kinetic kill vehicle (kkv) warhead designed by a team led by Professor Zhou Jun, which can be used against ballistic missile warheads or satellites. Its first flight occurred in 2003. HQ-19 using active radar homing in the terminal phase. HQ 19 make use of the Indigenous radars including the JY-27A and JL-1A – the latter advertised as capable of precision tracking of multiple ballistic missiles – reportedly provide target detection for the system.
The HQ-19 will have a range of between approximately 1,000 and 3,000 km. It could potentially have a capability against intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBM), with ranges between 3,000 km and 5,500 km, under certain circumstances. China carried out a fourth land-based mid-course missile interception test within its territory on 05 February 2018 and "achieved the desired test objective".
HQ-19 system also includes multi-purpose solid phased array radar for early warning. It is reported that the X band phased array radar can detect targets at a distance of 4,000 km. The information is provided to the HQ-19 interception system via the command-and-control system.
On July 23, 2016, the suspected red flag -19 (HQ-19) made a public appearance. When introducing the PLA's missile test expert Chen Deming, the "military program" of CCTV disclosed the first land-based mid-flight anti-missile interception test screen and intercepted missile warheads. The paper published in China on Demand Analysis of Tactical Missile Power Units and the Development of Solid Rocket Engines suggests that the Red Flag-19 anti-missile system is intended to be targeted at India's 2,500-kilometer long - medium-range ballistic missiles and requires effective interception of 3,000 kilometers Range of medium-range ballistic missile reentry warhead ability.
According to another judgment, the HQ-19 kinetic energy interceptor uses a side-window infrared seeker similar to THAAD. The window design can reduce the impact of atmospheric friction and heat on the infrared sensor detection, giving the missile the interception capability in the atmosphere. Side-window infrared seeker gives the HQ -19 in the atmosphere high attack accuracy, and can use a lighter kinetic energy interceptor to increase the interceptor's shot height and range.
China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Second Institute developed the endo- and exo-atmospheric Red flag-19 anti-missile missiles, belonging to the People's Liberation Army ground-based missile defense system.
HQ 19 adopted a composite guidance system, which can be used to intercept ballistic missile reentry warhead within a range of 3000km. HQ-19 is equipped with high-acceleration solid engine, which uses carbon fiber shell and the application of in-situ synthesis of composite materials. The mass ratio is 0.85, with a firing duration of 260s and 60g maneuver ability to intercept the warhead target.
US Department of Defense was of the opinion that "an HQ-19 unit may have begun preliminary operations in western China".
SC-19 is the ASAT derivative of HQ 19. SC-19 using Kaituozhe-1 space booster as engine instead of the original engine used in HQ-9/19. Due to the size difference of engines, SC-19 also has to adopt a new launcher/transporter designated as KT-409. Like HQ-19, SC-19 can also be used to counter either ballistic missile or satellite on the lower end of low Earth orbits.
On 11 January 2007, China effectively destroyed its very own defunct weather satellite Fengyun-1C at 22:28 UTC. The missile used in the destruction was SC-19 ASAT missile having a kinetic kill warhead. The interceptor missile had been blasted off from a Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) vehicle located at Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The target for the test, Fengyun-1C weighing 750 kg was a weather satellite orbiting in Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit of 865 km. The satellite was launched in 1999 and was the fourth satellite in Feng Yun series.
China conducted additional SC–19 tests in 2010, 2013, and 2014. In each test, the SC–19 intercepted a mock warhead launched by a ballistic missile rather than a satellite. The HQ-19/ SC-19 are all right for medium-range missiles and LEO satellites, but for interception at higher altitudes, the Chinese are developing the Dong Neng missiles aimed at mid-course interception. Multiple tests of the DN system have taken place since 2010.
HQ 26 is believed to be the Chinese equivalent of SM-3 for naval deployment. HQ 26 is an upgraded HQ-9/19 equipped with a dual pulse solid rocket motor for the final stage like SM-3. Very little is known about this system. HQ 26 could equip Type 055 destroyer. Type 055 with HQ 26 is to deploy in the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific.
Macau-based military expert Antony Wong Dong told the South China Morning Post that the new generation sea-based HQ-26 anti-missile system will have a 2,174-mile range cruise missile and is likely to be installed on the country's largest destroyer–the Type 055.
HQ-29 is believed to be an equivalent to the American PAC-3 MSE / ERINT in terms of technology used, with engine upgrade for the final stage: instead of a single dual pulse solid rocket motor, HQ-29 is equipped with over a hundred tiny pulse solid mini rocket motors mounted in the forebody of the missile, but the exact number remain unknown due to lack of publicized information. Its first flight was achieved in 2011.
The development project would be launched in 2003; the technology of thruster and control combined active flight was controlled between 2005 and 2007. According to reports HQ 29 was supposed to induct in 2015.
To the kinetic interceptor with lateral impulse thrust and aerodynamic force, it is required to solve the problem of combined fire of motors for attitude control. First model of combined fire of motors for attitude control is developed, and then on the basis of this model a firing rule of attitude control motor is designed and an analysis on the energy consumption efficiency is made under the condition of different position distribution of attitude control motors, finally the simulation result proves the feasibility of this firing rule and have some reference in future.
The HQ-16 is a medium range semi-active radar homing surface-to-air missile. Development of the HQ-16 began in 2005 as a joint development with Russian company Almaz-Antey, based on the older Buk-M1 and Buk-2M Surface-to-air missile systems. In 2011, development was completed and the HQ-16 was officially inducted into service. This air defense system is mainly used to protect stationary assets such as airfields, command posts, concentration of troops, bridges, and other important targets. A typical battery comprises of four launch vehicles (with six launch tubes each), a command-and-control unit, two radar units, and a generator
Using advanced technologies, of intermittent illumination semi-active radar homing guidance, phased array radar, vertical cold launch (Navy) and radio communication network, the LY-80 can be operated under the environment of strong electro-magnetic interference and during all-weather conditions. . The HQ-16 is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers, filling the gap between the HQ-7 short-range SAM and the HQ-9 long-range SAM systems. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
According to the SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) arms transfers’ database, three units of the LY-80 were ordered by Pakistan in 2014 and delivered in 2015/2016. The Pakistan Army formally inducted the LY-80 (HQ-16) medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system on March, 12, 2017. In January 2018, Pakistani army has performed the first live firing with the LY-80 during the military exercise Al Bayza-2019.
A typical formation consists of one command vehicle, one search radar vehicle, 3 radar guidance vehicles and 12 launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle carries up to 6 missiles. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launch vehicles with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The launch vehicle is a Taian TA5350 6×6 high-mobility truck developed by Taian Special Vehicle Company. It is powered by a 250hp Deutz AG BF6M1015 turbocharged diesel engine produced under license in China. Standard equipment of the TA5350 includes a central tire inflation system that can be adjusted on the move from the driver's seat. The vehicle has a maximum road speed of 85 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km, and can climb a gradient of 60% and side slope of 30%. It can cross a vertical obstacle of 0.5 m, a trench of 0.6 m and has a fording depth of 1 m without preparation. Prior to firing, the wheels are lifted off the ground by 4 hydraulic jacks and the 6 missile canisters are tilted back to a vertical position. The missiles use a cold launch system.
A typical formation consists of one searching radar vehicle, one command vehicle, 3 radar tracking and guidance vehicles, 12 launcher unit vehicles, and missiles canisters. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launcher units with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The searching radar vehicle is equipped with solid-state an IBIS 150 S-band, 3D, PESA (passive phased-array radar) mounted on the top of a mast. When the target is detected, the searching radar vehicle performs automatic IFF (Identification Friend-or-Foe), threat judgment, flight path processing and provide target engagement information for the tracking-and-guidance radar. The S-band search radar has a range of 140 km and can detect targets flying at an altitude of 20 km. It can detect up to 144 targets and track 48 simultaneously.
The radar guidance vehicle is equipped with an L band PESA radar is mounted at the rear of the vehicle that controls the missile launching and target illumination after the missile is fired. The radar has a range of 85 km and can detect up to 6 targets, track 4 simultaneously and provide fire control for 8 missiles
Land Variant of HQ 16. The LY-80 (HQ16A) was introduced in the Chinese armed forces in September 2011. This is a land based version of the HQ-16 system used in ships and fired from Vertical Launch System (VLS) containers. The HQ-16A is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
HQ 16 B
In 2016, an upgraded version named HQ-16B was unveiled. Due to an improved rocket motor and revised wings, the range was increased to 70 km. The upgraded version also appeared to have a longer body and new designed wings. HQ 16B can target a wide range of airborne targets such as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise missiles, stealth airplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The HQ-16B missile is intended for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Type 054B class frigates and HQ-16 ground-based air defense systems.
LY-80 : Export version of the HQ-16A.
HHQ-16/16A : Naval variant of the HQ-16 with a range of 35 to 75 km.
HQ-16C/ HHQ-16D : an upgraded version of HQ6B, IOC 2018
HQ-16E/LY-80N : New ship-based version, launched from vertical system similar to Mark 41 Vertical Launching System.
Weight : 650Kg
Length : 5.2m
Diameter : 0.34m
Max Range : 40Km for aircrafts, 3.5 Km to 12 km for Cruise Missiles.
Kill Probability : 85 %( Aircrafts), 60% (cruise Missiles)
Guidance : SARH
It was reported that the naval variant of the missile was designed to intercept sea-skimming missiles that can fly less than ten meters above the surface.
In Service : 2011
Range : 40 km (HQ-16) 70 km (HQ-16B)
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Warhead : 70Kg, HE Fragmentation, Proximity fuze
Max Speed : mach 3
Flight Altitude : 15m to 18Km
HQ-2(Chinese version of S-75 Dvina)
The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. HQ-2 is an upgrade of the S-75.The HQ-2 has been China's primary air defense system for over forty years but since 2016 it is being replaced by the HQ-22 system.
HQ-1: Chinese version of SA-2 with additional ECCM.
HQ-2: Upgraded HQ-1 with additional ECCM capability. Upgraded HQ-2s remain in service today, and the latest version utilizes Passive electronically scanned array radar designated SJ-202, which is able to simultaneously track and engage multiple targets at 115 km and 80 km , respectively. The adoption of multifunction SJ-202 radar has eliminated the need to have multiple, single-function radars, and thus greatly improved the overall effectiveness of the HQ-2 air defense system. A target drone version is designated BA-6.
HQ-3: Development of HQ-2 with maximum ceiling increased to 30 km specifically targeted for high altitude and high speed spy planes. Maximum range is 42 km and launching weight is around 1 ton, and maximum speed in 3.5 Mach. A total of 150 built before the program ended and the subsequent withdraw of HQ-3 from active service, and the knowledge gained from HQ-3 was used to develop later version of HQ-2.
HQ-4: Further development of HQ-2 from HQ-3, with solid rocket engines, resulting in a two-thirds reduction of logistic vehicles needed for a typical SAM battalion with six launchers: from the original more than 60 vehicles for HQ-1/2/3 to just slightly over 20 vehicles for HQ-4. After 33 missiles were built, the program was cancelled, but most of the technologies were continued as separate independent research programs, and these technologies were later used on later Chinese SAMs upgrades and developments such as HQ-2 and HQ-9.
HQ-2J: Is anti-aircraft missiles mounted on the Type 77 transporter launcher. It is an upgraded version of the HQ-2 system.
Sayyad-1: Iranian upgraded version of HQ-2 SAM differs with the Chinese versions in guidance and control subsystems. Sayyad-1 equipped with an about 200-kilogram warhead and has speed of 1,200 meters per second.
The HQ-7 is a short-range air defense missile. The missile is deployed on both ships and land-based vehicles. The HQ-7 became PLAN's standard short-range air-defense SAM in the 1990s, and was used on Type 054 until superseded by the HQ-16 on the Type 054A frigate. The typical configuration is one 8-cell launcher, with stores of reload missiles in multiples of 8. Earlier versions required manual re-loading, while later variants have an auto re-loader that can be retracted under the deck. HQ-7 is deployed in hardened shelters. The PLA has mounted the HQ-7 on towed trailers.
The Naval HQ-7 uses a Type 360S E/F-band Doppler radar with a detection range of 18.4 km, connected to the ZJK-4 combat management system. The system is capable of processing up to 30 targets, and tracking 12 targets simultaneously. China revealed the export version, FM-80, in the 1989 Dubai Air Show.
Self-Propelled HQ 7
The 206th Institute has developed a 4x4 self-propelled version of the HQ-7. 4 x HQ-7 SAMs and a tracking radar system are mounted on a 4x4 vehicle, or towed vehicle.
In 1998, the China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNPMIEC) produced an improved HQ-7 with faster and longer-range missiles, with an IR-tracking camera. This version received the export designation FM-90.
The LY-60/FD-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64 is a family of Chinese missiles, largely based on the Italian Selenia Aspide missile - itself based on the American AIM-7 Sparrow missile. There are four versions of the basic design, three of which are surface-to-air and one air-to-air.
Development of the LY-60 was precipitated by the Chinese requirement for a beyond-visual-range (BVR) weapons system. Directly copying the AIM-7 proved unsuccessful, after which China purchased a number of Alenia Aspide missiles from Italy. Due to the urgent need for BVR air-to-air missiles, PL-11 was given the priority. The very first batch of PL-11 was an Aspide assembled in China, but using Italian components, and it was accepted into Chinese service in the same year. However, hopes of locally manufacturing the missile under license collapsed after the Tiananmen Square crackdown of 1989.
The PL-10 air-to-air missile was developed for the People's Liberation Army Air Force and is carried by Jian J-8B fighters. Although it was the first member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 series to be developed, it was actually the second member to become operational, after the HQ-6, the surface-to-air version.
The HQ-6 was the second member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 family developed. The entire SAM system consists of four truck mounted radars (one search/surveillance radar and three tracking/fire control radars), one power supply truck, and six transporter erector launchers (TEL) s. The missile itself is directly derived from the air-to-air version PL-11. Unlike the Italian Aspide which uses containers as launchers, HQ-6 uses missile launching rails (MLR) instead, and each truck-mounted launcher has two MLRs/missiles. It entered service before the air-to-air version PL-10, despite an earlier start by the PL-10.
Length : 5.99 m
Diameter : 134 mm
Wingspan : 1.23 m
Weight : 600 kg
Speed : Mach 1
Maximum Flight Speed : 150 meters per second
Maximum maneuvering overload: 5 g
Maximum maneuvering overloads [interception]: 1 g
Normal : 5 meters - 40 meters
Slant : 14 meters - 16 meters
LY 60 is a medium-low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. The system is mainly intended for the interception of military aircraft and missiles flying in medium-low altitude. It has a command control system with artificial interference capability thanks to the use of microprocessor intelligent module technology. In October 1994, the "Lieying (Falcon)-60," was deployed to China's air defense troops.
