Akash is a very potent supersonic mobile multidirectional multi-target point/area air defense system. Akash has been designed and developed by DRDO and produced by Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) and Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL).
Akash can engage several air targets simultaneously using sophisticated multifunction phased array and surveillance radars in fully autonomous mode. Akash can engage several air threats like aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. The seamless integration of hardware and software of various elements permits automated management of air defense functions such as programmable surveillance, target detection, target acquisition, tracking, identification, threat evaluation, prioritization, assignment and engagement.
Equipped with advanced electronic counter countermeasures features at various levels, Akash system provides secure communication links with other air defense command and control networks to handle the counter electronic warfare scenario. The missile system can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 meters.
Akash have three sets of combat elements of weapon systems like Battery Level Radars, Battery Control Centres and Self-propelled Launchers were made on BMP-I, BMP-II and T-72 chassis with modifications on hulls suitable to fit the equipment, providing flexible deployment. An Akash battery comprises four 3D phased array radars and four launchers with three missiles each, all of which are interlinked. Each battery can track up to 64 targets and attack up to 12 of them.
Akash can carry conventional and nuclear warheads weighing up to 60kg. The integration of nuclear warhead allows the missile to destroy aircraft and warheads released from ballistic missiles. It can operate in all weather conditions. It can operate autonomously, and engage and neutralize different aerial targets simultaneously. The kill probability of the Akash is 88% for the first and 99% for the second missile on a target. The Akash can intercept from a range of 30km. A digital proximity fuse is coupled with a 60 kg pre-fragmented warhead, while the safety arming and detonation mechanism enables a controlled detonation sequence. A self-destruct device is also integrated. It is propelled by an Integrated Ramjet Rocket Engine. The use of a ramjet propulsion system enables sustained speeds without deceleration throughout its flight. Akash flies at supersonic speed; reaching around Mach 2.5.The Missile has command guidance in its entire flight (base variant).
Two batteries are deployed as a Squadron (Air Force), while up to four form an Akash Group (Army configuration). In both configurations, an extra Group Control Centre (GCC) is added, which acts as the Command and Control HQ of the Squadron or Group. Based on a single mobile platform, GCC establishes links with Battery Control Centers and conducts air defense operations in coordination with air defense set up in a zone of operations. For early warning, the GCC relies on the Central Acquisition Radar. However, individual batteries can also be deployed with the cheaper, 2-D BSR (Battery Surveillance Radar) with a range of over 100 km.
Akash has an advanced automated functioning capability. The 3D CAR automatically starts tracking targets at a distance of around 150 km providing early warning to the system and operators. The target track information is transferred to GCC. GCC automatically classifies the target. BSR starts tracking targets around a range of 100 km. This data is transferred to GCC. The GCC performs multi-radar tracking and carries out track correlation and data fusion. Target position information is sent to the BLR which uses this information to acquire the targets. Each Battery Level radar (Rajendra radar) able to guide eight missiles in total, with a maximum of two missiles per target. Up to a maximum of four targets can be engaged simultaneously by a typical battery with a single Rajendra if one (or two) missile is allotted per target.
The BCC which can engage target/targets from the selected list at the earliest point of time is assigned the target in real time by the GCC. The availability of missiles and the health of the missiles are also taken into consideration during this process. Fresh targets are assigned as and when intercepts with assigned targets are completed. There are a number of possibilities for deploying Akash weapon system in autonomous mode and in group mode for neutralizing the threat profiles with defined multi-target engagement scenarios. In the Group mode akash can have number of configurations to defend vulnerable areas depending upon nature and expected threat pattern, characteristics of threat. Similarly, multiple batteries in autonomous mode can be deployed to defend vulnerable areas/points. In a Group formation, the four Batteries can be deployed in various geometric formations, as suited to the vulnerable area being protected and the extent desired to be sanitized from enemy air threat. In a box deployment pattern, an Akash group can defend an area of 62 km x 62 km. In a linear array configuration, it covers an area of 98 km x 44 km. Trapezoidal configuration gives defense to the largest area as compared to any other pattern of deployment covering an area of size 5000 square km.
Communications between the various vehicles are a combination of wireless and wired links. The entire system is designed to be set up quickly and to be highly mobile for high survivability. The Akash system can be deployed by rail, road or air.
The Army's radar and launchers are based on the T-72 chassis built by the Ordnance Factories Board's Ordnance Factory Medak to accompany the Army's fast moving armoured formations. The Air Force versions use a combination of tracked and wheeled vehicle. The Air Force Akash launcher consists of a detachable trailer which is towed by an Ashok Leyland truck, and which can be positioned autonomously. The Air Force launcher is designed by Larsen & Toubro jointly with DRDO. Both the Army and Air Force launchers have three ready-to-fire Akash missiles each. The launchers can slew in both elevation and azimuth. The Army Self-Propelled Launcher (ASPL) is 360 degrees slewable and its arc in elevation is from 6 to 60 degrees. The Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL) is 360 degree slewable, in elevation it can fire from 8 to 75 degrees in all directions depending on the mode of deployment. Akash Air force launcher features an all electro servo drive system for fully automated and remote operation. To enable the Akash group to perform self-sufficient in the combat zone, a number of supporting specialist vehicles have been designed and developed. They are mobile and field-worthy. Their design is based on the role and task to be performed and the vehicles are accordingly allocated to the Group HQ, the Batteries, Assembly Line Area and the Field maintenance workshop. Some of the vehicles are: the Missile Transportation Vehicle (MTV), the Transportation and Loading Vehicle (TLV), the Mobile Station for Missile Checkout (MSMC) Vehicle, the Air Compressor Vehicle (ACV), the Power Supply vehicles (GPSV, BPSV), the Engineering Support, Maintenance and Repair vehicles (GEM, BEM) and a few others. These specialist vehicles assemble and prepare missiles, deliver them to Batteries, carry maintenance spares and fuel, and provide logistical engineering support. Their allocation provides for flexibility and self-sufficiency to the whole Akash Group
Some of the indigenous technologies developed by DRDO during the programme are: integral ram rocket propulsion system, multifunction phased array radar system, multi beam 3D Surveillance radar system, C4I system hardware and software for air defense application, command guidance system, dual control digital autopilot and PN guidance, digitally coded radio proximity fuze, electrical servo drive system, frequency hopping communication system, switchable guidance antenna system, built-in ECCM features for guidance, digital coded guidance schemes for multiple missile tracking, end game techniques for maximizing effectiveness of kill.
Battery Level Radar - Rajendra
Akash missile is guided by phased array fire control radar called 'Rajendra' which is termed as Battery Level Radar (BLR) with a tracking range of about 60 km. The tracking and missile guidance radar configuration consists of a slewable phased array antenna of more than 4000 elements, spectrally pure TWT transmitter, two stage superheterodyne correlation receiver for three channels, high speed digital signal processor, real time management computer and a powerful radar data processor. It can track 64 targets in range, azimuth and height and guide eight missiles simultaneously in ripple fire mode towards four targets. The radar has advanced ECCM features. The Rajendra derivative on a BMP-2 chassis and to be used by the Indian Air Force is known as the Battery Level Radar-II whereas that for the Army is based on a T-72 chassis and is known as the Battery Level Radar-III.
2-D BSR (Battery Surveillance Radar)
The Army version also consists of the Battery Surveillance Radar (BSR). BSR is a track vehicle based, long range sensor, interfaced with the BCC. It can detect and track up to 40 targets in range and azimuth up to a range of 100 km.