The "Lieying-60" search radar can simultaneously track up to 40 targets, and the tracking radar is able to simultaneously track 12 targets, and engage three targets at once. The use of the moving target tracking processing system and frequency agility technology also gives the system good anti-jamming capability. LY60 has a range of 18 kilometers and reaches a maximum altitude of 12 kilometers.
The Air Force version of the LY-60 is the FD-60 semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missile carried by the J8B fighter plane, which is very similar to the Aspide AAM of Italy in appearance
Naval version of LY 60 called as LY 60N. The LY60N SAM is being deployed in place of the HQ61 SAM used in the Jiangwei-class frigates. Compared with the HQ61 with a range of 12 kilometers and maximum altitude of 10 kilometers, The LY60N is installed in Jiangwei B-class frigates. Every launch system features a sextuple launchers and each launcher contains four LY60N missiles, for a total of 24 missiles. The wings of the LY60N are foldable. In comparison, the LY60 of the ground army version features quadruple launchers, each of its launcher contains one missile, and its missile wing is not foldable.
The system adopted as the ship borne vertically-launched air defense system of the Chinese Navy's "Luhai"-class missile destroyers, with at least eight vertical launch barrels with a total of 32 missiles.
In addition, the Shanghai Academy has also developed a portable ground-to-air version called the FY-60.
The HQ-64 is an improved version of the HQ-6, utilizing experience gained from LY-60, with firepower doubled by increasing the number of missiles for each truck mounted launcher from two to four, and by replacing the MLR mounting by missiles in container box launchers. Both the missile and TELs are directly developed from the LY-60. Although the missile is smaller than that of the HQ-6, the performance actually improved due to technological advances. HQ-64 passed state certification test and was accepted into Chinese service in 2001. The reaction time for the system in fully automated mode is 9 seconds and the maximum speed of the missile is increased to Mach 4. Other improvements is mainly concentrated on ECCM capability, and many Chinese internet sources have claimed that the HQ-64 is derived from HQ-6-4, meaning 4 missiles (for each launcher) version the HQ-6.
HQ-6D/ LY60D airport point-defense SAM
The HQ-6D is the latest development of the family, and it is basically a HQ-64 system with an addition of a command vehicle. Each command vehicle is able to command & control up to four HQ-64 batteries, thus linking up independent HQ-64 batteries to form an integrated air defense net work, and each HQ-6D network can in turn be integrated into larger air defense network. The standard time that the HQ-6D SAM system takes from travelling order to being ready to fire is less than 15 minutes, but a highly skilled crew can reduce this time to just 9 minutes.
Warhead : 33Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Range : 18Km
Guidance : SARH/ARH
The Hongqi-61 is the first generation Chinese Semi Active Radar Homing guided surface-to-air missile . It is classified by Chinese as a low-to-medium air defense missile, and the series includes both land-based and ship borne versions, and an anti-radiation version and air-to-air version (designated as PL-11) have also been developed. The naval and anti-radiation versions have been retired from Chinese service but PL-11, the air-to-air version and HQ-61A, the land-based mobile version are still currently in limited service with the Chinese military.
HQ-61B: The naval version of HQ 61 was designated as HQ-61B.
To improve the land-based air defense for Chinese ground force, China developed a mobile low-to-medium level surface-to-air missile based on HQ-61B, and named the mobile SAM system as HQ-61A.
HQ-61A SAM system consists of three vehicles: launcher / transporter, radar vehicle, C2I vehicle, all of which are based on the same SX250 6 x 6 cross country truck to simplify logistics and reducing operational cost. In November, 1984, two initial trials were completed, the missile entered Chinese service in late 1986.
Length : 3.99 meter
Diameter : 0.286 meter
Wingspan : 1.166 meter
Weight : 310 kg
Speed : Mach 3
Range : > 10 km
Ceiling : 8 km
Kill probability : 64% - 80% (single shot)
HQ-61 ARM (YJ-5): In addition to SAM versions of HQ-61, an anti radar version is also developed in the 1980s. China was seeking a replacement after the termination of Fenglei-7 anti-radar missile (FL-7). China gained the experience via the reverse engineering attempt of AGM-45 Shrike, and to a much less extend, that of AGM-78 Standard ARM. Samples of both missiles were mainly obtained from down American jets and provided to China by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though several unexploded samples launched by American jets failed to detonate were also transferred. HQ-61 ARM is basically a HQ-61 missile equipped with the guidance and control system of FL-7.
HQ-61C: HQ-61C is the upgrade of previous version, excluding the ARM. The primary improvement is in the electronics. Fully solid state and highly digitized microelectronics are used to upgrade both the missile itself and the associating C3I system. In addition to simplifying logistics and reducing costs, the upgraded system can also be automatically linked to larger air defense networks, with all information transmitted electronically in real time.
PL-11: PL-11 is the air-to-air derivative of HQ-61. The first successful flight test of PL-11 was conducted in 1992, and the missile entered Chinese service in the mid-1990s. PL-11 did not enter Chinese service in very large numbers because it was only used as a stopgap measure until the more advanced PL-12 became available.
The HQ-17 is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system.
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
In early 2015, the HQ-17 was publicly revealed. In the 2018 Zhuhai Airshow exhibition, a new wheeled variant named FM-2000 was unveiled.
Although reverse engineered from the Tor-M1, the HQ-17 is not a direct copy and instead features many improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an indigenous all terrain tracked launch vehicle, a new identification friend or foe (IFF) antenna on top of the search radar, an electronically scanned array radar for better performance against jamming and the ability to datalink with other Chinese systems.
The HQ-17 operates in batteries. A typical battery consists of 4 launch vehicles, reloading vehicles and other support vehicles. The battery is also supported by a mobile command post, based on a tracked chassis. Although a battery of the HQ-17 usually operates independently, it can also use targeting data from other surveillance radars.
The HQ-17 is designed to keep up with mechanized troops like tank battalions, frontline units to provide air cover from helicopter and drone attacks on the move, as well as protect military sites. Its vertically launched missiles also allow it to simultaneously engage multiple cruise missiles.
The HQ-17 is physically similar to the Tor-M1. Its slant range for intercepting flying aerial targets is 1.5 km to 15 km, slightly longer than the Tor-M1, and operates at an altitude of 10 m to 10 km.The missile guidance system comprises of semi-active radar homing guided by the radar on the launch vehicle.
The launch vehicle of the HQ-17 integrates launchers with missiles and radar on a single chassis and thus is able to operate independently.
Each launch vehicle carries one PESA search radar and one AESA guidance radar. Notably, the location of the radars are opposite for the tracked variant and wheeled variant. For the tracked variant, the search radar is located at the front and guidance radar at the rear. For the wheeled variant, the search radar is located at the rear and guidance radar at the front.
Each launch vehicle carries 2 x 4 missile canisters for a total of 8 missiles, which can be reloaded 4 missiles at a time by a Shaanxi SX2306 reloading truck equipped with a crane.
HQ-17: Tracked variant (Base Variant)
The vehicle weighs around 32 tons, and is about 8 m long, 3.2 m tall and 4 m wide. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 750-800 hp diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 65 km/h and range of 600 km. It is manned by a crew of 3.
HQ-17A: Wheeled variant
HQ-17A is a short-range air defense system. It evolved from the HQ-17 . Pre-production version of the HQ-17A was first publicly revealed in 2018 in the form of FM-2000 air defense missile system. Operational HQ-17A systems were first publicly revealed in 2019 during a military parade.
The HQ-17A uses a new wheeled chassis instead of tracked. In terms of capabilities it is broadly similar to the Russian Tor M2 system. Overall it resembles versions of the Tor.. Some components of the HQ-17A, such as the radar, might be actually more advanced than those of the Russian Tor.
The HQ-17A launcher vehicle carries both radars and missiles. A total of 16 missiles. Missiles are launched vertically. Maximum range of fire is around 15 km. Missiles can reach their targets at an altitude of up to 10 km. Hit probability of a single missile against aircraft is up to around 45-80%.
The wheeled launch vehicle is produced by Dongfeng Motor Corporation and is a 6x6 chassis similar to a Belarusian MZKT-6922. The vehicle weighs around 30 tons, and is about 9.7 m long, 3.1 m tall and 3.7 m wide. Features include an all-wheel drive system, central tire pressure system and a lightly armored which provides some degree of protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 400 HP diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 80 km/h and range of 800 km.
Supposedly, the wheeled launch vehicle was produced because of a flaw of the tracked variant, which was having a long lag time between stopping and shooting.
A battery of the launcher vehicles is also supported by other associated vehicles, such as command post vehicle and resupply vehicles. Two types of resupply vehicles were observed. One is based on a FAW MV3 truck chassis with 6x6 configurations. Another is based on a new Shaanxi SX2306 heavy high mobility truck chassis with 8x8 configurations. Both reloading vehicles are fitted with cranes and carrier reloads missiles.
FM-2000: Export designation for wheeled variant
The FM-2000 short-range air defense weapon system is mainly used to provide air defense support for mechanized troops and key military sites. The FM-2000 was unveiled during the China Air Show in November 2018. FM 2000 offers similar performance as HQ 17. FM-2000 supposedly features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
The FM-2000 features two radar units with different purposes, search radar mounted at the top rear of the turret which is used to detect targets and one tracking radar to engage targets located at the front of the turret. The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. The FM-2000 also features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
FM3000 is a 30 km range surface-to-air missile system based on the HQ-17. FM-3000 missile system was unveiled by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow. It uses a 6x6 TEL truck with 8 missile tubes. Engagement range is 30 kilometres against aircraft and 20 kilometres against missiles. It features rotating rotary phased-array radar. Guidance is inertial, plus low speed command guidance and terminal active radar homing. It can simultaneously intercept 8 targets with a reaction time of 4-8s. Chinese Internet claims that, the FM-3000 is also able to detect and destroy stealth aircraft. FM-3000 is particularly suitable for defense against precision guided munitions such as air-to-ground tactical missiles and laser-guided bombs.
The system features advanced technologies, such as three-dimensional rotary phased array radar, the multifunctional radar is capable of scanning 360 degrees, tracking targets and then guiding missiles to their targets. Each combat unit can handle 32 incoming targets from different directions within a short time.
HQ 17AE is the latest version of the HQ-17 air defense system, which has been in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) since 2015. It is unclear whether the HQ-17AE is just a new designation for the FM-2000, or whether it is a distinct variant that uses a transporter, launcher, and radar (TLAR) vehicle more closely based on the HQ-17A TLAR design.
The HQ-17AE, dubbed a “low altitude aircraft hunter”, is designed to keep up with frontline units like tank battalions and protect them from drone and helicopter attacks. It consists of a six-wheeled launch vehicle carrying eight short-range air-defence missiles and a solid-state phased-array radar system. Chinese state media Global Times lauded the new system’s capabilities, describing it as a “perfect choice” to accompany troops or defend key facilities. The HQ-17AE’s advanced vertical cold launch capability and rotatable tail wings give it a fast reaction time and ability to adapt to complex electromagnetic environments on the battlefield, it said.
The HQ-17AE has detection radar which can scan 25km while it is on the move while a second radar tracks and engages once a target has been identified. Each of its eight missiles can track four different targets at the same time. The HQ-17AE can also intercept attacks from tactical air-to-surface missiles, subsonic cruise missiles, stealth aircraft and supersonic cruise missiles and rockets.
The HQ-18 is a highly-capable, air and missile defense system developed by China; most scholars agree it is directly reverse-engineered from the Russian S-300V system, but relatively little information is publicly known about the differences between the two systems. A typical HQ-18 battery contains between two and six launchers, each of which can hold four missiles.
HQ 12 (KS-1)
The KaiShan-1 (Hong Qi-12) is the first Chinese aerial defense system to feature a phased-array radar, with each variant having a further range than the last. A typical HQ-12 battery includes one planar passive phased-array radar (PPAR), four launchers preloaded with two missiles each, and 16 additional missiles, along with command-and-control and generator units. The PLA claims HQ-12 has a single-shot kill probability of 89 percent. The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2(a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina). This launcher could be mounted on a 6x6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.
The HQ-12 was primarily designed to destroy UAVs and helicopters, but its more advanced variants are also capable of destroying ballistic and cruise missiles flying at speeds exceeding Mach 3. While the original HQ-12 system is largely obsolete, the KS-1A and KS-1C offer reliable protection for Chinese military assets and coastal cities.
The first successful test-firing of the missile was in 1989; KS-1 development was complete in 1994. The missile was first publicized in 1998 at the Zhuhai Airshow. An improved version, the KS-1A, which greatly enhanced its minimum altitude and range, has already been developed and first appeared at the sixth Zhuhai airshow in 2006. It was rumored that this improvement also increased its ability to engage targets maneuvering at a higher g force. In 2007 HQ-12A enters service in the PLA.
The HQ-12 is a much shorter ranging system, intended to provide an inner layer defense, inside the footprint of the HQ-9. It is also mobile, and the radar looks to be based on much the same technology as the HQ-9, making it hard to detect, hard to track and hard to jam.
Differences between the variants are primarily about different radar units
KS-1 typically uses SJ-212 engagement radar, derived from the Russian 30N6E1 Tomb Stone, which can track up to 50 targets and engage three of them at ranges up to 27 kilometers. The initial version with SJ-202 engagement radar, which adopts a simple horn instead of a lens arrangement, the missile seeker has a traditional parabolic antenna, and can guide up to two missiles against one target. Range is in excess of 40 km. The KS-1 resembles the US SM-1 or SM-2 Standard. HQ-12 air defense system intended as the replacement for the SA-2/HQ-2 air defense system.
HQ 12 was successfully tested in 1989, and the tests were completed in 1994. The KS-1 did not enter military service in China when development was completed in 1994. A likely reason was the poor maneuvering capability of the missile. It could only engage targets with a 5g maneuvering capability, making the KS-1 largely ineffective for defending against new-generation combat aircraft.
In the late 1990s an improved KS-1A model came out with new target detection / tracking radar maneuvering. Many experts’ believes that china obtained some technology from overseas for KS 1A Radars, possibly from Israel.
It was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. It is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1. The missile has also made the improvement, uses the double thrust force solid propellant engine, the maximum range is 50 kilometers, versus the original 27 kilometers. KS 1A got Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 2007.
KS-1A has used two types of engagement radar; the original HT-233 radar has a range of 50 kilometers, and the newer H-200 radar has a range of 70 kilometers and can track up to 100 targets. H-200 consists of an antenna station, placed on a four-axle trailer , and a hardware container on the chassis of Taian TA5150A cross-country vehicle with the wheel arrangement 6x6 . Later, there were versions of this radar, placed on two Taian TA5270A (6x6) trucks. The antenna device of the H-200 radar is a phased antenna array of circular rotation with digital control of the beam position, which is similar in size to that of the HT-233 radar of the HQ-9. In some cases a KS-1A Fire Unit receives early warning of enemy ballistic missile launch, along with direction and time-of-arrival data. Some news reports said that the new search-track radar is in fact a synthesis of the American AN/MPQ-53 and the Russian S-300 system radar.
The HQ-12A air defense system is mounted on 6x6 trucks..Standard deployment of a KS-1A SAM battery typically includes, 1 Planar Passive phased array radar (PPAR), 4 launchers, each with 2 missiles and other support equipment. The KS-1A radiofrequency guided missile has a maximum range of 50 kilometers and flies at Mach 3. It is said that this missile system has limited capability against cruise missiles and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).
To date, the HQ-12 air defense system is largely obsolete. However, its mass production and deployment continues (Probably Upgraded with latest technology). The air defense forces of the People's Republic of China have at least 20 air defense divisions HQ-12. Components of the KS-1A system such as the modern planar array engagement radars could be used for upgrading legacy HQ-2 and S-75 systems, dramatically improving their performance.
KS-1C was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). Range was increased to 70 km, and engagement altitude to 27 km. Along with using the H-200 radar, KS-1C fires individually-launched, canister-encased missile rounds instead of paired, rail-mounted missiles; this effectively doubles the number of potential interceptors available in each battery. KS-1C features canister-encased missile rounds, rather than the paired rail-mounted missiles of the earlier variants.
HQ-22 / FK-3
In 2016, China unveiled the advanced HQ-22 and its identical downgraded export designation, FK-3. FK 3 can be seen as a predecessor of the HQ-22.
The HQ-22 is developed by Jiangnan Space Industry, also known as Base 061, part of China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation Limited (CASIC). HQ-22 is a second-generation variant of the HQ-12, which features a medium-long engagement range of 150 to 170 km and an effective altitude from 50 m to 27 km. It is relatively cheaper to produce than the HQ-9 and will form one of the mainstays of China's air defense system, replacing the Cold-War era HQ-2. The complex was first presented at Air show China 2016. So far it is one of the most capable air defense missile systems of China.
HQ 22 is designed to destroy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and helicopters of the enemy at all altitudes of their combat application, day and night, in any weather conditions. HQ 22 has been designed to withstand to electronic countermeasures and operate in heavy jamming environments. The HQ-22 is sometimes referred as indigenous equivalent of the Russian S-400. It is actually not, as the Russian S-400 is a more capable system.
The first unit to receive the HQ-22 was the PLA division of the Beijing Air Defense System located in Lianshui County, Hebei Province. According to information published in the Western media, 13 HQ-22 battalions were deployed in 2018. A typical battery of HQ-22 includes 3 launcher vehicles. A battery can engage 6 air targets simultaneously.
The missiles are equipped with a semi-active radar CNS complemented by a two-way radio command line for data transmission. The flight is controlled by a combined guidance system. At the initial stage of flight (up to 75 km) is implemented radio command guidance, at the final - by the method of TVM (Track-via-missile - escort through the missile), combining command guidance with a semi-active. The use of this method of guidance allows reducing the sensitivity of the system to various measures of electronic counteraction, makes it possible to ensure the flight of the missile on the optimal trajectories and hitting targets with high efficiency.
HQ-22 is mounted on 8x8 TA5450 vehicle. TAS5450 is equipped with a diesel engine Deutz BF6M1015CP with an output of 517 hp and gearbox WSK400 of German company ZF. Maximum speed is 65 km/h. TAS 5450 has a four-door fully protected cabin with air conditioning system. When deployed in combat position, the radar is mounted on hydraulic supports. Judging from the chassis this missile system is mainly designed for traveling on hard surface roads.
Range: 5Km -150Km
Altitude: 50m – 27Km
Guidance: SARH, with 2 way Data link
DK-10 (Sky Dragon 50)
The DK-10, also known as the Sky Dragon 50, is a surface-to-air missile system developed by Chinese arms manufacturer Norinco. It was designed to be a competitor to the HQ-16 (LY-80), but has not been adopted by the People's Liberation Army for service as the HQ-16 has been preferred. Instead, it has been exported for use by foreign armed forces.
The DK-10 missile is derived from the PL-12 air-to-air missile in service with the PLAAF. The DK-10 missile inherits the active radar seeker of the PL-12 but is physically wider and longer due to the addition of a booster. The maximum range of the SAM is around 50 km and an engagement altitude of between 30 meters and 20 km.
A typical battery consists of one IBIS 150 3D radar vehicle, one fire distribution vehicle and up to six launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle consists of a 6x6 Beiben Truck Model 2628 carrying 4 ready-to-launch missile canisters.
The IBIS 150 3D radar has a range of over 130km. The radar can simultaneously track 144 targets and engage 12 targets by guiding a total of 24 missiles, with two missiles against each target to ensure that the minimum probability of kill is greater than eighty percent. Other than the IBIS 150 radar, it can also used intelligence received from superior command & control systems.
In November 2014, the Sky Dragon 50 air defense system was placed on exhibition at the Zhuhai Airshow 2014. It was revealed that the Sky Dragon 50 system is formed by one command centre vehicle, one IBIS130 search radar vehicle and up to 6 launch vehicles, each carrying 4 missiles. A new code name GAS2 was also published in promotion materials.
In 2014, it was reported that the Rwandan Armed Forces has purchased at least 4 launchers of the Sky Dragon 50. In 2017, the Sky Dragon 50 was sold to the Moroccan Armed Forces.
DN 2 interceptor
Dong Neng-2 is an anti-satellite missile of the People's Liberation Army, developed in the early 2010s. It is designed as a low-earth orbit interceptor which destroys orbiting satellites by high speed kinetic impact.
DN 3 Interceptor
The DN-3 is known as a direct-ascent anti-satellite missile that destroys satellites with a warhead that rams into orbiting systems at high speeds. DN 3 is for destroying spy satellites and Navigational satellites in high orbit. The DN-3 is also said to have the capability to intercept ballistic missiles in flight. DN3 could be a modified version of the DN-2. Information Regarding DN-3 is not available in public.
Richard Fisher, a China military affairs specialist, said the DN-3 appears to be based on the Kuaizhou-1 (KZ-1) mobile space launch vehicle. Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the DN-3 could be capable of hitting satellites more than 18,640 miles away in space – more than enough to reach large US surveillance satellites that occupy orbit 186 to 620 miles from earth.
Russian Air defense systems
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
The Chinese armed forces were the first customer of the Russian-made S-300PMU2, a long-range air defense missile system able to destroy aircraft, cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles in intense clutter and jamming environments.
The S-300PMU2 can fire the 48N6E2 surface-to-air missiles can engage aerial targets with a range from 3 to 200 kilometers, at altitudes between 10 to 27,000 meters. The S-300PMU2 has also the ability to detect and destroy anti-ballistic missiles with a range between 5 to 40 kilometers and altitudes between 2,000 to 25,000 meters.
The S-300PMU2 air defense missile system can engage up to 6 targets simultaneously while providing guidance for up to 12 missiles - two missiles per target ensuring target kill. In addition, highly automated detection and acquisition procedures provide outstanding performance over previous SAM systems.
“S-300V has two different versions distinguished by the missile it uses: The SA-12A Gladiator is used primarily for targeting aircraft, whereas the SA-12B Giant is primarily for countering tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. The Gladiator has a range of 75 km and a maximum altitude of 25 km, and the Giant has a range of 100 km and an altitude ceiling between 30 and 40 km. The S-300V systems uses phased-array sector-scan radar with a range of 175 km and can track up to 16 targets simultaneously,” the report noted.
“A modified version of the S-300V system was revealed in 1998, called the S-300VM, or “Antey-2500.” The Antey-2500 variant has a range of 200 km, a max altitude of 30 km, and can engage 24 targets simultaneously.
China became also the first foreign buyer of Russia’s most advanced S-400 Triumph surface-to-air missile systems. Russia signed a contract with China on the delivery of two regimental sets of S-400 in 2014. The first regimental set of S-400 was delivered to China in the spring of 2018. The Chinese military successfully test-fired the missile launchers and hit an aerodynamic and ballistic target.
To Know the complete details of S 400 Visit : http://fullafterburner.weebly.com/next-gen-weapons/s-400-the-impenetrable-shield
Next Part will cover Chinese Radars and Integrated air defense system.
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Cruise missile is a type of guided missile. Cruise missiles differ from ballistic missiles in that they fly towards their target at lower altitudes, remaining within the Earth’s atmosphere throughout their trajectory. Cruise missiles are typically armed with conventional or nuclear warheads, but can also be equipped with chemical or biological warheads. In this article you can read about cruise missile of India & China.
The BrahMos (PJ-10) is a joint venture between the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace.
BrahMos is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation. The land-launched, Air-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service.
Compared to existing state of the art subsonic cruise missiles BrahMos Has
Currently BrahMos Aerospace is looking at upgrading the current BrahMos engine from 3 to 5 Mach. Scientists are trying to develop a supersonic-hypersonic engine. For that BrahMos aerospace want to do the thermal management with some kind of coatings on different components so that they can withstand high temperature. This will make current BrahMos supersonic Missile into a mach 5 hypersonic cruise Missile.
Land based BrahMos
Land based weapon complex comprises of four to six Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL) controlled by a Command Post (MCP), and a Mobile Replenishment Vehicle (MRV).
MAL is an autonomous vehicle with its own communication, power supply and fire control system. Three BrahMos missiles placed in three independent containers are installed on the MAL. Land based system is also equipped with Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System. . The advanced seeker of BrahMos is unique which helps it to hit targets, which are insignificant in terms of size, in a cluster of large buildings. India is now the only nation in the world with this advanced technology. BrahMos became the only supersonic cruise missile possessing advanced capability of selection of a particular land target amongst a group of targets, providing an edge to the user with precise hit.
Indian army inducted the land attack Block-1 variant from 2007.
The advanced Block-2 variant of the missile with supersonic steep dive and target discrimination capabilities has also inducted.
Block III has advanced guidance and upgraded software, incorporating high manoeuvres at multiple points and steep dive from high altitude. The steep dive capability of the Block III enables it to hit targets hidden behind a mountain range. It was deployed in Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh. It can engage ground targets from an altitude as low as 10 meters for surgical strikes without any collateral damage.
Mobile Autonomous Launcher (MAL) is the state of the art land based weapon complex. It consist of three missiles in ready to launch configuration housed in containers, most modern means of communications, radar receivers for target information and an ultra advanced Fire Control system for coordinating the launch.
The launcher is built on an all terrain TATRA vehicle. The missiles can be launched in single or salvo of 2 to 3 seconds within four minute of receiving command, depending on the commanders input, it can fire toward a single or three different targets.
The containers maintain thermal conditioning of the canisters and ensure the interface with the launch beam. While being transported, these containers are carried in horizontal position. The canister is brought to vertical position through the operation of a hydraulic system.
The MAL consists of a 40kVA diesel driven generator to maintain power supply. Besides a single phase UPS with battery backup of 15 Minutes is fitted in the vehicle.
Launcher also has various communication equipments, each operating in different frequency bands. The launcher control system LCS functions in coordination with fire control system and communication system. The MAL has a fully protected equipment cabin from where operations could be carried out in case of Nuclear Biological chemical Attack. It also has a containerized power supply system.
In a group of four the Mobile autonomous Launchers are controlled by Mobile Command Post.
The MCP provides telemetry and target data with instruction to each Mal for engaging specific targets or single target. The command post assists in integrating the MAL into the network centric battlefield area. It is equipped with all modern types of communication systems.
Submarine launched BrahMos
BrahMos missile is capable of being launched from submarine from a depth of 40 – 50 meters. The missile can be installed in a modular launcher vertically in the pressure hull of the submarine. The missile has identical configuration similar to the ship based system.
The canistered missile launch vertically, the nose cap prevents water from entering the air intake during the underwater flight. Once the missile emerges from the water, the sensors provide out of water command and the nose cap is fired for turning the missile in the desired direction to hit the target.
Submarine version of BrahMos is fully ready but there is no public information about the induction of Sub Launched BrahMos. In late January 2016, Russia confirmed that future Indian-made submarines would be armed with smaller version of the missile that could fit inside a torpedo tube.
Air launched BrahMos (BrahMos A)
The BrahMos-A is a modified air-launched variant of the missile. BrahMos A has a range of 500 km which can be launched from a Sukhoi Su-30MKI as a standoff weapon.
BrahMos A can be released from the height of 500 to 14,000 meters. After release, the missile free falls for 100–150 meters then goes into a cruise phase at 14,000 meters and finally the terminal phase at 15 meters.
40 IAF SU-30MKI are to undergo modifications to be equipped to carry the missile. Sukhoi had integrated with the world’s largest airborne launcher for BrahMos A. On 20 January 2020, the IAF commissioned its first squadron of Su-30MKI fighters equipped with the PJ-10 BrahMos-A missile. The IAF is expected to procure at least 200 air-launched BrahMos.
BrahMos Costal defense
On August 8 2019 Indian MoD cleared the procurement of an unknown number of Next Generation Maritime Mobile Coastal Batteries that would (NGMMCB) be fitted with supersonic BrahMos surface-to-surface cruise missile.
The DAC did not reveal an induction schedule or where the new weapons systems will be deployed. According to IHS Jane’s, the NGMMCBs could be stationed at INS Trata, a missile battery base of the Indian Navy at Mumbai.
The land-based BrahMos missiles will be an anti-ship missile fired from a land-based mobile autonomous launcher and, thus, a hybrid of the naval and Army variants. The missiles will get targeting inputs from Scanter radars. The radars can track multiple simultaneous air and surface targets up to a range of 170 km. One radar can cover up to 98,000 sq km of situational awareness. Each BrahMos NGMMCB will comprise a single command post, two radar units and two firing units with three anti-ship missiles each.
Each battery will also have a reconnaissance vehicle and two vehicles carrying Man-Portable Air Defense Missile Systems (MANPADs) to provide short-range defense against aerial targets. The systems will be delivered within two years from the date of orders being placed.
Extended Range BrahMos
India Joined the 34 nation Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in June 2016. Which helped India to extend the range of BrahMos up to 800Km After that India successfully tested Extended range BrahMos several times , the most recent test was on 30 September 2020, where India successfully test-fired an extended range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile up to 400Km.