Early warning in all modes is provided by the S-band CAR which can track while scan 150 targets simultaneously beyond a range of 200 kms and up to an altitude of 18 kms. The BSRs come into action for targets that are up to 100 kms away. The Akash missile itself of course employs a command guided missile with fire control being provided by the Rajendra III which can track 64 targets simultaneously while being able to guide up to 12 missiles at a time to engage 4 different targets. The Rajendra III which is in production is a slewable passive electronically scanned array (PESA) that has a tracking range of 60 km against fighter aircraft flying at medium altitudes.
Long range target acquisition is performed by the 3D Central Acquisition Radar (3D CAR), which is a long range surveillance radar that can track up to 200 targets in Track while Scan mode (detecting, tracking and processing) in three dimensions. It provides azimuth, range and height coordinates of targets to the Group Control Centre (GCC) through secure communication links. The data is used to cue the weapon control radar.
Akash Mk-1S is an upgrade of existing Akash missile with indigenous seeker. Akash Mk-1S is a surface-to -air missile, which can neutralize advanced aerial targets. There was demand from Indian Armed Forces for a missile with a seeker that can target inbound targets more accurately for which DRDO offered an upgraded Akash with an indigenous seeker named Akash-1S.
This variant of Akash has some additional features compared to the original once. Akash-1S missile has an indigenous seeker and can shoot down enemy fighter jets, missiles and drones very effectively and accurately at a range of up to 30 kilometers and at altitudes up to 18 km. Akash 1S can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms for greater mobility.
DRDO recently carried out back to back trials of Akash-1S with the new Ku-band Seeker which vastly improves Kill-probability.
Akash Prime is believed to be a repackaged Akash Mk1S for high altitude warfare. Akash Prime has better performance than its predecessors. Radar of akash Prime is upgraded and tweaked for high altitude performance and autonomous tracking and launch system to deal with high altitude extreme climatic conditions. Electronic systems of Akash Prime had been hardened so that it can operate in extremely cold areas (-30 to -40).Akash prime has new Low-Temperature Batteries which have longer life in high altitude extremely cold areas. Ramjet and rocket propulsion of Akash prime customized and upgraded to perform better at high altitude where air is lighter.
Efforts are going on to make Akash Prime to further improve its performance at higher altitude. Two regiments of Akash Prime will make up around 480 launchers and close to 1500 missiles along with dozens of Rajendra radars, interlinked and controlled by the group control center (GCC).
Akash NG is a highly advanced upgraded version of Akash. The development of the Akash-NG (Next Generation) was approved in September 2016. Akash-NG missile has a cylindrical body with four cropped delta fins at mid-body and four tail fins. Second stage air-breathing solid ramjet engine has been ditched in favor of lighter dual-pulse solid rocket motor. The new propulsion system will increase the range of the missile to 50km+ DRDO working on to improve the range further upto-70-90Km. Akash-NG has six major components- radome, indigenous AESA RF seeker, RF/Laser proximity fuse, pre-fragmented warhead, electromechanical actuation, and dual-pulse rocket motor. When the second pulse motor is fired, the Akash NG speeds up and no enemy aircraft can get away.
Akash-NG will have an improved reaction time and higher level of protection against saturation attacks. Akash NG has a truck mounted 3-D active electronically scanned array Multi-Function Radar (MFR) and optical proximity fuze. The Addition of MFR will afford the Akash missile system capabilities it never had before. MFR will combine functions (search, track and fire control) of three different radars in one single unit. Akash NG is equipped with an AESA seeker (Ku-band ‘Netra’ active radar seeker and RF-based proximity fuze) which considerably improved the kill probability (more than 90 percentages) and effectiveness.
Akash-NG will fulfill Indian Air Force-specific requirement for a quick-reaction E-SHORADS that not only satisfied the IAF’s demand for a smaller deployment footprint area-wise, but also had a far-longer and cheaper service-life.
The Akash Missile itself has been re-engineered almost completely and has been brought down from the legacy Akash’s weight of 700 kg to a sleek 350 kg. That allows the Akash NG launchers to carry more than the three missiles that the legacy Akash launcher carried. Akash-NG has a canister based launch system on a road-mobile launcher for improved mobility.
The existing Akash-1 and Akash-1S missiles have to be stored separately in pressurized missile-containers and consequently have to be loaded and unloaded before and after use. This in turn reduced the service-life of the Akash-1 and Akash-1S missiles.
Flying at a supersonic speed Akash NG can handle multiple targets and destroy maneuvering and low RCS targets, including unmanned aerial vehicles, stealth fighter aircraft, cruise missiles and missiles launched from helicopters, and are capable of killing subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic targets (Upto Mach 7). Akash NG can also defend against tactical ballistic missiles and hypersonic cruise missiles (possibly Akash NG can intercept Chinese glide vehicles). The new Akash system can defend an area of at least 10 times better compared to any short-range SAM and is capable of engaging up to 10 targets near simultaneously.
Akash-NG due to better SSKP over its previous generation missile and due to advancement in the seeker and onboard electronics will achieve higher SSKP which will negate the use of Salvo firing mode which will cut down the cost of each kill.
Each Akash-NG Squadron will include the ADTCR acting as the medium-power radar (derived from the Arudhra MPR’s design), the BSR and the BMFR—an arrangement similar to that adopted for the QR-SAM. Command-control and fire-control systems of the Akash-NG would be almost identical to those of the QR-SAM.
The first test of Akash-NG conducted on 25-Jan-2021. The Akash NG test validated the missile’s propulsion, aerodynamics and control systems, Two more series of tests will follow — first of its guidance system and seeker and then of its warhead. By the year-end, if all goes well, the Akash NG will be ready to enter manufacture. Indian army is likely to incorporate several features of the Akash NG into the older version which is recently ordered by the army.
Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM) is a state-of-the-art air defense system which will significantly boost the defense capabilities of Indian armed forces. Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile System (QRSAM) is a Short Range, all-weather, tracked-chassis, Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile system designed to protect moving armored columns from aerial attacks. The entire weapon system is configured on highly mobile platforms and is capable of providing air defense on the move. The system is being developed for Indian Army with search and track on move capability with very short reaction time. QR-SAM will replace Indian Army Osa-AK and Kvadrat missile systems.
QR-SAM can engage all kinds of targets, including aircraft, hovering helicopters, missiles and low-flying targets, including those that suddenly appear at close range. The QRSAM's radar able to track while scanning out to 28 kilometers; provide 3-D, 360-degree coverage; recognize identification-friend-or-foe beacons; detect ballistic and cruise missiles; and guide four missiles to separate targets. The Mach 1.8 QR-SAM has a kill-zone of between 3km and 30km in range, from 30 metres to 6km in altitude, and 360-degree in azimuth. They are able to operate 24 hours a day, move 150 kilometers a day without refueling and have nuclear-biological-chemical protection. QR-SAM Missiles Laser proximity fuze along with its advanced radars ensures that missile can't be jammed.
The QRSAM weapon system, which operates on the move, comprises of fully automated Command and Control System, Active Array Battery Surveillance Radar, Active Array Battery Multifunction Radar and Launcher. Both radars are four-walled having 360-degree coverage with search on move and track on move capability. The system is compact with minimum number of vehicles for a firing unit. Single stage solid propelled missile has midcourse inertial navigation system with two-way data link and terminal active seeker developed by DRDO. It has a fully automated Command and Control System. QR SAM using mobile launcher & Canister. QR SAM has all Round Missile Firing Capability in elevation from 10 to 60° and Azimuth 360.
Truck based QRSAM Air Defense System can move at speed of 50kmph and has the ability to operate nearly 8 hours at a stretch without the need for refueling. High Mobility Vehicle (HMV) used are capable of being operated in plains, deserts, semi-deserts, terrains found in India and can also be transported through broad gauge rakes of Indian railways. HMV also has NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) system installed which ensures reliable protection of the crew and internal equipment against mass destruction weapons. HMV also have a Navigation system and Night vision devices to help Driver and Commander to move in the dark and also in unfamiliar terrains.