Mass : 3000kg, 2500Kg (air launched)
Range : Up to 800 Km, 500Km (Air Launched)
Guidance : INS (Mid course), Active radar Homing + G3OM (Terminal)
Sea skimming : 3-4m
Warhead : 200Kg (Semi armor piercing/ Nuclear), 300Kg (Air Launched)
Prolusion : Solid rocket booster + Liquid Fuel Ramjet
Speed : Mach 3, BrahMos ER Mach 3 - 4
CEP : 1m
Surface-launched, Block I
Surface-launched, upgraded variants
BrahMos NG (next generation) - is a new lighter variant of the current BrahMos. The feasibility studies and engineering analysis are over. BrahMos NG can perfectly integrate into LCA, LCA MK-II & AMCA. BrahMos-NG will be ready in the next four years.
The weight of the missile will be slashed from 3000 kg to around 1600 kg. The BrahMos NG will also be 3 meter shorter than the 9-metre long BrahMos. BrahMos-NG will have lesser RCS and will have more advance electronic countermeasures.
BrahMos-NG will be compatible for launches through ground launch vehicles, naval assets, submarines torpedo tubes and air launch as well.
LCA Tejas and Mig 29K will carry 2 BrahMos NG.SU30mki and Rafale? will be able to carry 5 BrahMos NG. This will significantly increase the firepower of Indian Air force and navy.
BrahMos air to air missile
BrahMos aerospace is planning to develop the air-to-air version of BrahMos NG with anti-AWACS capability. The range can be in excess of 400-500 km and the first test will be sometime in the near future.
Hypersonic BrahMos (BrahMos 2K)
BrahMos aerospace is moving ahead with hypersonic version of BrahMos named BrahMos 2K.
According to latest reports BrahMos-2K will be developed in two versions. The first version will have a speed of Mach 5 it will be developed by 2024. The second version, a mach 7 capable BrahMos 2k will be developed by 2027.
Current mach 3 capable Ramjet will be replaced with a mach 5 Ramjet engine. Mach 7 BrahMos 2 will have a scramjet engine in place of ramjet. The new scramjet engine can be upgraded to reach up to a speed of Mach 9. BrahMos Aerospace already carried out a series of lab tests at the speed of Mach 6.5.
Hypersonic BrahMos is expected to have a range in between 500km -800 Km depending on the flight profile. That is BrahMos 2K can achieve 500Km range in Low-level flight Profile and will have a range of 800Km in a High-level Flight. Similar like BrahMos, BrahMos 2K can be deployed in all kind of platforms.
Nirbhay is a long-range, all-weather; subsonic cruise missile. The missile uses a solid propellant booster motor that is jettisoned shortly after launch, switching over to a turbojet engine with a cruise speed of 0.7 Mach and a reported range of 800-1,000 km. Nirbhay has both terrain-hugging and sea-skimming capability that helps it avoid detection and counter-measures. India moves Nirbhay missiles to defend LAC at October 2020.
Officials at Bengaluru-based Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) which is in charge of the Nirbhay program also confirmed that development work on the Nirbhay program is now complete and now their focus has shifted towards development of user-specific variants for the Air force, Navy, and Army based on their requirements which they plan to accomplish within the next 3-5 years.
According to media reports, the Indian Army, not only has asked for greater range and also wants terrain hugging features along with additional navigational equipment which can attack targets even if they are hidden in mountain terrains.
According to media reports Nirbhay cruise missile program is closed .Nirbhay project has taken a new desi avatar with a renewed outlook and will be now known as the Indigenous Technology Cruise Missile (ITCM). The first launch of Nirbhay/ITCM with indigenous Small Turbo Fan Engine and RF seeker (developed by RCI, Hyderabad) is expected to be conducted at end of October 2020.
Launch Weight : 1,500 to 1,600 kg
Payload : 450 kg of HE/submunitions, nuclear warhead with a 12 kT yield.
Guidance : INS/GPS /active-radar homing
Range : 1000Km
Kill Probability : more than 90 percent (Single shot)
Speed : 0.7 Mach
Altitude : 5 meters
Nirbhay Air launched Version: Nirbhay AL-1 is believed to be an air launched version of the Nirbhay missile. Nirbhay AL-1 won’t have launch booster. It may use the same pylon developed for Air launched variant of BrahMos. A new prototype will be ready for first flight test from Sukhoi-30 by 2021.
Nirbhay Naval Variant: Indian Navy has asked, DRDO for a Ship-based Nirbhay Cruise missile variant with a range in excess of 1500 km and could prefer a range close to 2000 km, which DRDO is currently studying by making available extra onboard fuel in the missile and by also improving fuel burn ratio but Indian Army has come up with new requirements which can take more developmental time. Submarine launched Nirbhay was also planned.
Smart Cruise Missile
DRDO is planning to develop a New Smart Cruise missile with stealth characteristics. This missile will have a range of 350-500km. This stealth cruise missile will be available in Land Attack and Anti-ship versions. Smart missile will be an air launched weapon for IAF and Indian Navy fighter aircrafts.
India got SCALP EG stealth cruise missile as part of its Rafale fighter acquisition. Rafale can carry two of the missiles.
Storm Shadow / SCALP is the air-launched long range, conventionally armed, deep strike weapon, designed to meet the demanding requirements of pre-planned attacks against high value fixed or stationary targets. Able to be operated in extreme conditions, the weapon offers operators a highly flexible, deep-strike capability based around a sophisticated mission planning system. The BROACH warhead features an initial penetrating charge to clear soil or enter a bunker, then a variable delay fuse to control detonation of the main warhead.
It is a fire and forget missile, programmed before launch. Once launched, the missile cannot be controlled or commanded to self-destroy and its target information cannot be changed. Mission planners programme the missile with the target air defenses and target. The missile follows a path semi-autonomously, on a low flight path guided by GPS and terrain mapping to the target area. Close to the target, the missile climbs and then bunts into a dive. Climbing to altitude is intended to achieve the best probability of target identification and penetration. During the bunt, the nose cone is jettisoned to allow a high resolution thermographic camera (Infrared homing) to observe the target area. The missile then tries to locate its target based upon its targeting information (DSMAC). If it cannot, and there is a high risk of collateral damage, it will fly to a crash point instead of risking inaccuracy.
Recent enhancements include the capability to relay target information just before impact, usage of one-way (link back) data link, to relay battle damage assessment information back to the host aircraft. Another feature of the weapon is in-flight re-targeting capability, using a two-way data link.
Range : 560 km
Propulsion : TRI 60-30 turbojet (5.4kN)
Speed : Mach 0.8
Warhead : 450 kg
Guidance : INS, GPS, Terrain reference navigation, IIR seeker.
The Kh-59 is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile. It is primarily a land-attack missile.
The Kh-59ME is an improved version of the Kh-59 and was introduced in the early 1990s. It features two larger fragmentation and penetration warheads, minor airframe changes, and a new propulsion system for extended range. The missile can fly at altitudes between 7 and 1,000 meters. The nose-mounted TV-sensor relays target area imagery to the launch airborne platform and the pilot selects the impact point using the aircraft-mounted APK-9ME pod.
Range : 115Km
Warhead : 320 Kg, Cluster/ Shaped charge
Propulsion : Solid rocket motor + R95 TP-300 turbojet/turbofan
Speed : Mach 0.7-0.9
Guidance : INS, TV Guidance, MMW radar seeker
Kh 29 T/Kh 29 L
The Kh-29 is a short range, supersonic air-to-surface missile family intended to destroy stationary hardened ground and surface targets. The spectrum of targets for the Kh-29 missile family are big railway and highway bridges, industrial installations, concrete runways, aircraft in reinforced concrete shelters, and surface vessels displacing up to 10,000 tons.
The Kh-29L is a semi-active laser homing variant, with a 24N1 seeker. The Kh-29T is an electro-optical variant with a daylight television seeker.
The Kh-29T features a TV-based guidance system. The Kh-29L features a semi-active laser guidance system. Kh-29L has a range of 8–10 km.
Mass : 660Kg (Kh29L), 685Kg (Kh29T)
Warhead : 320Kg, HE armor piercing
Propulsion : Solid rocket booster
Range : 10Km (Kh29L), 12Km (Kh29T)
Speed : Mach 1.2
The Kh-35 is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. Indian Navy Brahmaputra class, Delhi class destroyers are carrying this missile. Each of these classes houses 16 of these missiles in four quadruple KT-184 launchers, angled at 30 degrees, two on either side of the bridge superstructure. All 16 Kh 35 can be ripple-fired in 2 to 3 second intervals. Su 30 MKIs carrying the air launched version of Kh 35.
Mass : 520Kg (air launched), 610Kg (Ship launched)
Warhead : 145Kg, HE Fragmentation shaped charge
Propulsion : R95TP-300 Turbojet
Range : 130Km
Flight altitude: 4m at terminal stage
Speed : 0.8-0.95 mach
Guidance : INS, active radar homing (Terminal)
Kh 31 P
The Kh-31P medium-range supersonic anti-radiation missile is designed to counter enemy air defenses and has a high supersonic speed. It features high kill probability against radar systems that have been turned-off when attacked.
The Kh-31P is the basic anti-radiation variant of the missile with a band specific Avtomatika L-111E family interferometric seeker, which uses an array of seven cavity back spiral antennas on a gimbaled platform. The seeker can home on pulsed or CW emitters. Unique missiles are supplied with band specific seekers and these must be chosen during sortie planning. If irradiated by enemy radar, the missile can perform an evasive 10-g pull-up maneuver.
The Kh-31A is a high speed anti-shipping missile based on the Kh-31P airframe. The Kh-31A is equipped with the ARGSN-31 jam-resistant active radar guidance system capable of discriminating the target from a dense homogenous group
Mass : 610Kg (Kh 31A) 600Kg (Kh 31P)
Range : 25-103Km ( Kh 31A) , 110Km( Kh 31P)
Speed : Mach 4.5 (Terminal)
Propulsion : Solid rocket motor+ ramjet
Warhead : HE Shaped charge, 94Kg (Kh 31A), 87Kg (Kh 31P)
Guidance : INS+ RF Seeker (Kh 31A), INS+Passive radar (Kh31P)
Launch Platform : Su 30MKI, Tejas, Mig 29K
Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Recently India ordered Harpoon Block II air-launched missiles for its P8I ASW aircrafts. The AGM-84L is a solid propellant sea-skimming missile with a range of up to 250Km and shall enable the Indian Navy to undertake Airborne maritime surface target engagement tactics more effectively.
Indian Navy also has 22 Harpoon submarine launched anti-ship missiles (UGM-84L Harpoon Block II).
Range : 250Km
Guidance : Inertial, semi-active radar
Payload : 224 kg
Warhead : HE fragmentation
Propulsion : Turbojet, solid propellant
Speed : 0.85 Mach
The Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft for hypersonic speed flight, developed by India's DRDO. HSTDV is not a weapon itself but and is being developed as a carrier vehicle for hypersonic and long-range cruise missiles. HSTDV is a major programme to develop hypersonic technologies, so that a missile in excess of 10-12 Mach speed can be developed.
India on 7-sep-2020 conducted a successful test flight of the Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The HSDTV has a range of uses, including missiles of the future for air defense, surveillance and reconnaissance besides in the development of energy-efficient, low cost and reusable satellite-launch vehicles.
Naval Anti-Ship Missile (NASM0 is a helicopter launched anti-ship missile. NASM poster revealed first time in Def Expo 2020. At the Def Expo show NASM is specifically designated ‘SR’, confirming that a longer range version will also be planned. There may be a weapon system NASM MR? with range in excess of 150-km.
Range : 5-55Km
Launch Platform : helicopter
Weight : 375 Km
Warhead : 100Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Booster Motor : 3.5T (inline ejectable)
Sustainer Motor : 120Kgf
Navigation : Midcourse INS& altimeter, Terminal IIR seeker
Cruise Altitude : 15m in midcourse, 5m in terminal
Launch altitude : 91m to3km
Impact point : water Line
Speed : 0.8 Mach
Control : Aerodynamic & JVC
Target : Ships & patrol Boats
The Long Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM) was unveiled at the recent DefExpo 2020. This new system will have a range in excess of 1000 km launched from a UVLM (Universal Vertical Launcher Module). The unique UVLMs in operation is designed, developed and patented by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is the result of a naval requirement projected to the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The first trials of the missile could begin in early 2023.
LRLACM is based on the technologies of Nirbhay Cruise missile. The LRLACM will be a vastly improved version of the Nirbhay, not just in terms of range, but also possibly its propulsion scheme.
Around 20 developmental flights are being planned of the LRLACM, tipped to be developed with completely indigenous systems. The terminal homing featured will be aided by a indigenous radio frequency (RF) seeker. Similar to Nirbhay, LRLACM too will be capable of flying at low altitude with sea-skimming capabilities.
Once DRDO completes the trial phase of the new missile, the Indian Navy is keen to place an order on development cum production partner (DCPP). An order worth Rs 5,000 crore for 200 LRLACMs will be placed on the DCPP by Indian Navy.
Chinese Cruise Missiles
The Chang Jian (Long Sword) CJ-10 is a long range, surface-to-surface, sub sonic cruise missile system. CJ 10 which was reportedly first tested in the fall of 2004. Other reporting indicates integrated flight tests as early as 2003. China unveiled the DH-10 during its National Day Parade in 2006 .It is a land based derivative of the Kh-55/AS-15 Kent, at least six being illegally transferred from the Ukraine to China and the detailed production engineering data packages of the Kh-55 LACM were bought from Ukraine. The Tomahawk missiles that were unexploded and purchased from Iraq, Pakistan, and Serbia also helped Chinese to develop CJ10. Russian documents suggested a complete production facility had been transferred to Shanghai, for the development of a nuclear-armed cruise missile (KH-55).
The Center for Strategic and International Studies believes that the CJ-10 is a member of the Hongniao (HN) series of missiles; Ian Easton believes that the CJ-10 is the same missile as the HN-2, and that the HN-3 is the "DH-10A".
The second-generation LACM DH-10, ground-launched CJ 10 has a range of 1,500+ km and employs INS and TERCOM for guidance, as well as probably DSMAC for terminal guidance.
Ground-launched CJ-10 requires an additional small rocket booster to get the missile off the launcher where upon the engine is ignited until the missile flies aerodynamically. Air-launching version (CJ-10K) does not require a booster rocket, but only a release mechanism to drop the missile away from the aircraft before the engine takes over.
CJ-10 is mounted on WS2400 vehicles. WS2400 series is 20 tonne 8 x 8 cross-country vehicles, these vehicles are copies of the Russian MAZ-543/7910 8 x 8 TEL. When used as the TEL for the CJ-10, it is designated as the PHL-03 and has a maximum road speed of 60 km/hr with a maximum range of 650km using sealed roads. It can climb a 57% slope and cross water up to 1.1. Meters deep.
Status : In Service, 2006-present
Range : 1500- 2000km
Guidance : Integrated inertial/GPS, supported by terrain contour mapping and digital scene matching for terminal homing
CEP : 10 m.
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Booster
Warheads : 4 different warheads are available; a heavy variant weighing 500kg, and three 350kg variants: high explosive blast, submunition and earth penetrator.