A typical Indian Army QR-SAM Regiment will comprise a Regimental Command Post Vehicle (RCPV), one S-band 90km-range air-defense tactical control radar (ADTCR) for volumetric airspace surveillance, and three Batteries, each of which will include a Battery Command Post Vehicle (BCPV), a 120km-range C-band active phased-array Battery Surveillance Radar (BSR), and four Combat Groups (CG). Each CG in turn will comprise an X-band 80km-range active phased-array Battery Multi-Function Radar (BMFR), plus a 16km-range optronic fire-control system, and four Missile Launch Vehicles (MLV), each of which will carry six canister-encased missiles.
The IAF-specific variant of the QR-SAM will be employed exclusively for cruise missile defence (CMD), in particular against China’s ground-launched CJ-10/DF-10A and air-launched K/AKD-20 land-attack cruise missiles or LACM (all these being clones of the Ukrainian Korshun LACM that had been developed in the Nineties by Dnipropetrovsk-based Yuzhnoye State Design Bureau and Yuzhnoye Machine-Building Production Association, or Yuzhmash), and against the Babur (a DF-10A clone) and Ra’ad LACMs of Pakistan.
The missile can engage aircraft at 500m/s at 20 km and 300m/s at 30 km. The missile also has terminal guidance using an RF seeker. The system has AESA radar with X-band Quad Transmit Receiver Modules (QTMs), Two Way Data Link (TWDL) and IFF. The BSR and BMFR uses advanced motion compensation & electronic stabilization algorithms to along with high accuracy motion sensors.
The developmental trials of the weapon system are successfully completed and the weapon system is expected to be ready for induction by 2021. Amid tensions with China, existing units of system were deployed on eastern Ladakh border.
A typical Indian Army QR-SAM Regiment will one S-band 90km-range air-defense tactical control radar (ADTCR) for volumetric airspace surveillance, and three Batteries, each of which will include a Battery Command Post Vehicle (BCPV), a 120km-range C-band active phased-array Battery Surveillance Radar (BSR), and four Combat Groups (CG). Each CG in turn will comprise an X-band 80km-range active phased-array Battery Multi-Function Radar (BMFR), plus a 16km-range optronic fire-control system.
Both BSR and BMFR using state of the art AESA technology combine with advanced signal processing and data processing algorithms to detect and track all kinds of threats in intense electronic environment. BSR & BMFR are believed to be based on GaN technology and using GaN QTRMs. The BSR & BMFR use advanced platform motion compensation and electronic stabilization algorithms along with high accuracy motion sensors. Both radars are mounted on 8*8 High Mobility Vehicles and are capable of operating on the move in plains deserts and semi-deserts. The AESA radar panels of BSR & BMFR are blended on the vehicle body. There is very few systems have a blended configuration. This kind of configuration helps in improved maintenance and better camouflaging.
Air defense tactical control system is for volumetric surveillance, tracking and friend/foe identification of aerial targets of different types, and transmission of prioritized target data to multiple command posts/weapons systems. The S band radar can be deployed in plain lands, deserts and in the mountain regions for the purpose of tactical early warning for SAM systems. The system employs state of the art active phased array technology with Digital beam forming and distributed digital receivers. Whole radar system including redundant generators and operator shelter configured on two 8*8 high mobility Vehicles. ADTCR System is being developed using proven and established Radar technologies.
BMFR & BCR
BSR & BMFR uses the state of the art active phased array technology combined with advanced signal processing and data processing algorithms to detect and track fixed wing aircrafts including UAVs as well as Rotary wing aircrafts including hovering helicopters in intense EW environment.
The BSR & BMFR use advanced platform motion compensation and electronic stabilization algorithms along with high accuracy motion sensors. Both radars are mounted on8x8 high Mobility Vehicles and are capable of operating on the move in plains, deserts and semi-deserts.
The BMFR also includes a 2 axis Stabilized Electro-Optical Sight (SEOS) for the QR-SAM that can passively acquire targets up to 40-km away. The SEOS comprises of laser range finder, CCD camera, thermal imager and automatic video tracker.
MRSAM (Indian Army/Air force)
The Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MRSAM) is being developed by India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in collaboration with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI).
The MRSAM is an advanced path breaking air and missile defense system that provides ultimate protection against a variety of aerial platforms. The missile is designed to provide the armed forces with air defense capability against a variety of aerial threats at medium ranges. MRSAM is a land-based configuration of the long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) or Barak-8 naval air defense system, which is designed to operate from naval vessels. MR-SAM features Mobile Container design for a Canister missile system probably a first time for an air defense system anywhere in the world.
MRSAM for Indian Army is designed not only to protect vital static Army installations but can also double up as a long-range Air defense system that can move with Strike formations deep inside enemy areas. QRSAM Air Defense system for Army will move with the forward Strike formations while the MRSAM due to its long-range Interception range will move little behind, but both missile system when deployed, will be able to talk to each other so that the best missile can be used to intercept a hostile target.
MRSAM Army version is more mobile as it moves away from Air force variants 18-Wheel Box Trailer Truck configuration to 10×2 Truck that has better mobility and offers better speed for faster movements. MRSAM 18-Wheel Box Trailer Truck configuration is designed to be installed at stationery valued military installations like airbase and radar stations so the movement of this missile system is not so important, while Army required much more mobile truck-based missile system that can be stationed and removed whenever required among civilian traffic.
Each MRSAM weapon system comprises one command and control system, one tracking radar, missiles, and mobile launcher systems. The mobile launcher is used to transport, emplace and launch up to eight canisterised missiles in two stacks. It can fire the missiles in single or ripple firing modes from the vertical firing position.
The combat management system simplifies the process of engaging a variety of threats. It identifies and tracks the threat using tracking radar. The system calculates the distance between the target and the launcher and then determines if the identified target is a friend or a foe. The target information is then transmitted to the mobile launcher.
MRSAM missile is equipped with an advanced active radar radio frequency (RF) seeker, advanced rotating phased array radar, and a bidirectional data link. The RF seeker can detect moving targets in all weather conditions.
The phased array radar provides a high-quality air situation picture, while the bidirectional data link is used for relaying midcourse guidance and target information to the missile.
The missile’s explosive warhead, featuring a self-destruct fuse, provides high-probability of kill against enemy targets with minimal collateral damage.
MRSAM missile is powered by a dual-pulse solid propulsion system developed by DRDO. The propulsion system, coupled with a thrust vector control system, allows the missile to move at a maximum speed of Mach 2. The weapon has the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously at ranges of 70km.
MR-SAM was handed over to the Indian Air Force (IAF) in August 2019. The Indian Air Force is committed to field at least 18 air defense batteries while the Indian Army has acquired a first group of the land-based MRSAM, along with the infrastructure of command, control, training and support facilities to support additional four groups in the future.
LR SAM /Barak 8 (Indian Navy)
Barak 8/Long Range SAM (“LR SAM”) is a high response quick reaction vertical launch supersonic missile to neutralize enemy aerial threats such as missiles, aircraft, guided bombs and helicopters.
Barak 8 is loosely based on the original Barak 1 missile. The radar system provides 360 degree coverage and the missiles can take down an incoming missile as close as 500 meters away from the ship.