Launch Platform: TEL
The YJ-100 is a high subsonic anti-ship version of the CJ-10 with a range of 800 km .The missile can be air-launched by the H-6K bomber and JH-7B fighter bomber. The YJ-100 will have onboard radar.
The YJ-100 guidance system combines the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) for mid-course guidance; and an active radar seeker and an infrared seeker in the terminal phase. The existence of the YJ-100 long-range anti-ship missile was leaked in January 2014.
YJ-100 Ship launched
It is a derivative of the YJ-100 air-launched anti-ship missile. Sea-launched version may feature a shorter range if not provided with a booster or additional fuel. The existence of the sea-launched YJ-100 long-range anti-ship missile was leaked in February 2015.
While subsonic, the missile comprises with a trajectory specialized to evade interception. This provides the destroyer with an overwhelming range advantage. The PLA Navy is estimated to be planning to deploy up to 18 of the Type 052D destroyers, with a new elongated variant (161m rather than 157m) reportedly laid down in July 2018.
Status : In Service
IOC : 2020
Range : 800-1000 Km
Warhead : 500kg
Guidance system: INS, GPS for mid-course guidance, active radar seeker and an infrared seeker in the terminal phase.
KD-20 (K/AKD20, CJ-10K) is the first generation of modern long range Chinese ALCM in the same class of American AGM-86 and Russian Kh-55, designed to attack a variety of fixed, high-value targets. Its configuration features a cylindrical body with two retractable wings, four foldable tailfins as well as a concealed belly engine inlet. However the missile appears to lack any significant stealth features. KD-20 is based on CJ-10/DH-10/DF-10 land-based cruise missile which in turn adopted some Russian Kh-55 technology. Chinese H-6M missile carrier can carry up to 2 KD 20. As a strategic weapon, it is capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warhead. However so far there is no indication that the missile is nuclear armed. The missile also has a DSMAC optical window under its nose which gives it an improved accuracy. The missile can also be carried by the H-6K and H-6N missile carriers (up to 6). KD-20 is expected to be carried internally by the new H-20 strategic stealth bomber still under development.
Status : In Service?
Range : 2000 - 2,200km (depending on the payload it carries)
Guidance : INS and TERCOM guidance (coupled with GPS/Beidou?)
Images suggested that a new variant of KD-20 (KD-20A?) has been developed. It features new high-definition imaging radar in the head section in place of DSMAC optical window which further improves its anti-jamming capability as well as its accuracy at night and in bad weather conditions.
Specifications of KD-20A (estimated)
Length : 8.9m.
Weight : 1.7t.
Cruising speed : Mach 0.48-0.77.
Cruising altitude : 40-100m.
Range : 3,000km.
Propulsion : Two stage Solid Rocket Motor
The YJ-18 was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) Third Academy starting around the mid-1990s. China could deploy YJ-18 variants to replace diverse ASCMs across the PLA. The missile was finalized in 2013 and entered service in 2014. The YJ-18 bearing a close external resemblance to the supersonic Russian 3M-54E.
The YJ-18’s have greater range and speed than previous Chinese ASCMs, along with its wide deployment across PLA platforms, would significantly increase China’s antiaccess/area denial capabilities. The YJ-18 probably will be widely deployed on China’s indigenously built ASCM-capable submarines and newest surface ships by 2020, and China could develop a variant of the YJ-18 to replace older missiles in its shore-based ASCM arsenal.
YJ-18 features a multistage propulsion system, using an air-breathing engine to cruise at Mach 0.8, when the missile is about 20 nautical miles (nm) from its target, the warhead accelerates using solid rocket booster to travel at Mach 2.5 – 3.0 in a terminal phase. The more fuel-efficient subsonic stage of the YJ-18’s flight increases its overall range, and the supersonic terminal flight stage reduces the time adversary forces have to engage the missile.
YJ-18 has a range of 220-540 Km. The YJ-18’s predecessor on many Chinese submarines, the YJ-82, has a range of about 20 nm. The YJ-18 most likely follows a sea-skimming flight path as it approaches its target. By flying only a few meters above the sea, the missile attempts to evade detection by surface radar until it breaks the radar horizon 16 to 18 nm from its target.YJ-18’s warhead weighs 300 kilograms (kg), though some other sources suggest it weighs only 140 kg.
China is focused on building a robust C4ISR system for detecting ships and aircraft over the horizon, which would provide targeting data to antiship missiles such as the YJ-18. This system incorporates an array of ship-borne and land-based radar (including over-the-horizon radar); a constellation of imaging satellites; and a variety of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance aircraft. However, China’s C4ISR infrastructure might be insufficient to generate and fuse the targeting information necessary to take advantage of the YJ-18’s assessed range. According to the US Department of Defense, “It is unclear whether China has the capability to collect accurate targeting information and pass it to launch platforms in time for successful [antiship missile] strikes in sea areas beyond the first island chain. Moreover, some systems in China’s C4ISR infrastructure may be vulnerable to countermeasures, such as electromagnetic warfare operations, that could degrade the ability of the PLA to detect, identify, and track enemy ships and employ antiship missiles against them in a contingency.
The YJ-18 most likely is capable of using waypoint navigation and onboard radar-seeking technology to navigate to its target.
Status : In Service
Range : 220- 540Km
Guidance : Active radar seeker/Beidou
Warhead : 150- 300Kg High Explosives or Anti Radaition
Speed : Mach 0.8, Mach 3 at terminal Stage (AShM)
Launch Platform: Type 052D, Type 055
China has developed several YJ-18 variants, primarily differentiated by their respective launch platforms.
YJ-18: The first production model. It was designed to launch from submarine torpedo tubes for antiship missions, and may have a shorter range than later variants. It entered service in 2015.
YJ-18A: A model designed to fit shipboard vertical launch systems (VLS). It is fitted aboard the Luyang III-class destroyer and Renhai-class cruiser. It entered service in 2015.
YJ-18B: A submarine-launched variant designed for land-attack missions. It fits in VLS tubes aboard the Song-class SS, Yuan-class SSP, and Shang-class SSN. It entered service between 2016-2019.
YJ-18C: A March 2019 report said that China was developing the YJ-18C, a land-attack variant designed to deploy in commercial shipping containers. Russia has developed a similar containerized launch system for its 3M-54 Klub-K missile, which fits four missiles into a single container.
Coastal Defense Variant: Images suggest China also deploys a truck-based YJ-18 variant for coastal defense, although U.S. government sources have not confirmed this development. It reportedly entered service around 2015. China may also be developing an aircraft-launched variant as well
SY-1 is the original Chinese version of Soviet P-15 Termit missile. The main difference between P-15 Termit and SY-1 missiles is that the unreliable aneroid altimeter of P-15 Termit was replaced by a much more reliable radar altimeter in SY-1. The successor of SY-1, designated as SY-1A. SY 1A is fully solid state (electronics) with integrated circuitry and a mono-pulse terminal guidance radar seeker replacing the original conical scanning radar seeker and new radar altimeter entered service as SY-1A in early 1980s. The missile received a NATO reporting name CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush.
Length : 6.55 metre
Diameter : 0.76 metre
Wingspan : 2.4 metre
Weight : 2,095 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 150 km
Cruising altitude: < 20 m
Guidance : Inertial guidance + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (SY-1); or inertial + active monopulse radar (SY-1A)
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
SY-2 was a new version based on SY-1. The liquid fuel engine of SY-1 was hazardous and unreliable, so a solid fuel rocket engine was developed for SY-2. This engine also made it possible to reduce the size and weight of the missile while providing greater range. The warhead weight is also reduced, but its effectiveness was actually increased when a time-delayed semi-armor-piercing high-explosive design was adopted. The extended version developed is designated SY-2A.
Warhead : 365 kg shape charged high-explosive
Propulsion : A solid rocket engine and a solid booster
Speed : Mach 0.9
Range : 130 km
Cruising altitude : 20 meter
Guidance : Inertial + active radar
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
The HY-1 is a reverse engineered P-15 Termit / SS-N-2 Styx. Development of this clone commenced during the early 1960s. The missile was eventually certified for production in 1974. The HY-1 received two separate NATO reporting names, the CSS-N-2 Safflower for the ship to ship version and the CSSC-2 Silkworm for the land based coastal defense variant.
Status : Retired
Weight : 2,300 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 85 km
Cruising altitude : 100~300m (early models); <20m (later models)
Guidance : Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (early models); or inertial + monopulse active radar (later models)
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
The HY-2 is identical to the HY-1 but with a further stretched body. The missile features a round nose accommodating the radar seeker, a pair of mid-mounted delta wings on the middle section of missile body, and three tail control surfaces. The missile is powered by a liquid-fuel rocket motor, with a solid rocket booster attached under the missile fuselage.
The HY-2 is launched from land-based launcher and flies at an altitude of 1000 m during the initial stage of the flight. After the missile switched to the cruising mode, the flight altitude was reduced to 100 ~ 300 m. During the final stage of the flight, the missile switched on its radar seeker and dives to an altitude of 8 m until it hits the target. The single-shot hit probability is estimated to be 90%. Due to its oversized body, the HY-2 did not develop a ship-to-ship variant. The missile is obsolete and was replaced by the YJ-8 series?.
The HY-2 was widely exported to the Middle East, and was the missile most associated with the silkworm nickname.
Status : Retired
Launch weight : 2,998 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high-explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 200 km
Flight altitude : < 20m
Guidance : Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (HY-2); or inertial + infrared homing guidance (HY-2A); or inertial + monopulse active radar (HY-2B)
Single-shot hit probability: 90%
C-601 is an air-launched version of SY-1 Anti ship cruise missiles. The missile received a NATO reporting name CAS-1 Kraken. The missile has been upgraded to be air-launched, and the air-launched version is known as C-601 (YJ-6), which is the first air-launched anti-ship missile in China. The missile received a NATO reporting name CAS-1 Kraken. Range of YJ-6/C-601 is ~100 km
C-611 /YJ 61
C-611 is an upgraded version of C-601. It has a slightly extended fuselage, and is claimed to use a higher energy density propellant mix and better engine design
These cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today and too large and slow to penetrate modern defenses on warships, the missile remains strategically important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. Used against transports, tankers, amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.
Range : ~200Km
Propulsion : Liquid Rocket Engine
Max Speed : 3500Km/h
Guidance : Homing
Single shot hit probability: 70%
The HaiYing-3 (C-301 export name; NATO codename: CSS-C-6 Sawhorse) is the active radar homing, ramjet-powered supersonic land-to-ship missile . The missile was developed in the 1980s based on the design of the HY-2 (C-201) and the ramjet technology of the cancelled YJ-1 (C-101). The development was completed in the early 1990s.
The Hy-3/C-301 is a large supersonic coastal defense anti-ship missile (AShM), and it is the basis on which two other members of the C-300 series AShM C-302 and C-303 developed from. The C-301 only saw very limited service in the People's Liberation Army Navy as a coastal defense missile and a stopgap measure in a limited scale production as more capable missiles becoming more widely available. C-301 is also used as a stopgap measure to replace the obsolete C-601 anti-ship missile, the air-launched version of the Silkworm missile carried on the Xi'an H-6 bomber, until more potent supersonic anti-ship missiles become widely available.
Weight : 3,400 kg
Warhead : 300~500 kg time-delayed semi-armour-piercing high-explosive
Propulsion : 2 side-mounted ramjet engines; 4 solid propellant boost motors
Speed : Mach 2.5
Range : 180 km
Flight altitude : 50 m
Guidance : Inertial and terminal active radar
An improved C-301 version, called C-302 was later developed as an upgrade. C-302 is highly digitized and fully solid state, and the cruising altitude is also decreased further. After entering Chinese service in very limited numbers for evaluation purposes, C-302 did not enter mass production, due to the obvious shortcomings of liquid fuel rocket: the operational cost is high because periodic maintenance is required much more frequently and the safety standard during handling is also higher in comparison to solid rocket powered AShM.
C-302 was only known to be land-based, though in theory, it could be deployed by large aerial platforms. However, unlike its smaller cousin C-101 that can be carried by numerous aircraft in the Chinese inventory, the C-301 and its upgrade C-302 can only be carried by Xi'an H-6 due to their large size and weight. It is safe to conclude that as newer missiles entering services in greater numbers, the C-301/302 would eventually reduce to a sole coastal defense missile.
The last member of C-300 series AShM is C-303, which differs drastically from C-301 & C-302. The C-303 differs from the other two AShM in that its flight path: instead of sea-skimming, C-303 would climb to 20 km altitude first before transition to level flight, and after cruising at 20 km altitude for most its journey, the seeker of the missile of would be turned on around 50 km away from target, dive down on its target at the terminal stage in a near vertical dive in a way similar to SS-N-19. C-303 can be either launched at a slant angle like most other AShM's, or launched vertically like a rocket.
Just like its smaller cousin C-301 & C-302, C-303 only entered Chinese service in extremely limited numbers, mostly for test and trial purposes.
Status : In Service
Warhead : 500Kg
Detonation : Semi Armor Piercing
Engine : Liquid rocket Motor
Range : 130-180Km
Speed : Mach 2.5
Flight Altitude : 50m cruising
Guidance : active radar homing seeker (Other types of seekers being developed)
Propulsion : 2 side-mounted ramjet engines, 4 rocket boosters.
The HY-4 (CSS-C-7 Sadsack) is the first turbojet powered derivative . The engine is reported to be the WS-11 which is also used in some PLA UAVs. This design is a clone of the US Teledyne-Ryan CAE J69-T-41A engine, rated at 880 lbf at 22,600 rpm, used in the AQM-34 Firebee reconnaissance UAV, numerous AQM-34 Firebee’s strayed into Chinese airspace during the Vietnam conflict. The US engine itself a licensed version of the French Turbomeca Marbore.
Development of HY-4 is believed to have started in the mid-1970s, replacing the HY-2 liquid propellant sustainer motor with a small turbojet engine, and adding a monopulse active radar seeker. Apart from the substitution of the turbojet engine, the overall configuration of the HY-4 variant of the missile is similar to the HY-2. The missile has a radar altimeter which allows the cruise height to be varied between 70 and 200 m altitude, followed by a steep dive onto the target.
The HY-4 uses guidance components from later variants of the HY-2, and the basic configuration employs the common monopulse active radar seeker. The standard 512 kg shaped charge warhead is retained.
Weight : 1,740 kg
Speed : Mach 0.8 – 0.85
Range : 300–500 km
Cruising altitude : 8 m
Propulsion : one turbojet engine and one solid rocket booster
The HY-41/XW-41 is an improved variant of HY-4; with a cited range performance of 200 - 300 km. XW 41 has additional GPS/GLONASS guidance. However, due to the availability of more advanced anti-ship missile with similar range, such as the C-602, the future of XW-41, like others in the Silkworm missile family, is uncertain despite its successful trials. Although still a member of Silkworm missile, the developer considers the missile was different enough to be a listed as a separate category of its own due to the amount of new technologies adopted. After the Gulf War, United Arab Emirates ordered 30 of these shore-based version for coastal defense, and accordingly to Jane's Defence Weekly, these missiles are referred by the general name Silkworm missiles, but domestic Chinese sources have claimed that these were XW-41s, though there are reports claiming these missiles are other models of Silkworm series.
Range : 200-300 km.
Guidance : GPS/GLONASS, Active Radar Seeker
Chinese XW-41 was converted to the first indigenously developed air-to-surface precision strike missile named YJ-63. The developmental work begun in the mid-1990s and the project was completed in 2002 likely with technical assistance from Russia. In comparison to XW-41; the original radar guidance was changed to TV guidance. The original inverted Y-configuration of tail control surfaces was changed to X-configuration. Like its predecessor, XW-41, turbojet engine was adopted instead of liquid fuel rocket engine used on HY-2.
China’s H-6H and H-6K bombers carry the YJ-63. The YJ-63 is capable of precision strikes against both land and maritime targets. The YJ-63 is often deployed on the H-6K bomber, which is designed for long-range and stand-off attacks and has a combat radius of 3,500 km.
Range : 200km
Guidance system : Inertial/ electro-optical terminal guidance
Payload : up to 500kg
CEP : 6m
Newest version of YJ-63 series that entered service in 2004 - 2005. This land attack version is almost identical to C-603 in appearance, except it has a solid nose instead of a window for TV guidance optronics.
The KD-63 is carried by the modernised Xi’an H-6H (Tu-16 Badger) medium-range bomber. Each H-6H carries two KD-63 missiles on its under-wing stores stations. The missile is launched at altitudes between 200 m to 5,000 m from a dive. Once leaving the carrier aircraft, the missile drops down for 70-120 m before its engine starts. The missile is then accelerated to a sustained subsonic speed of 900 km/h and flies at a typical altitude of 600 m.
The KD-63 relies on inertial navigation, with input of datalink command (and possibly GPS signal correction) and TV terminal guidance. The missile is fitted with a CCD camera, which transfers images of the target back to the carrier bomber. The bomber’s onboard fire-control computer then sends correction command back to the missile until it hits the target. Alternatively, the missile can be guided using a manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) method, where the weapon operator manually ‘flies’ the missile remotely to its target. The communications between the missile and the carrier bomber is via the datalink antenna located underneath the bomber’s fuselage behind the bomb bay doors.
The KD-63 was designed to hit large fixed land targets, such as bridges, airport, command posts, and barracks. Its TV-seeker can lock on a typical target at a distance of 12 km. The missile’s effectiveness is greatly hampered at night or in adverse weather conditions. It is also vulnerable to enemy jamming due to its dependence on the carrier aircraft for guidance command.
Status : In Service?
Powered by : FW-41B turbojet engine
Cruising speed : 900km/hr
Max range : 180km
Min range : 20km
Cruising altitude : 600m
Warhead : 500kg
CEP : 2-6m
It was reported in February 2013 that an improved version has entered the service replacing the original KD-63 named KD 63B. It features an IIR seeker replacing the TV seeker and has a new conformal data link or GPS/Beidou antenna to replace the old TV antenna. KD-63B is capable of being fired in all-weather conditions and could have a fire-and-forget capability.
The FL-series was designed as land-based counterparts to the SY-series, and had a much longer production run than the SY-series. The FL-series was less expensive since it did not have to deal with more demanding conditions at sea. An added benefit was the ability to locate the missiles separately from the targeting and control systems, which improved survivability and flexibility. The SY-, HY-, and FL-series all shared the same systems.
The FL-1 (NATO designation CSS-NX-1) was a SY-1 with a high-frequency monopulse seeker. It used a radar altimeter to cruise at 30 meters.
Operational : 1980.
Status : Unknown
Payload : 510 kg.
Gross mass : 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Height : 6.42 m (21.06 ft).
Diameter : 0.76 m (2.49 ft).
Span : 0.76 m (2.49 ft).
The FL-2 anti-ship missiles were the land-based derivative of the SY-2. It was produced at the Nanchang Aircraft Factory
FL-3 is a Chinese analogue to the Russian Shaddock/Sandbox family of supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, but employs ramjet rather than the turbojet propulsion used in the Russian designs.
The missile is based on similar technology to the C-101(Dropped YJ-1 project, but is significantly faster, and claimed to be much longer ranging. The C-301 does not appear to have been deployed in significant numbers, and was only produced in the coastal defense variant due to its large size.
Note: this missile may be (may not be) the same one we mentioned above as C-301. We are not sure; we can’t find any sources to prove it. But looking at the specifications it may be the same one or may be two missiles with similar capabilities. These missiles are inferior and the production was very limited.
In addition to developing the C-101 and C-301 supersonic anti-ship missiles which are fairly large in size, China has developed FL-7 supersonic anti-ship missile which can be carried on airplanes and warships. The Feilong-7 has an effective range of 32 kilometers and a speed of Mach 1.4. It has powerful anti-jamming capability and its supersonic flight makes terminal interception difficult
The TL-10 (Tian Long - 10) is a light anti-ship missile unveiled in the Zhuhai Airshow in 2004 in China.
TL-10 along with TL-6 are both developed and manufactured by Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation, and the philosophy is identical to that of its French equivalent MM-15TT / AS-15TT light anti-ship missile developed by Aérospatiale.
There are thousands small of fast attack craft and patrol boats armed with anti-ship missiles that pose great threats, but are not cost effective to engage with traditional anti-ship missiles such as Harpoon and Exocet that are designed to engage large warships. Thus, it has been proved necessary to develop a light anti-ship missile to engage these small yet highly lethal boats. TL-10, like C-701 is the Chinese answer to this problem.
TL-10 is specifically designed to engage boats displacing 500 tons or less, and when launched, the missile will first climb to enable the seeker to acquire targets, and then immediately descend down to sea-skimming cruise altitude during its flight. Like the anti-ship version of the C-701, TL-10 is also armed with a television seeker that is interchangeable with TL-6. However, unlike the C-701 guidance has an additional command option which enables the operator to alter the targets; TL-10 is a purely fire-and-forget weapon.
Western sources have claimed that the Iranian anti-ship missile Kowsar which is manufactured by the Iran Aviation Industries Organization is based on TL-10 while the Nasr is based on the TL-6.
In 2004 in the PRC has been demonstrated by rocket TL-6, intended for weapons of small patrol boats and helicopters. T-6 is a solid propellant missile. It has a launch range 35 km, assumes 30 kg armor-explosive warhead.
The TL-6 is equipped with an active radar seeker. According to the Chinese military, these relatively compact and inexpensive missiles are better suited for hitting ships with a displacement of up to 1000 tons and counteracting amphibious operations in the coastal zone. A known variant of the TL-10 with a television or IR GOS, this more compact, but structurally similar to the TL-6 rocket is designed to combat boats.
In service : 2006
Mass : 350Kg
Warhead : 30 Kg
Detonation : semi armor piercing
Engine : Solid Rocket Motor
Range : 4 to 35 Km
Speed : mach 8-9
Flight altitude : 12m
Launch Platform : Air & Surface
FL-8 is the cheaper coastal defense version of TL-10. Following the tradition of Silkworm missile, a land-based version with the lowest requirement is also developed for this missile: as the missile is stored in a controlled environment in a warehouse on land, the salinity, temperature and relative humidity requirements for the missile itself are greatly reduced. Because it is designed and deployed on land, the associate C4I systems can be located separately: the distributed system prevents electromagnetic interference, and if the C4I system is attacked, the distributed nature of the FL-8 would greatly reduce casualties and damage.
FL-10 is the cheaper coastal defense version of C-701 anti-ship missile. Following the tradition of Silkworm missile, a land-based version with the lowest requirement is also developed for this missile: as the missile is stored in a controlled environment in a warehouse on land, the salinity, temperature and relative humidity requirements for the missile itself are greatly reduced. Because it is designed and deployed on land, the associate C4I systems can be located separately: the distributed system prevents electromagnetic interference, and if the C4I system is attacked, the distributed nature of the FL-10 would greatly reduce casualties and damage. FL-10 was revealed to the public at Zhuhai Airshow.
A new version of TL-10 appeared made its public debut at the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2008, together with its larger cousin TL-2. Developed by Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation, the same manufacturer of TL-10, the new missile is designated as TL-1, and appears almost identical to TL-10.
TL-1 is an upgraded TL-10 with a data link added, so that in addition to the original fire-and-forget capability, TL-1 operators can select to attack a different target other than the original one, if a greater threat has been identified after launching TL-1. TL-1 can be deployed from various platforms.
Status : In-service
Weight : 105 kg
Warhead : 30 kg, semi-armor piecing
Power plant : twin thrust chamber, solid rocket motor
Speed : Mach 0.85
Range : 4–15 km
Guidance : Electro-optics/INS
Kill probability : 0.85
A new version of TL-6 made its public debut at the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2008, together with its smaller cousin TL-1. TL-2 appears almost identical to TL-6. TL-2 is an upgraded TL-6 with a data link added.
TL-2 missile can be launched from a ground-based launcher or an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Photographs provided by CATIC show two TL-2s mounted on an ASN-209 medium altitude and medium endurance (MAME) UAV. The ASN-209 has a range of 200 km (120 miles) and the TL-2 has a range of 6 km. CATIC photographs show it destroying a light armored vehicle. It has a circular error probable range of 2-10 meters depending on the guidance system used. Modes of operation include direct attack for lock-on before launch (LOBL), mid-course navigation, and semi-active guidance for lock-on after launch (LOAL).
TL-2 was first marketed at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow as a precision strike weapon for the Chengdu-built Wing Loong unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), now in service with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
TL-7 is an anti-ship missile that can be launched from fighter aircraft (TL-7A), ground-based units (TL-7B), and ships (TL-7C). The turbojet engine allows it to hit cruising speeds of 0.8-0.85 Mach with a range of 180 km.
TL-7 is making its debut as the export model of the KD-88 precision-guided air to surface missile that entered PLA Air Force service on the Xian-built JH-7A fighter bombers in 2006 and 2007.
CJ-1 is a submarine launched anti ship Missile based on Russian SS-N-27. To simplify logistics and to reduce operational costs, the anti-ship version is developed from the solid rocket powered CJ-1 ASW weapon (which itself is copied from Russian SS N 27), instead of the original turbojet powered Russian version. A variety of seekers are developed for CJ-1 AShM, including radar, imaging infrared, and TV while the flight path of the missile is modified to have a sea-skimming capability. The warhead comes in a variety of size, with the largest weighing around half a ton.
Status : In Service
Range : 50 – 80 km, depending on warheads
Speed : Mach 2.5
Payload : 500Kg
Detonation : Semi armor piercing
Cruising altitude : 20 meter
Propulsion : solid rocket
Guidance : radar, imaging infrared, and TV
Launch Platforms : Submarines & Ships
YJ-1 / C-101
The C-101 is a Chinese supersonic anti-ship missile. The C-101 was an early Chinese supersonic cruise missile. It has been described as unsuccessful.
The YJ-8 is a Chinese surface-launched subsonic anti-ship cruise missile. The YJ-8 is an anti-ship missile of Chinese origin. It was developed as a more capable alternative to the larger and slower anti-ship missiles in Chinese service. The YJ-8 is a sea skimming anti-ship missile with active radar homing in the terminal phase. The solid propellant rocket motor makes the YJ-8 less difficult to operate and much smaller than the Chinese models of the P-15 Termit. This allows for more missiles to be carried on ships.
Several defense analysts have suggested the YJ-8 is a reverse engineered copy of the French MM38 Exocet. The general appearance of the missile, and the externally ribbed launcher, was cited in support of this theory. Other analysts and commentators disagree and argue the Chinese missile was a logical result of the development of a weapon system with similar requirements.
According to a 1991 Aerospace China article, the development of the actual YJ-8 propulsion system began in 1978, with flight-testing completed by 1985. The YJ-8 reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the PLAN in 1987. Although first announced in 1984, the export version of the YJ-8, the C801, wasn’t formally introduced to the international arms market until three years later. This initial version had fixed wings and was stored in small externally ribbed box launchers on surface ships, or in external tubes on a single modified Type 033G Romeo class submarine.
The early YJ-8/8A missiles used hybrid computers for the navigation, autopilot, and radar seeker. A hybrid computer uses a mixture of digital and analog components – that is solid-state elements along with servos, relays, and vacuum tubes. It is interesting to note that only the radio altimeter was fully digital, comprised of solid-state components only, which reflects the likely direct influence from the revolutionary French MM38 Exocet missile.
The inertial reference unit used small mechanical gyros and accelerometers that feed their input to the autopilot computer. Servomechanisms transmitted the steering commands to the four independent rudders. While the Chinese were satisfied with the YJ-8/8A’s overall performance, the electronic and navigation components were very bulky and took up a considerable amount of space inside the missile’s fuselage. By transitioning to all digital, microprocessor based computers, and a more compact strap-down mechanical inertial reference unit;
YJ-8A: Modified YJ-8 with folding wings.
YJ-81: Air-launched version without the booster.
YJ-82: Submarine-launched version.
C-801: Export version of YJ-8.
C-801K: Export version of the YJ-81.
C-801Q: Export version of YJ-82.
The YJ-8A appeared very quickly after the YJ-8 entered service, reaching IOC in 1992 or 1993. In fact, the YJ-8 was only deployed by the PLAN on the Jianghu III (Type 053HT) frigates Huangshi (Hull 535) and Wuhu (Hull 536), as well as the single Type 033G modified Romeo class submarine.
Mass : 815Kg
Warhead : 165Kg
Range : 42Km
Engine : Solid Rocket
Flight Altitude : 5-7m
Max Speed : Mach 0.9
Guidance : Inertial navigation/active radar homing terminal guidance
Launch Platform : Air, land & See
The PLAN’s keen desire for an air-launched version of the YJ-8 drove a near simultaneous development and test program alongside the ship-launched missile. The YJ-81 is very similar to the YJ-8, but without the booster. The shorter section aft of the wings, lack of a scoop, and an underbelly cable run, identify this as a rocket-propelled missile. Like the YJ-8 it has fixed wings, but there is a faired boat tail cap over the rocket exhaust to help reduce the missile’s drag when carried on an aircraft’s pylon. The small size and low weight of the YJ-81 provided smaller tactical aircraft in the PLAN inventory with a standoff anti-ship strike capability for the first time.