Barak 8 has a length of about 4.5 meters, a diameter of 0.225 meters at missile body, and 0.54 meters at the booster stage, a wingspan of 0.94 meters and weighs 275 kg including a 60 kg warhead which detonates at proximity. The missile has maximum speed of Mach 2 with a maximum operational range of 70 km, which was later increased to 100 km. Barak 8 features a dual pulse rocket motor as well as Thrust vector control, and possesses high degrees of maneuverability at target interception range. A second motor is fired during the terminal phase, at which stage the active radar seeker is activated to home in on to the enemy track. Barak 8 has been designed to counter a wide variety of air-borne threats, such as; anti-ship missiles, aircraft, UAVs drones and supersonic missiles When coupled with a modern air-defence system and multi-function surveillance track and guidance radars, (such as the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA on board the Kolkata-class destroyers) Barak 8 enables the capability to simultaneously engage multiple targets during saturation attacks.
Barak Interceptors has vertical launch capabilities supporting 360 coverage, quick reactions, short minimal ranges and an active high-end RF seeker for targets with low radar cross sections and high maneuverability.
The Indian Navy (IN) had carried out “co-operative engagement firing” trials using the Medium-range Surface-to Air-Missile (MRSAM) in May 2019. Kolkata-class guided-missile destroyers INS Kochi (D 64) and INS Chennai (D 65) were involved in the test-firing. The missiles of both ships were controlled by one ship to intercept different aerial targets at extended ranges. With the successful proving of this cooperative mode of engagement, the Indian Navy has become a part of a select group of Navies that have this niche capability. The capability significantly enhances the combat effectiveness of the Indian Navy thereby providing an operational edge over potential adversaries.
Indian Navy selected MRSAM for installation on 15 first line surface combatants. Three P15A (Kolkata Class) destroyers are already operationally protected by the system. Deliveries of MRSAM for four P15B as well as seven P17A destroyers are under progress, along with a system destined to protect the first indigenous aircraft carrier - the Vikrant. The system was also selected to protect the first line vessels of the Israeli Navy - the four new SAAR 6 Magen class vessels.
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XR SAM is an under development very long range Surface to air missile system, by Hyderabad-based Defense Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL).Indian Air Force accepted the Configuration of XR-SAM.
XRSAM will bridge the gap between MR-SAM (70 km) and S-400 (400 km) Air Defense System. XRSAM will also come in Canister based transportable Truck based launcher system. The entire system shall be designed for transportability.
XR-SAM will use advanced spin-off technologies developed for Anti-Ballistic missile Defense system. XR-SAM probably a spin-off of the AAD-1 Endo-atmospheric interceptor with a service ceiling of 120 km and has supposedly Anti-Ballistic Missile features. XR-SAM may utilize the same network grid deployed for Anti-ballistic Missile Shield.
XR-SAM will complement the S-400 systems in their role and filling the need for a robust Multi-Layered Air Defense System. XR-SAM will be consisting of two slightly different surface to air missiles (Need Confirmation). One will have 250 km range another will have 400 km range.
XR-SAM will have active radar homing guidance and GaN (Gallium Nitride) based UHF radars. XR-SAM can simultaneously engage Aircraft, Cruise Missiles, Unmanned Drones and ballistic targets. XRSAM will also be able to engage stealth fighters and ballistic missile in the terminal stage, Sea Skimming Anti-Ship Missiles, AWACS, Bombers, Mid-Air-Refuellers.
Range against maneuvering aircrafts : 250 km (fighters, stealth aircrafts, drones etc.)
Range against slow moving targets : 350 km (AWACS, tankers, transport aircrafts etc.)
Range against AShMs, cruise missiles etc : 250 km
Range against ballistic missiles : Terminal Stage
According to latest reports XRSAM has been prepared for ground trials and it is likely will enter trials phase soon.
Vertical Launch – Short Range SAM is a next-generation, ship/Truck based, all-weather, SAM system under development. VL-SRSAM is meant for neutralizing various aerial threats at close ranges including sea-skimming targets. VL-SRSAM will be developed in two variants one for Air Force and another one for Indian Navy. The air force version will have high mobility Truck-mounted canister based VL-SRSAM and Navy will get Canister based VL-SRSAM for its front-line warships. DRDO already developed an 8×2 configuration Cell vertical launching system (VLS) Plug that can be installed in warships and also developed a Canister based launching system that can be mounted on Truck for the Air force version. VL-SRSAM, s Vertical Launch System can be retrofitted into a variety of naval platforms like frigates, Destroyers and offshore patrol vessels (OPV), etc. VL-SRSAM will replace the Barak-1 point defense interceptor which currently deployed in many Indian naval ships and can supplement SPYDER point defense system.
VL-SRSAM is believed to be a Ground launch version of the Astra beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. From the publicized images of VL-SRSAM it looks somewhat similar to earlier iterations of Astra BVR Missile. VL-SRSAM will have an Integrated Thrust vectoring Control for improved agility and will have a foldable wings and fins for storage inside Vertical Launch System.
VL-SRSAM can engage almost any kind of threats and will provide complete protection over 25Km including sea skimming anti ship missile. It is an all weather system which can operate both in day &night and covering 360 degree. VL-SRSAM will feature an active radar seeker.
DRDO conducted two successful launches of VL-SRSAM on 22-Feb-2021.
The launches were carried out from a static vertical launcher from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast of Odisha. The launches were carried out for demonstration of vertical launch capability as part of its maiden launch campaign. On both occasions, the missiles intercepted the simulated targets with pinpoint accuracy. The missiles were tested for minimum and maximum range. VL-SRSAM with Weapon Control System (WCS) was deployed during the trials.
The trials have proved the effectiveness of the weapon system and few more trials will be conducted shortly before deployment on Indian Naval ships. Once deployed, the VL-SRSAM system will prove to be a force multiplier for the Indian Navy.
In October 2018, India had signed a $5 billion deal with Russia to buy five units of the S-400 air defense missile systems. Initially, it was expected that the first of the five S-400 systems will start coming in by the end of 2020. Due to the spread of Chinese COVID 19 Russia postponed the delivery and later agreed to deliver by 2021-end.
S-400 is the most modern air defense system in the Russian arsenal. It is capable of destroying incoming hostile aircraft, missiles and even drones within a range of up to 400 km. It has a tracking capability of nearly 600 km.
The system has been designed to shoot down flying targets, including stealth aircrafts, at a distance of about 400 km. It is also capable of taking out ballistic missiles and hypersonic targets.
The S-400 can be armed with four different types of missiles with ranges of 400 km, 250 km, 120 km and 40 km. The long-range radar can track more than 100 flying objects simultaneously while being able to engage a dozen targets. According to media reports India is buying two different type of surface-to-air missile for its S-400 system: 40N6 (Range: 400 km) and 48N6 Range: 250 km). There are rumors that Indian S-400 may have technologies developed for Russian S-500 that will make Indian S-400 more advanced than Chinese S-400.
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2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful)
2K12 "Kub" mobile surface-to-air missile system is a low to medium-level air defense system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. The first generation missiles of 2K12 Kub have an effective range of 4–22 km and an effective altitude of 50–14,000 m. The new missiles has an effective range from 4 to 24 km. in 2017 India has launched a new request at the international level to supply approximately 200 missiles for the system. India needs a new missile able of engaging target in range of 24/25 Kms with a single shot kill probability of at least 80 percent.
This system may replace with Akash SAM, but the recent requirement of 200Missiles indicates India may use these systems further. About 12 regiments of Kub system are believed to be in active service with India.
9K31 Strela-10 M3 (SA-13 Gopher)
The 9K31 Strela-1 is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to-air missile system.