The YJ-81 is reported to have begun flight-testing in the mid-1980s, and reached IOC in 1989. The missile was marketed as the C801K. The “K” reportedly means “Kongjun” or air force, indicating an aircraft launched missile. Iran purchased the C801K and began receiving shipments in the mid-1990s.
The YJ-82(Yingji-82) is the submarine-launched version of the YJ-8 missile family. It is launched from submarines from a buoyant launch canister. The YJ-82 lacks the solid-rocket booster of the surface-launched YJ-8/8A and likely has less range than the latter's 42 km. The YJ-82 was first test fired from a Type 039 submarine in 1997; initial tests did not go well. The first photographs of the missile appeared at the 2004 China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition.
The launch capsule is a copy of the one used by submarine-launched Harpoons; China likely received the technology from Pakistan, which had such weapons. Pakistani Navy’s Agosta and Daphne class submarines had been modified to launch Sub-Harpoon missiles between 1984 and 1986. An additional motivating factor was China’s considerable technical assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear and ballistic missile programs.
YJ-82 missile's small radar reflectivity, low attack flight path and strong anti-jamming capability of its guidance system, target ships have a very small chance of intercepting the missile. The single shot hit probability of the YJ 82 is estimated to be as high as 98%. The YJ-82 can be launched from airplanes, surface ships, submarines and land-based vehicles.
Status : In Service?
Warhead : 165 kg high Explosives
Range : ~42 Km
Max Speed : Mach 0.9
Guidance : Inertial navigation/active radar homing terminal guidance
Launch Platform : Submarines/Ships/Land based vehicles?
Propulsion : Solid-fuelled rocket.
Flight Altitude : 5 to 7 m (terminal sea-skimming)
CM 708 UNA (Export version?)
CM-708UNA is a submarine-launched, subsonic anti-ship missile derived from the YJ-82 missile. Chinese CM-708UNA Submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) can be launched from torpedo tubes of submarines. CM-708UNA missile will use strap-down inertial navigation coupled with satellite navigation for midcourse guidance and using a radar seeker for terminal homing. CM-708UNA is developed by Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) and has estimated range of 128 km.
CM 708 UNB (Export Version?)
CM-708 UNB is purportedly a derivative of a longer-range version of the submarine-borne YJ-83 ASCM. CM 708 UNB has a range of about 290 kilometers more than twice the range of CM-708 UNA. This missile has a speed of mach 0.8-0.9.
Like the CM-708 UNA, the CM-708 UNB is likely designed to target medium-to-large. The CM-708, encased in a torpedo like case, is shot out from the submarine’s torpedo tube, through the water and into the air. The missile then breaks free of its casing, fires its booster and then engine, and flies out to hit its target ship.
The domestic version of the missile is (or will) likely be deployed aboard China’s conventional submarine fleet, which consists of 13 Song-class (Type 039) diesel-electric attack submarines and 13 more advanced Yuan-class (Type 039A) submarines equipped with air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems.
The YJ-83 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a subsonic anti-ship cruise missile. Developed by CASIC’s Third Academy, the YJ-83 is based on the YJ-8 but employs a different rocket motor, a turbojet with paraffin-based fuel. The YJ-83 has been in service on PLA Navy surface vessels for more than 20 years.
With a well-established airframe and mature propulsion plant already in place, the YJ-83 benefitted from an exceptionally short development timeline and began flight-testing in 1997. Apparently the missile passed through its trials quickly, as it was reported to have reached IOC in 1998. It was formally announced in October 1999 at the National Day Military Parade, and it has slowly worked up to become the dominant ASCM in the PLAN inventory.
The YJ-83 has been improved through a series of variants. The YJ-83A uses microprocessors and a strap down inertial reference unit (IRU); these are more compact than the equivalent electronics used in the YJ-8 and the export C-802, allowing the YJ-83A to have a 180-km range at Mach 0.9. The missile is powered by the Chinese CTJ-2 turbojet, and carries 190-kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead. Terminal guidance is by active radar.
YJ-83A, exported as the C-802A, has “strong defense penetrating capability, high hitting accuracy, powerful warhead and easy operation and maintenance.” It is designed to attack a 5,000-ton destroyer with a radar cross section of at least 3,000 sqm. The YJ-83A can be launched from air-, ship-, and land-based platforms. It features “multiple flight paths and waypoints, sea skimming flight altitude, multiple antijamming capabilities, fire and forget and over-the-horizon attack capabilities.” The YJ-83A’s range is 180 km. For guidance, it uses a strap down inertial navigation system (INS) and employs a frequency agility radar and digital control to achieve a single-shot kill probability of 90 percent. Its response time is 9 minutes in cold and 30 seconds in hot.
The YJ-83 had more internal volume (than Yj-8) available for fuel and a slightly larger semi-armor piercing warhead (190 kg vice 165 kg). These changes increased the maximum range of the YJ-83 and its export variant, the C802A, from 120 km to 180 km.
The YJ-83has equipped a large number of its surface warships. The YJ-83K equips the Chengdu J-10, Xian JH-7 and H-6G.
Status : In service
Warhead : 165 kg
Range : 120 km (ground/ship) and 130 km (air)
Guidance : inertial/active radar for guidance.
Speed : Mach 0.9 and it skims the sea at an altitude of 20 to 30 m.
YJ-83: Base Variant
C-802A: export variant of surface launched YJ-83
C-802AK: export variant of air launched YJ-83(has a range of190 km).
YJ-83K: air-launched anti ship variant (range 200 km).
YJ-83KH has an electro-optical seeker, and may receive course corrections by remote link.
YJ-83Q: Submarine-launched version??????
There are three YJ-83K-based land attack missiles with a command data link, two versions of the KD-88 (one electro optic and the other probably IR-guided) and the electro optical homing CM802AKG. These missiles all showed up much later than the YJ-83.
The KD-88 (KongDi-88, official designation K/AKD88) is the land-attack version of the YJ-83K series air-launched subsonic sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile. It is PLA’s second-generation standoff weapon, designed for use against fixed high-value targets. The first photos of the electro optical version of the KD-88 were posted in 2006.
KD-88/88A can be carried by PLAN JH-7A (4 missiles) and J-15 against enemy surface ships. Its export version was first unveiled at 2016 Zhuhai Airshow as TL-17. It was reported in July & September 2018 that KD-88/88A can also be carried by J-10C (2) as well as J-16.
Additional types of seeker including anti-radiation and MMW may be developed in the future. KD-88 has provided a much-needed enhancement to PLAAF's precision attack capability
KD-88: Base Variant with CCD TV Seeker.
KD 88A: Variant with IIR seeker
Alternatively the missile could be fitted with semi-active radar or infrared imaging seekers for all-weather, day/night operation capability.
KD-88C? : A new variant with conformal data link antenna on top of the forward missile body for a longer range and/or a better HD image transmission.
Propulsion : turbojet engine
Speed : 0.8-0.85 Mach
Range : 15-180 km.
Warhead weighs : 320 kg.
CM-802 AKG is a passive infrared-homing version of the YJ 83. CM802AKG made its initial appearance at the Zhuhai Airshow China 2010 exposition.The missile uses infrared homing with datalink command input, and is capable of attacking targets both on land and in the sea. The missile has a launch weight of 670 kg and carries a heavier semi-armour-piercing HE warhead (285 kg), with a maximum range of 230km.
Land attack version of C802A Anti ship missile was introduced as C-802KD during the 2005 DSEI exhibition. Fitted with a semi-active radar-homing seeker, the missile could be used to attack both surface vessels and fixed land targets. Other features of the missile included on-off-on radar operation and multiple target selection capabilities. The missile had a launch weight of 600 kg and could deliver a 190 kg HE warhead to a maximum distance of 180 km.
The YJ-85, C-805 export name, is a supersonic, long-range, land-attack cruise missile variant of the YJ-8 anti-ship missile family. It is said that YJ-85 navigation system is based on a combination of GPS and terrain recognition
YJ-91 is the Chinese version of the Kh-31. After purchasing 200 Kh-31Ps from Russia, China decided to develop its own version. The experience gained from YJ-91 also helped the engine development of another supersonic missile indigenously developed in China, YJ-12.
Kh-31P uses a wide array of seekers to cover the entire radar frequency band. The Chinese were not satisfied with the requirement to include multiple seekers and preferred to have a single seeker capable of covering multiple frequency bands, like the AGM-88 HARM.
The resulting anti-radiation version of YJ-91 missile has a slightly increased the range to 120 km in comparison to 110 km of the original Kh-31P.Addition to a seeker that covers multiple frequency bands, additional measures to upgrade the missile are in development, such as, an open software architecture. Additional measures reportedly include prioritizing threats, which could be uploaded to the onboard computer from the ground or by the pilots while in flight. Threats could then be updated in real time. The multi-band seeker is of higher priority.
YJ-91 Anti-ship missile
The Chinese have also developed an anti-ship version of the YJ-91 missile. However, this version is an indigenous development of the Chinese from the Kh-31P anti-radiation missile, and not from the Kh-31A anti-ship missile. China did not order any of the Kh-31A. The Chinese felt that the original Kh-31A could not fully satisfy their requirements, because the high-low trajectory of the missile meant early detection, thus it is prone to interception. In contrast, the low-low trajectory usually adopted by subsonic anti-ship missiles better uses the supersonic speed of Kh-31A. Such a trajectory shortens the detection range and the high-speed reduces the target’s reaction time, once the missile is detected. As a result, China did not order any Kh-31A anti-ship missiles.
The resulting anti-ship version of the YJ-91 is capable of sea-skimming. Its cruising altitude is no more than 20 metre above sea level. At the terminal attack stage (usually after the active radar seeker of the missile is turned on), the missile drops to 7 metre above sea level. This attack altitude can be further reduced to just 1.2 metre above sea level, when the sea state allows. Alternatively, the missile can be programmed to popup-and-dive like that the Boeing Harpoon. However, such sea-skimming capability comes at the expense of maximum range: in comparison to the original 70 km range of the Kh-31A, the maximum range of YJ-91 anti-ship missile was reduced by more than a quarter to 50 km. Like the anti-radiation version, it is reported that many planned upgrades are in development. An application for research grants to develop a submerged launched version of YJ-91 anti-ship missile once appeared on Chinese websites on the Internet, indicating China is attempting to develop a version for its submarine fleet. Fighter like J10, J11B, and J 15 can carry YJ 91 Missiles
Warhead : 90 kg
Speed : > Mach 4.5
Minimum range : 5 km
Maximum range : 50 km (anti-ship version), 120 km (anti-radiation version)
Engine : ramjet with solid rocket fuel booster
Guidance : active radar homing (anti-ship) & passive radar homing (anti-radiation)
YJ-12 is a family of air-launched, long-range, highly supersonic missiles designed to take out large surface ships, radar sites and ground-based targets protected by sophisticated air defense systems. YJ-12 resembles a lengthened Kh-31 and is close in shape to the GQM-163 Coyote aerial target. Its development started in the late 1990s or early 2000s under the management of China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC).
YJ-12 employs a ramjet engine that allows it to cruise at supersonic speed Mach 2 to 3, or a maximum range of 280 to 400 kilometers depending on launch altitude. According to Chinese sources, the YJ-12 has a speed of around Mach 2 if launched from low altitude and up to Mach 3.2 if launched from high altitude. Achieving maximum performance at an altitude of 40 km (130,000 ft) and degrading as it gets lower. YJ-12 can also do evasive maneuvers to avoid anti-missile threats.
The missile utilizes an inertial guidance system that is coupled with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The new missiles are also reportedly being refitted to the PLAN’s Sovremenny-class destroyers, which are based on Russian designs.
It has been test-launched from Xian H-6 bombers and will be fitted on the JH-7B. Reportedly, they may also be launched from the J-10, Su-30MKK, the J-11, J-16, and JF-17?. For warships, it equips the Type 051B destroyer
Status : In Service
Range : 400Km
Terminal attack altitude: 15 m
Guidance : Inertial/GPS
CEP : 5-7m
Speed : Mach 2- Mach 3.2.
Propulsion : combines a solid fuel rocket booster and a liquid fuel ramjet
Warhead : 200kg, blast fragmentation/ penetration warhead
YJ-12: Air-launched variant
YJ-12A: Ship-based variant, launched by rocket booster.
YJ-12B: Land-based variant with 300 km range.
YJ-12 ARM: anti-radiation missile derived from the YJ-12(Under Development?)
YJ-12 ASM: air-to-surface standoff attack missile derived from the YJ-12(Under development?)
YJ-12B: ground-based anti-ship missile system
CM-400AKG: export version of the YJ-12
CM-302/YJ-12E: export version of the YJ-12
The CM-400AKG is a smaller and lighter version of the YJ-12 anti-ship missile intended for use by tactical fighter aircraft such as the FC-1, J-10 and Su-30MKK/J-11.
The missile is fitted with either a blast fragmentation or a penetration warhead to engage surface ships or fixed-position ground targets respectively. The propulsion system uses a solid fuel rocket motor. The CM-400AKG anti-ship missile has been ordered by the Air Forces of Pakistan and China.
Pakistani air force officials described the missile as "an aircraft carrier killer". The missile can be launched when the aircraft reaches speeds of between 750&800Km/h. speed of the cruise missile is between 3.5to mach 4. It can be equipped with high explosive and armor piercing warheads. An important feature of the rocket is the "triple" guidance system. The missile can be fitted with an active radar seeker or an imaging infrared (IIR) seeker. Chinese claims this missile has a special flight profile.
Range : 100–250 km.
Weight : 400 kg
War head : 150 kg blast warhead or 200 kg Penetration warhead.
Terminal speed : Mach 4.5-5.
Guidance : INS + GNSS + Passive Radar Seeker, potentially for anti-ship
CEP : 5 m
CM-302 is an export version of the YJ-12. It is marketed as "the world's best anti-ship missile" that it is supersonic throughout its flight, can be launched from air, land, and naval platforms, can disable a 5,000-tonne warship, and be used in a land attack role. It was first unveiled In November 2016.
Range : 280 km
Warhead : 250 kg
Guidance : active radar seeker /BeiDou
Speed : Mach 1.5-2 and Mach 3 or higher during the terminal flight phase.
YJ 12 ARM
The YJ-12 ARM is an anti-radiation missile derived from the YJ-12 missile family and fitted with a passive radar seeker that covers the entire radiofrequency spectrum. The missile's complex navigation has been designed to hit a target even the radar has been shut down. This heavyweight missile is carried by either the H-6K bomber (two) and the JH-7B (one). It can reach a maximum speed of Mach 4, a maximum range of 400 kilometers carrying a 400/500 kg warhead
YJ-12 ASM is an air-to-surface standoff attack missile derived from the YJ-12 missile family and intended to hit land targets protected by sophisticated air defenses. A two-way data-link allowing re-targeting of missile while in-flight. The YJ-12 missile can be fitted with a variety of seekers depending on the target's profile. This heavyweight missile is carried by either the H-6K bomber and the JH-7B. It can reach a maximum speed of Mach 4, a maximum range of 400 kilometers carrying a 400/500 kg warhead. The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) has deployed the YJ-12 land attack missile fitted with a radar seeker.
The YJ-12B is a ground-based anti-ship missile system deployed on 10x10 Tractor-Erector-Launcher (TEL) wheeled truck systems with each vehicle carrying three missiles. The YJ-12B specifications remain uncertain but its range might be greater than the basic YJ-12 missile while the speed may remain almost the same. It was deployed in early 2018 to protect the Spratly Islands and then it was shown to the public during the military parade in Beijing on October 1, 2019. Its primary goal is to target aircraft carriers and other large warships and supply vessels.
China was seeking a replacement after the termination of Fenglei-7 anti-radar missile (FL-7), and it was decided to utilize HQ-61(SAM Missile) to develop an anti-radiation missile (ARM) to meet the urgent need. Development of most subsystems of FL-7 continued as research projects after the production was shelved, and these subsystems were mated with HQ-61 to create the anti-radar missile needed, and most experience was gained via the reverse engineering attempt of AGM-45 Shrike, and to a much less extend, that of AGM-78 Standard ARM. Samples of both missiles were mainly obtained from down American jets and provided to China by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though several unexploded samples launched by American jets failed to detonate were also transferred.
HQ-61 ARM is basically a HQ-61 missile equipped with the guidance and control system of FL-7. Due to the highly classified nature and small number produced, HQ-61 ARM is relatively unknown to the public and its YJ-5 designation is often erroneously identified as an anti-ship or land attack cruise missile, as most of other YJ series produced by China.
The Hong Niao series (HN-1/-2/-3) of short- and intermediate-range cruise missiles began development in the late 1970s. These ground-, ship-, submarine-, and air-launched cruise missiles were initially based on designs of the X-600, similar to the HY-2 Silkworm. The primary goal of the HN series was to create a nuclear-capable cruise missile with a range of 3,000 km
The HN-1 is reportedly a Chinese development of the native X-600 missile. Some sources believe it was based on the Kh-SD. In 1988, China built an improved missile based on the X-600, called the HN-1. Flight tests for the HN-1A started 1988, and are believed to have entered service around 1996. The air-launched HN-1B was first reported in June 2001, and is thought to enter into service a year later.
The top priority of HN-1 development was to have a land attack cruise missile compact enough to be carried by the Xian H-6, which was successfully achieved, but the claims of the HN-1 being able to be carried by the Xian JH-7 has yet to be verified.
It is reported that HN-1 missiles consist of two versions, the air-launched HN-1A and ground-launched HN-1B. The maximum range of the ground-launched version designated HN-1A, is 600 km. The maximum range of the air-launched version designated HN-1B, is 650 km. The missile cruises at around Mach 0.8 at an altitude of 20 m. The HN-1A version is believed to be launched from a Transporter-Erector-Launch (TEL) vehicle that is capable of carrying three missiles. The HN-1B version is air-launched from B-6D bombers, each of which carries two to four missiles.
The HN-2 is reportedly an upgraded version of HN-1. The HN-2 is widely believed to be based on reverse engineered U.S. Tomahawk technology. The engine for the HN-2 may be based on the Russian Omsk OKB-designed TRDD-50 engine that is used in both the Kh55 and RK-55 missiles. It carries a 20-90 kiloton warhead and a 400 kg warhead. The HN-2 was first flight tested in 1995 and entered into service in 2002.
The primary improvement over the HN-1 missiles is an increase in range. The ground and ship-launched versions (HN-2A, HN-2B) both have a range of 1,800 km. A third version, the HN-2C, is submarine-launched and has a range of 1,400 km. Other improvements and changes include: a body diameter of 0.7 m, an increase in launch weight to 1,400 kg, an accuracy improvement to 5 m CEP, and an overall improvement of various systems including the guidance, engine, airframe, and wing design. Another improvement of HN-2 is that a high altitude approach mode is added.
A U.S. report from 2010 stated that China possesses 200 to 500 nuclear armed operational HN-2 missiles.
The HN-3 is an enlarged version of the Chinese HN-2. The HN-3 series of cruise missiles is likely based on the Russian AS-15B Kent and U.S. Tomahawk technologies. The HN-3A is a ground- or ship-launched missile with a maximum range of 3,000 km. A second variant, known as HN-3B, is submarine-launched and has a maximum range of 2,200 km. Other improvements and changes include a slight increase in body diameter to 0.75 m, an increased launch weight to 1,800 kg, and an increase in accuracy to 5 m CEP. The HN-3 was first flight tested in 1999 and entered into service in 2007.
A stealthy, supersonic cruise/anti-ship missile has been reported under development. It is reported to be equipped with a millimeter wave active radar homing, infrared imaging mapping, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and Beidou satellite guidance. It has a CEP of as little as 1–3 meters and a range of 4000 km. However such a weapon is still said to be under development, with little information on them currently available.
HD-1 is a supersonic land-attack and anti-ship missile. Chinese mining company Guangdong Hongda Blasting revealed technical details of HD-1, at the Airshow China 2018 in Zhuhai.
The HD-1 is predicted to compete on the international defense market with the Indo-Russian joint venture BrahMos cruise missile. Beijing-based military analyst Wei Dongxu told local media that the HD-1’s solid fuel ramjet requires less fuel than other supersonic cruise missiles on the market, which could make it lighter, faster, and less expensive than the BrahMos. In a separate statement, Hongda claimed the HD-1 can be adapted to aircraft, ships, and ground-based vehicles. The missile weighs 2,200 kilograms, can fly as high as 15 kilometres and as low as 5-10 meters when sea skimming. The flight speed and altitudes of HD-1 make it very difficult to intercept. "It could be an awesome aircraft carrier killer. A saturated attack by the HD-1 can even demolish an entire fleet," wei said as reported by Global Times. The HD-1's capability has already surpassed early versions of the BrahMos, the reporter said quoting Wei. The HD-1's advanced solid fuel ramjet needs less fuel than its competitors, rendering the lighter missile able to fly faster and farther, Wei said.
The company claimed that the time taken to prepare for the launch of the missile is less than 5 minutes and less than 10 seconds to launch a second missile. It also described that the missile can accurately hit ground and sea targets. The HD-1 can be launched from a land-based transport erection and launch vehicle (TEL). One TEL can be loaded with 6 missiles, which can be fired with a single push of a button. The vehicle adopts an 8x8 all-wheel chassis, making it very mobile and can withdraw within 3 minutes after launch, ensuring its strong battlefield survivability. The HD-1 is a comprehensive weapon system consisting of missile, launch, command and control, target indication and comprehensive support systems. The HD-1 can be adapted to aircraft and ships as well as the basic ground-based vehicle version, the company said.
Along with the basic version, the company also unveiled the HD-1A, an HD-1 variant that can be launched in the air by fighter jets and bombers and has similar capabilities. The HD-1 can also be launched from a ship.
Status : UnKnown
Range : 290Km
Warhead : 240-400Kg
Propulsion : Integrated Ramjet/booster propulsion
Flight Altitude : 15Km cruise, 5-10m Terminal
Speed : 2.5 to 3.5 Mach
Guidance : INS/Satellite, Terminal Radar/ Infrared guidance
Launch Platform : Aircraft, Ship
Sea-skimming altitude: 4.8-9.7 m.
Pakistan might buy a supersonic missile (HD-1?) successfully test-fired by China which is said to be cost-effective and better than the BrahMos developed by India and Russia, Chinese state media reported.
YJ-62 is a highly subsonic, long-range, anti-ship missile developed by HaiYing Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy in China for use by surface ships. The YJ-62, was first deployed by the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) in 2004 onboard the Type 052C destroyer.
Despite using a similar designation, there are no ties between the YJ-62 and YJ-6 anti-ship missile. The YJ-62 active radar seeker uses an agile frequency antenna to better withstand the effects of electromagnetic jamming. The weapon has a similar general configuration to the Tomahawk family, but employs a unique fixed scoop inlet for the air breathing engine. The YJ-62 can be fitted with an alternative seeker to enable engagement of land targets.
C-602 is the export name of YJ 62.The C-602 was revealed in September 2005, and displayed outside of China for the first time at the African Aerospace and Defense exhibition in 2006. YJ 62 is available in ship, sub, coastal battery and air launch configurations. YJ 62 is designed to sink or disable medium to large size ships.
China has developed an improved YJ-62A variant with a 400 km range. The YJ-62 has been deployed on both ground- and ship-launchers and is currently fitted on China’s 8 Luyang II–class (Type 052C) destroyers. Some 120 units of a YJ-62C variant were reportedly deployed on mobile TELs at Fujian bases for use as coastal defense missiles, a role previously played by HY-1 and HY-2 missiles.
Guidance : GPS/INS + active radar homing seeker with a monopulse antenna.
Propulsion : Rocket motor for launch and a turbofan/turbojet engine for cruise.
Flight altitude : 30 meters at cruise, 10 meters at terminal attack phase.
Warhead : 210 Kg (YJ-62), 300Kg (C-602)
Range : 400Km (YJ-62), 280Km (C-602)
Flight Altitude : 7-10 Meter Terminal
Max Speed : Mach 0.6-0.8
Launch Platform: TEL, Type 052C Destroyer
The CM-602G is a land-attack version of the C-602. It is advertised as having a range of 290 km, a 480 kg penetrating blast/fragmentation warhead, and an inertial guidance system using GPS data which may be augmented to provide man-in-the-loop control. The missile was revealed at the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in 2012.
Russian Origin Missiles
The Kh-31P is the anti-radiation missile (ARM) developed by the Russian Zvezda Bureau, based on the Kh-31A (AS-17A) supersonic anti-ship missile. The PLA obtained some Kh-31P examples in the late 1990s, and has developed an indigenous version known as YJ-91 (YingJi-91). It is not known whether the YJ-91 production has been licensed by Russia. However, other sources suggested that the PLA imported some Kh-31P missiles from Russia between 2002 and 2004, possibly due to the delay in the YJ-91 development.
The Kh-31P was designed to suppress enemy air defense systems and makes its early warning ‘blind’ by striking their radar. The Kh-31P entered service with the PLA around 2003-2004, offering an advanced medium-range standoff anti-radiation strike capability previously lacked by the force. The missile can be carried by its Su-30MKK Flanker-G fighter or the indigenous JH-7 fighter-bomber.
The missile features a unique dual propulsion system designed by the Soyuz Design Bureau. First the missile is accelerated by its solid-fuel rocket engine to a speed of Mach 1.8, then the engine is discarded and the interior of the missile is converted into the combustion chamber of the missile’s jet engine. The latter accelerates the missile to a speed of almost Mach 4.5, while four air intake holes on the sides of the missile body open up.
Propulsion : Ramjet + Integral Solid Rocket Booster
Speed : Mach 4.5
Max Range : 110 Km
Min Range : 15Km
Guidance : L-112 E Passive Radar Homing D~F band
The Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingpost) is a standoff, TV-guided, medium-range air-to-surface missile developed by Russian Raduga Design Bureau. The missile was designed to engage large static ground targets such as bridges and buildings. First revealed in the 1991 Dubai Defence Exhibition, the Kh-59 missile is somewhat similar in concept to the U.S. AGM-84E SLAM. The PLA obtained the Kh-59 as a part of the Su-30MKK fighter acquisition package.
Status : In Service
Max Range : 50Km
Warhead : 148Kg HE
Propulsion : Solid Rocket booster
Speed : 0.8 Mach
Guidance : Inertial +TV terminal
CEP : 2-3m
Sea skimming altitude: 7m, 100-1000m above ground
The Kh-29 is the short-range air-to-surface missile designed by Russian Matus Bisnovat’s “Molniya” (Lightning) and Vympel Design Bureau in the 1980s. The missile is available in two variants: (Article 63) semi-active laser guided version designated Kh-29L, and (Article 64) TV-guided version designated Kh-29T. The PLAAF acquired Kh-29T missiles in 2002 from Russia, as part of the weapon package for the Su-30MKK fighters it ordered from Russia.
The PLAAF ordered 2,000 Kh-29T missiles from Russia in July 2002 and received them in the same year. This may suggest that they came out of existing Russian Air Force inventory rather than new production.
Kh-29 is intended primarily for use against larger battlefield targets and infrastructures such as industrial buildings, airports, depots and bridges. The T variant of the missile is fitted with a Tubus-2 television seeker, with automatic optical homing to a distinguishable object indicated by the pilot in the cockpit.
The missile can be fired from altitudes from 200 m to 10,000 m, at the speeds between 600 and 1,250 km/h. At altitudes of 20 -500 m it is launched from horizontal flight, at altitudes 800-2,000 m from shallow dive and at 1,500-4,000 m (optimal altitudes) is launched from more step dive. However, some sources suggest that the launch altitude above 5,000 m is purely theoretical capability, without serious tactical use.
Status : In Service
CEP : 5-8m
Warhead : 317Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket.
Max Range : 8-10Km
Min Range : 3Km
Speed : 1 Mach
Guidance : TV Seeker
3M-80MBE/E Moskit (SS-N-22)
The first operational PLAN ASCM was the erstwhile Soviet/ Russian Raduga P-270/3M-80E Moskit/SS-N-22 Sunburn on two Sovremenny Class DDGs. The Chinese variant, 3M-80MBE differs from the original 3M-80E with a range of 240 km over 220 km respectively. The Chinese financed the development of the Moskit for the PLAN which boasts a speed of Mach 3 and a 320 kg warhead. It is certain that the Chinese employed the technology for their subsequent missile development programs
Status : Retired
Range: min : 10–12 km, Max 140Km
Cruising altitude : 10 – 20 m (low-altitude trajectory), 7 m in terminal stage.
Warhead : 300Kg penetrator
3M-54E/E1 Klub (SS-N-27)
The SS-N-27 “Sizzler” (3M54) is a Russian short-range ship-, and submarine-launched anti-ship missile. The Sizzler is part of the Kalibr family of missiles and has several export versions known as the ‘Klub’ missile series. The People's Liberation Army Navy uses the 'Club-S' variant for its Kilo class submarines
Even though china has developed a large variety of cruise missiles through, reverse engineering, copying and illegal Transfer of technology still Chinese cruise missiles are inferior to Indian cruise Missiles. BrahMos and its variants, Nirbhay , and acquired SCALP , Harpoon is much better than anything in the Chinese arsenal .
China significantly out numbers India in terms of no of cruise missiles, CJ 10 alone may go up to 1000 in Numbers (Not confirmed). India may have more than 600 BrahMos (approximate) cruise missiles in navy and army service.