Strela-10M3 is a further development of the Strela-10M2. Strela-10M3 deployed on the 9K35M3 TELAR , this variant using the 9M333 missile which was supplied with a 9E425 three channel seeker, the first infrared, the second using a visible band television contrast lock design, and the third a passive homing channel intended to home on the emissions from jamming equipment. The 9M333 included a new autopilot and IR background rejection processing, as well as a laser proximity fuse. Strela M3 can engage enemy aircraft and helicopters at a range up to 5 000 m and altitude of up to 3.5 km. It can additionally engage UAVs and cruise missiles. Missile has improved resistance to enemy countermeasures. Warhead contains 5 kg of explosive material instead of 3 kg. It is more efficient against small-size air targets, such as UAVs. The missiles weight 42 kg. These can be used by all other versions of the Strela-10.
In 2015 Russia offers to upgrade SAM Strela-10M3 for India to the level of the Strela-10M4 or Strela-10MN (night version), making it more combat-worthy. Modernization includes the upgrading of the combat vehicle, but we will not touch the rockets. The main drawback of the earlier versions was that the system could not work at night. It did not have thermal sighting capability. These new versions – the Strela-10M4 or Strela-10MN (night version), can work at night. But there is no news about the up gradation of the system. Upgraded Sterla-10M3 will have new target-acquisition radar; most probably it will be the very same AESA-based radar that’s on the IA’s upgraded ZSU-23-4 Schilkas.
India may have 250 units of Strela 10M3 and 200 units of Strela 1
India ordered Strela 9M333 from Russia in 2020(Need Confirmation). Sources in the know told that the contract was made towards the end of 2020. A Kalashnikov spokesperson confirmed reports of the deal but offered no details either. Information about the number of units or the value of the deal was not available.
Strela 9M333 guided missile system is designed to defeat low-flying aircraft and helicopters as well as remotely piloted aircraft and cruise missiles. Guided 9М333 missile is the modernized 9М37М missile with a higher efficiency engine and a new transportation and launch container. Unlike its predecessor that had only 2 seeker modes available, the new seeker works in 3 modes.
The new war-head is heavier than its predecessor with the weight of 5 kg as opposed to the 3 kg warhead of 9М37М. The accuracy and the probability of target hitting are increased due to a bigger detonator buster, and the special section of its sub-munitions (missile fragments).
The new guided 9М333 missile is fully compatible with all earlier versions of Strela-10. The new transportation and launching container and the missile electronics do not require any alterations to be made in the Strela-10 system combat vehicles, Kalashnikov information said.
Spyder (Surface-to-air Python-5 Derby)
The SPYDER is a low-level, quick reaction missile. . In June 2006, SPYDER was selected by the Indian Army. The procurement was finally approved by the approved by the Indian Defense Acquisitions Council in July 2008 but due to logistics issue, the missile couldn't be deployed. A contract worth $1bn for 18 SPYDER systems was awarded to Rafael in September 2008. The SPYDER systems were delivered starting in 2012. 18 SPYDER-MRs along with 750 Python-5 surface to air missiles (SAMs) and 750 Derby SAMs has been delivered.
SPYDER is a low-level quick reaction missile (LLQRM) system. It is used to protect critical infrastructure in ground-to-air missions from wide-spectrum of incoming air-borne threats ranging from aircrafts, helicopters, UAVs, precision-guided munitions (PGMs). It offers both lock-on before launch (LOBL) and lock-on after launch (LOAL) capabilities with I-Derby and Python-5 missiles.
SPYDER MR purchased by India offers target interception through vertical launch, thereby creating a protective dome of 80 km radius. It uses electro-optic payloads and wireless data link communications to ensure all-weather, multi-launch and network-centric capabilities. India successfully test fired the SPYDER-MR system in May 2017
The SPYDER family has autonomous capabilities, detecting threats while on-the-move and firing instantly after halt. SPYDER systems enable a 360° launch within seconds of the target being declared hostile, and provide all-weather, multi-launch, and net-centric capabilities.SPYDER’s open architecture design enables the integration of external components such as radars.
SPYDER-MR offer medium & long range target interception through vertical launch while pushing the defense envelope up to an 80 km radius.
SPYDER MR System enable a 360° launch within seconds of the target being declared hostile ‒ and provide all-weather, multi-launch, and net-centric capabilities. The SPYDER systems have advanced ECCM capabilities and use electro-optical observation payloads as well as wireless data link communication.
The main components of the SPYDER system are the truck-mounted command and control unit, the missile firing unit with Python 5 and Derby missiles, a field service vehicle and missile supply vehicle.
The vehicles are air-conditioned and also provide protection against biological and chemical warfare (BCW). The system is based on a modular design and system maintenance in the field is through very quick module replacement.
The system can launch missiles in two modes of operation: lock on before launch (LOBL) and lock on after launch (LOAL). The slant launching method, unlike vertical launch, allows LOBL so the missile’s on-board seeker is locked on to the target before launch. The LOBL mode allows the Squadron Commander to confirm the missile is locked on to the designated target prior to launch, gives high kill probability against short-range high-manoeuvring targets and enables the engagement of designated targets by add-on optical sensors.
A typical SPYDER squadron consists of one mobile command and control unit (CCU) and four mobile firing units (MFU). The CCU and MFUs each have their own built-in power supplies. The system features an automated computer, assisting the operators in the successful completion of hostile target interceptions in intense battlefield environments. The mobile CCU is equipped with surveillance radar and two operator stations. There is a radio data link between the CCU and the four MFUs.
The CCU combines data from the local surveillance radar and from upper tier command and control centers up to 100km away. There is also provision for receiving air situation pictures from other data links.
The air situation picture (ASP) is displayed at the operator’s workstation in the command centre. When the operator decides to launch, an automatic procedure is initiated. The CCU assigns the target to the appropriate launch unit.
If the target is within acquisition range the missile is launched in LOBL mode. If the target is beyond seeker acquisition range the missile is launched in LOAL mode. The seeker searches for the target and switches to homing phase when the target is acquired.
Both the DERby and the PYthon 5 missiles can operate in LOBL and LOAL modes. The target is destroyed by the warhead blasting on impact or by proximity fuse.
The command and control unit is housed in a truck-mounted shelter with a mounted radar, information friend or foe (IFF) interrogator and communication equipment. The VHF/UHF interference-free communication system is for internal squadron communication and to upper tier command.
SPYDER uses a truck-mounted missile firing unit which is equipped with a communications system and fitted with a 360° rotatable, electro-mechanically operated, turret-based launch unit.
Elta EL/M 2106 ATAR 3D surveillance radar
The Elta EL/M 2106 ATAR 3D surveillance radar can simultaneously track up to 60 targets. The radar has 360° operation and all-weather day and night capability. The radar includes advanced electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM) for operation in dense hostile electronic warfare environments.
PYthon 5 missile
The PYthon 5 missile is Rafael’s new very high agility dogfight air-to-air missile. PYthon 5 is a development of the PYthon 4 with a dual-band focal plane array and imaging infrared (IIR) seeker which gives a very wide field of view.
PYthon 5 retains the same airframe – with pitch and yaw control, delta-shaped canards and two roll control swept fins and the same rocket motor, warhead and fuse – as the PYthon 4 missile. The wide field of view allows LOAL at an angle of more than 100° off boresight. The dual-band seeker gives increased detection range, improved target discrimination against background clutter and a lower false target acquisition rate.
In LOAL mode, the target data is transferred from the command and control unit via the launcher to the missile. The missile’s guidance and control systems are active for a three times longer period than for the earlier PYthon, enabling the missile to counter targets making evasive manoeuvres. The high explosive fragmentation warhead is fitted with an active laser proximity fuse.
The DERby missile is a medium-range, active radar-guided missile originally developed for the air-to-air role. The air defence missile has all-weather and beyond visual range capability.
DERby has a similar body design to the PYthon missile. An active RF radar / infrared seeker, developed by IAI, is installed in the nose of the missile. The missile incorporates an advanced programmable ECCM system. Derby operates in LOBL mode for short-range target engagement and LOAL mode for medium-range engagements.
There are rumors that India Deployed SPYDER Missiles Along With Akash Air Defence System near China Border, during the ongoing standoff at LAC.
9K33 Osa (SA-8A/B Gecko)
The 9K33 Osa is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile . The missile is mounted on an amphibious vehicle having its own radar and can act with or without the regimental surveillance radars. The range is about 15km and a maximum altitude of 12km. The six-wheeled transport vehicles BAZ-5937 are fully amphibious and air transportable. The road range is about 500 km.
The SA-8b Gecko is a single-stage, solid-fuel, short-range, low-altitude, all-weather SAM. The TELAR vehicle is six wheeled with driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle which has accommodation for two; the driver and commander, with access to it via a hatch in the roof. The engine is at the rear. Four command-guided missiles are carried ready to launch, two either side. The main, conical-scan, fire control radar is at the rear of a one-man, gunner-radar operator position and folds back 90º to reduce the overall height of the vehicle for air transport and during high speed road travel.
The radar operates in the H-band with a 360º traverse and has a max Range of 35 km. Each battery also has two missile transloaders based on the same chassis with a long coffin-like blunt pointed tarp roofed structure covering the cargo space and crane. When operating, the blunt point area is raised and the tarped structure is slid to the rear. A total of 18 reloads in boxed sets of three are transferred to the TELAR by a hydraulic crane mounted centrally behind the vehicle cab. In the regiment maintenance battery there is a single radar collimation vehicle using the same chassis. This has a collimation antenna which lies on both sides of the vehicle and overhangs the rear during transit. It is raised during operation and mounted on each side of the hull directly behind the cab.
In operation it is raised and mounted on each side of the hull directly behind the cab. The SA-8b is contained in a rectangular launch box it has improved guidance and speed characteristics to give it a maximum range of 15km. The warhead weight of the missile is 19kg. The reloading time is five minutes. Combat deployment time is four minutes with the system reaction of 26 seconds. The surveillance radar operates in the H-band and has an effective range of around 30 km against a typical target. The tracking radar is of the pulsed type and it operates in the J-band with a range of 20 - 25 km. The I-band guidance radar makes it possible to launch two missiles at the same target, each one responding to a different frequency to frustrate ECM.
India may have 50 Units of Upgraded OSA AKM.
S-125 Pechora (SA-3B Goa)
S-125 Pechora is a low- to medium-altitude air defense system. It has a shorter effective range and lower engagement altitude than either of its predecessors and also flies slower, but due to its two-stage design it is more effective against more maneuverable targets. It is also able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors. The S-125 uses radio command guidance.
India initiated the up gradation of S-125 in 2016. Indian S 125s are outdated for the most part, and the extension of their service life is immediately required to keep them in service. India will digitize the Pechora`s control unit, antenna post, subsystems of SAM launchers, tracking and coordinating systems, missile-command generating systems and launch-computing devices.
In October 2020 Indian Ministry of Defense (MoD) has roped in Alpha Design Technologies Limited (ADTL) to upgrade the Pechora system. ADTL will be upgrading and digitizing 16 of the Pechora missile and radar systems which are presently in Service. Also, the contract has an options clause, under which the number of systems to be upgraded and digitized could be taken up to a total of 24 in the coming years. The project would lead to the adoption of a host of indigenously developed technologies in the Pechora missile systems, like radar transmitter, thermal imager based electro-optical system and communication equipment. The entire contract is to be executed within four years. The Pechora upgrade program includes the refurbishment of its missile-guidance radar and the integration of its radar with an Integrated Area Command and Control System (IACCS). The upgrade will provide a fresh lease of life for ten years. IAF had planned to replace Pechora systems with MRSAM systems.
India may have 25-30 Squadrons of Pechora.
India used P 15 Flat face as part of Pechora SAM Systems. P 15 has a Range of 128 km. We are not sure whether it is still operational or not. Most of the systems were replaced by P19 Radars.
The P-19 designed to detect aircraft flying at low altitude and came to be associated with the S-125. The radar can rapidly shift its frequency to one of four pre-set frequencies to avoid active interference with passive interference being removed by a coherent doppler filter. Azimuth was determined by mechanical scanning with an associated accompanying PRV-11 used to determine elevation. P-19 has good low altitude detection and high resistance to countermeasures. P 19 Uses UHF Frequency and has a range of 260Km. India is started its up-gradation few years back, we don’t know the current status of the upgrade.
In a recent exhibition Indian Air force showed a SAM system based on R 73E heat seeking missile named as SAMAR (Surface to Air Missile for Assured Retaliation).SAMAR is developed by Army and Air force engineers using the currently available systems in the force. India has thousands of old R73 so these developments most probably a way to get rid of older R-73 Stocks that have completed their captive flight hours so that SAMAR may not go into bulk production.
Each launcher is fitted with a FLIR for target recognition and the image will cued to R73 seeker after that the R73 will be fired. The system is quite capable to shoot down Aircrafts , helicopters & UAVs.
Ballistic Missile Defense
The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Programme, an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system, is a two-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defense (AAD) missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield will be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 km away.
The PAD was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an ABM system, after the United States, Russia and Israel.
The ABM defense system comprises integration of LRTR, fire control radar, mobile communications terminal and mobile launcher-fired interceptor missiles, which make it technologically complex. These tests are a significant step forward in establishing a credible missile defense system, capable of detecting, intercepting and destroying medium- and long-range ballistic missiles.
Two new antiballistic missiles that can intercept IRBMs/ICBMs are being developed. These high speed missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) will be able to intercept ballistic missiles with a range of 5,000 km. These new missiles will be similar to the Theatre High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD) missile deployed by the US. These missiles will travel at hypersonic speeds.
Looking at missile threats from the hostile neighborhood, India is eyeing an effective BMD system, with an overlapping network of early-warning sensors, command posts and anti-missile land- and sea-based missile batteries. Having tested its anti-missile defense system thrice, India is giving thrust on fully developing a two-tier BMD system, capable of tracking and destroying incoming hostile missiles both inside (endo) and outside (exo) the earth’s atmosphere.
Indian scientists are developing a laser based weapon system as part of the BMD to intercept and destroy missiles soon after they are launched towards the country. According to DRDO’s air defense programme director V K Saraswat, it is ideal to destroy a ballistic missile carrying nuclear or conventional warhead in its boost phase. Saraswat informs that it is an involved process and not just about producing lasers. Many systems like the surveillance and tracking systems need to be put together for such a system to work. It will take another 10-15 years for the premier defense research institute to make it usable on the ground.
Chinese integrated air defense system
Integrated air defense systems (IADS) are a key feature of modern warfare. IADS are complex, multilayered defense systems incorporating a range of ground-based and aerial sensors, as well as surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems.
A modern IADS is one of the most formidable threats that an air force can be tasked to confront. China has a robust and redundant IADS architecture over land areas and within several hundreds of Kilometers of its coast that relies on an extensive early warning radar network, fighter aircraft, and a variety of SAM systems. China is also placing radars and air defense weapons on outposts in the South China Sea, further extending its IADS. It also employs point defenses, primarily to defend strategic targets against adversary long-range cruise missiles and airborne strike platforms.
Chinese IADS is commonly called as “air intelligence radar network”. All the various Chinese surveillance elements have been integrated into an ‘air intelligence radar network’ using fixed high speed fibre-optic links that provide interconnections that are immune to electronic intelligence intercepts and radio frequency jamming. Moreover, all mobile radars and missile batteries have been connected through indigenous TS-504 mobile tropo-scatter communications terminals.
China’s IADS is heavily distributed and mobile. It is comprised of land-based HQ-9 and S-400 long-range and multiple medium-range SAM systems on the mainland as well as on artificial reefs, and an increasingly potent naval component in the shape of People’s Liberation Army Navy major surface combatants with the navalised HHQ-9 series. China is also pursuing multiple aerial and ground-based exotic radar and multi-spectral sensor technologies to support both its IADS and the People’s Liberation Army Air Force.
Several Radars of various kinds in the likes of long range Surveillance radars, Fire Control radars, over the horizon Radars, Ground based large Phased Array radars and several other radars with high mobility integrated into Chinese IADS. The first consequence of this radar data-sharing within an IADS is that there are far more potential radar emitters that a SEAD/DEAD task force must consider a serious threat than if each individual battery was only capable of engaging using its own radars. Even if centralized C2 nodes are hit and knocked out, along with large brigade radar assets, individual battalions and even batteries can still pose a serious threat to aircraft. The second effect is that radar horizon-associated blind spots for the strategic SAM systems – equipped with active radar homing missiles and sited further from approaching threats, to a large degree, be filled by situational awareness contributed by external ground- and air-based systems. A third effect is that the spatially diverse network of radars operating across multiple different frequency bands can give more precise target information, particularly against stealth aircraft with very low radar cross-sections if all the data can be brought together and cross-referenced in real time by a data-fusion asset. These properties, as well as the more obvious benefits of mutually supporting defensive fire, make an IADS a vastly more daunting prospect than a standalone strategic SAM system. The ability of the strategic SAMs in an IADS to exchange radar and engagement data with shorter-range systems and airborne assets greatly complicates the task of SEAD/DEAD against these networks.
The PLAN is also a key component of China’s IADS. Despite serious issues with inter-service connectivity and joint exercises, China’s strategy for its land-based and naval IADS coverage is closely linked.
China is also supplementing its IADS with a much more aggressive and technologically advanced air force modernization programme .With three modern AWACS types, operational fifth-generation fighters and the Soar Dragon and Divine Eagle radar-surveillance high-altitude UAVs, as well as experiments with quantum radar. China can already boast a multi-layered and unpredictable IADS which can threaten modern combat aircraft far from the mainland. When, as opposed to it, China can link its ground-based, maritime and aerial assets at a technical and operational level, it will be a formidable challenge, able to contest airspace over 1,000 km from the mainland.
The Chinese Integrated Air Defense System (IADS) consists of three core components
China today has an advanced radar network with improved early warning coverage through ground-based sensors and airborne early-warning (AEW) aircraft. It has also designed and deployed radar systems that are optimized to detect stealthy aircraft, including passive surveillance systems. The radars are integrated in an ‘air intelligence radar network’ covering the entire country. After being snubbed in its effort to acquire the highly capable Phalcon AEW system from Israel, it has developed three viable AEW platforms; these are the KJ-2000, the KJ-200 and the Y-8 AEW. Marketing materials also emphasize these systems’ ability to counter long-range airborne strike and combat support aircraft. PLAAF airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft such as the KJ-2000 and KJ-500 can further extend China’s radar coverage well past the range of its ground-based radars.
China developed a wide variety of long range Radar systems, extremely long Range Radars for Ballistic missile shield and over the horizon radars etc. These radars systems include surveillance radars, fire control radars, passive sensors, anti stealth radars, low altitude surveillance radar etc all these assets can connect to the Chinese Integrated air defense network as will, this helps to create a comprehensive picture of the threat, and the SAM systems connected to the IADS can easily take down the intruding enemy forces. And the IADS can instruct fighters like assets to intercept or shoot down the intruder, making the Chinese air defense system an extremely reliable and a difficult system to wedge.
China initiated its current wave of modernization efforts by importing modern SAM systems from Russia, and by the 2010’s had an impressive array of modern long range SAM systems.
The core lethal component of any IADS is the SAM system. China has increasing numbers of advanced long-range SAMs, all of which have the advertised capability to protect against both aircraft and low-flying cruise missiles. To improve its strategic air defenses, China has taken initial delivery of the Russian-built S-400 Triumf SAM. Russian S-400 which is the most advanced SAM in the world and a real game changer. Compared to these other systems, the S400s feature a longer maximum range, improved missile seekers, and more sophisticated radars.
China manufactures a variety of long-range air surveillance radars, including models claiming to support ballistic missile defense. All new generation Chinese SAM systems have high mobility and incorporate advanced electronic counter counter measures (ECCM) even as they are capable of engaging a wide range of air threats, including those with stealth features.
In 1996, PLAAF had a large inventory mostly comprised by second-generation J-5 (MiG-17) and J-6 (MiG-19) fighters. Today, all J-5s and J-6s have been retired. Although PLAAF’s AD interceptor pool still includes third-generation aircraft such as the J-7 and J-8II, incorporating modern weapons and avionics , almost 60 percent of its inventory is now made up of fourth-generation types such as the Su-27, Su-30 MKK, the indigenous J-10 and the J-11 family based on the Su-27, including the J-11B ‘pirate’ variant which entered service around 2008. China also has fifth-generation fighter J20, around forty J 20s are available with PLAAF.
Some of the features of the current Chinese Air Defense doctrine are:
Chinese Radar Systems (Land Based)
The YLC-2 radar (domestic designation: LLQ303, formerly known as 385) is a three-dimensional main guidance and surveillance radar developed by the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology.
The radar uses an active phased array with an aperture of 7 m · 9 m that scans electronically in elevation while rotating in azimuth. The original for this radar was possibly the AN/TPS-59, an assumption supported by many similarities in the construction of the antenna. The antenna array of the YLC-2 consists of many low-power radiating elements using solid-state power-amplifier modules mounted in 54 vertical rows. The main antenna is topped by an IFF/MSSR array.
The antenna array has 54 horizontal elements, each fed by a 2.0 kW (peak, at 8% duty cycle) T/R module that is reported to have improved upon the earlier design of the AN/TPS-59 and GE-592 radars of which it appears to be a copy. The YLC-2 radar has three display consoles and can track as many as 100 targets.
A total of 5 sets of YLC-2 radar systems were delivered to Pakistan to the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) at Faisal Airbase on 15th June 2003, and probably two more in 2006, to be used in support of the PAF air defense network, where it was reported to be high-powered, solid-state, long-range 3D air surveillance radar
YLC-2 system is said to have a detection range of 330km (500 According to Wikipedia). It is reported to have a variety of electronic counter-countermeasures, to enable survival in a hostile electro-magnetic environment. There is also a new version designated YLC-2A, and a self-propelled version; YLC-2V. YLC-2A and YLC-2V employ smaller, more compact antenna arrays and have been declared to function in E/F-band.
In the mid-2000s, an improved version labeled YLC-2A was deployed to the PLA. Equipped with a new Giga-flops digital signal processor, it is capable of Digital Moving Target Indication (DMTI) and Constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing. An S-band variation called YLC-2U with similar capabilities was also developed for SAM guidance. Both of these advanced YLC-2 radars have been specifically designed to counter stealth fighters, with a claimed range of up to 200km even in heavy ECM environment.
YLC-2 is original and after that they upgraded YLC-2 A and YLC-2 V.
YLC-2 is a base system and used L-band frequency.
YLC-2 A is a highly upgraded YLC-2, it is highly Mobile the radar is mounted on vehicle system.
YLC-2 V Becomes Personalized Vehicle System and S-band frequency used.
Out of these three systems, YLC-2 V radar used as target search radar with Chinese Air Force's HQ-9 / HQ-12 SAM units.
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YLC-2V is a mobile, high altitude surveillance radar and medium/long-range guidance S-Band radar that can be quickly deployed. The radar system can be operated remotely and has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility. The YLC-2V radar was unveiled at the China Air Show in November 2014.
YLC-2V radar is especially suitable for being used as main surveillance radar in air defense or navy, target indication radar in ground to air missile troop. It can provide comprehensive information including azimuth, range, altitude, IFF attribute, of large quantities of air targets. The antenna is smaller than the YLC-2, which results in lower resolution in elevation but higher mobility (assembly/disassembly time: 40 min with 6 persons).
With excellent operational performance, especially high mobility, strong anti-jamming and anti-destruction capability, strong viability and detection capability of targets with small RCS such as cruise missile. YLC-2V radar will be the major guidance and surveillance radar for China in the 21st century.
Operation frequency band : S band
Instrumental range : 500 km
Coverage (Range) : ≥ between 350 km and 420 km
Coverage (height) : 25000 m
Coverage (elevation) : 0 - 25°
Coverage (Azimuth) : 0 - 360°
Measurement accuracy (azimuth) : ≤ 0.3°
Measurement accuracy (range) : ≤ 100 m
Measurement accuracy (height) : ≤ 600 m
Range resolution : ≤ 200 m (automatic extraction)
Assembly/disassembly time : 40 min with 6 persons
MTBCF : ≥ 1000 h
MTTR : ≤ 30 min
YLC8/8A is 2D air search radar. YLC-8 and YLC-8A are derivatives of the P-12/P-18 Spoon Rest family of radars, widely exported as part of S-75 Dvina / SA-2 Surface to Air Missile Batteries. Unlike the self propelled Soviet original, the YLC-8 is carried on a semi-trailer.
Max range : 370 km
Azimuth : 0-360Degree
Elevation : 0-18Degree
Range Accuracy : <200m
Deployment Time : 30Min
MTBCF : >800hrs
MTTR : <25Mins
YLC-8B is mobile, high altitude 3D surveillance radar which integrates mechanical scanning with two-dimensional active phased-array technology developed independently by China to spot a wide variety of threats such as ballistic missiles and aircraft at medium ranges simultaneously. The radar system, utilizing the latest digital technology, has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility and is intended for deployment by the PLA in key areas. The YLC-8B radar was first unveiled at the China Air Show in November 2014.
This system is designed to supplement fixed radar networks with additional sensing capacity against a range of air threats such as stealthy aircraft and ballistic missiles. It can also be used as gap-filler radar as it can be rapidly moved to distant or austere locations.
According to Jane’s, the Institute has promoted for a few years its YLC-8B medium- and high-altitude three coordinates surveillance radar able to move on road and railway and at sea within 30 minutes. The radar has a range of 550km to detect and track conventional multifunction fighter jets and 350km, targets of low visibility.
YLC-8B is operating in UHF-Band . YLC-8B antenna fold-able array is designed for automatic, rapid deployment and recovery.
The YLC-18 radar, developed by the 14th Institute of Electrical Sciences of China, is high maneuverable three-coordinate low altitude blind compensation radar with outstanding performance. It can be used not only as a low-altitude target detection radar and medium-altitude surveillance radar to build a radar intelligence network, but also as an anti-aircraft artillery force or surface-to-air missile force target indicator radar.
YLC-18 radar is mainly used to detect low-altitude and medium-altitude aircraft, armed helicopters or cruise missiles. It has a good detection probability for low and small targets.
The YLC-18 radar antenna can elevate, so that it can detect low altitude flying objects, radar antennas high-speed rotation, in a short period of time is also one of the secrets of the radars low altitude detection capability. YLC 18 has high measurement accuracy and strong ECCM capability.
Operating frequency : EF-band
Range : ≥ 250km
Height : ≥ 12,000m
Elevation : 0º ~ 35º
Azimuth : 0º ~ 360º
Azimuth Accuracy : ≤ 0.3º
Range Accuracy : ≤ 100m
Height Accuracy : ≤ 600m (within 200km)
MTBCF : ≥ 1,000 hrs
MTTR : ≤ 30 mins
YLC-18A is a Long Range Three Dimension Low Altitude Blind Compensation Radar.
The YLC-18A is basically low and medium altitude target detection and surveillance radar that can also be used as a Surface to Air Missile (SAM) target indicator and Anti-Aircraft Artillery Force. It is equipped with the new Giga Flops Digital Signal Processor and it is capable of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processing and Digital Moving Target Indication (DMTI). YLC-18A Radar System is characterized by the high maneuverability and high speed technology, which can be ready on a short notice. The Radar Antenna can easily be elevated to scan the low altitude terrains. It has a Range of 200 Kilometers in Complex and Hybrid Electronic Warfare Environment.
Frequency : Three Dimension Radar
Band : L-Band
Azimuth : 360°
Scanning Tech : Pencil Beam Scan & Phased Array System
MAX Range : >500 Kilometers
Height : <500 m(R: <200km); 750 m(R: 300km)
Resolution Range : <100 Meters
Total Elevation Range : 0.50 – +200
Signal Processor : Advanced Programmable Digital Signal Processing
Signal Transmitter : Distributed High Power Solid-State Transmitter
Rated Power Output : 5.5 KW
Peak Rated Power : 85 KW
JL-3D 90 A
JL-3D-90A is L-band 3-D airspace surveillance radar. This is fully coherent, 3D radar with a low side-lobe, planar, phased array antenna.
The radar may be used for civil and friendly air traffic management, detection of hostile aircraft. It may have an IFF sub-system integrated to determine the friendliness of targets in flight.
JL3D-90A employs a radio frequency (RF) agile transmitter with a klystron amplifier chain and a low-noise linear receiver using digital pulse compression techniques to achieve long-range detection with good target discrimination. Adaptive digital signal processing is employed with comprehensive BITE. Monopulse sum/difference height measurement is employed with automatic target extraction and adaptive signal processing. Target processing capacity is 100 tracks for every antenna scan (10secs). The antenna cover diagram for a probability of detection of 80% against a radar cross section of 2m2.
Range : 300km
Altitude : 20,000m
Range accuracy : 150m
Altitude accuracy : 500m
Azimuth accuracy : 0.25°
Range resolution : 90m
Azimuth resolution : 1.5º
Peak power output : 700kW.
JYL-1 is a long-range S-Band 3D air surveillance radar. . Between 2005 and 2013 Venezuela bought 12 pieces of these radar systems to replace two older AN/TPS-70 radars. It functions in the E/F-band region and might be used as either a military or commercial asset for air traffic control and management purposes. The JYL-1 radar system is capable of providing the effective detection and tracking of targets in the complicated electromagnetic and severe clutter environments, primarily serving as a backbone sensor in an integrated air defense network.
JYL-1 can function as, Air surveillance within the area of responsibility, accurate target detection and location; quickly acquire target 3D information, Automatic target tracking, and Continuous reports of target plots/track data etc.
It can operate reliably in any weather conditions. JYL-1 can perform efficiently in intense electronic attack scenarios thanks to its excellent ECCM performance.
Frequency band : S band
Coverage instrumental range : 450 km
Coverage height : 30000 m
Coverage elevation : 30°
Coverage azimuth : 0° to 360°
Measurement accuracy (RMS) range : 100 m
Measurement accuracy (RMS) azimuth : 0.3°
Measurement accuracy (RMS) height : 600 m
Resolution range : 200 m
Resolution azimuth : 1.5°
Deployment time : 30 min by 6 persons
Withdrawal time : 20 min by 6 persons
Transport mode : by air, road, and rail
Number of transportable unit : 3
JYL-1A is long-range 3D surveillance radar first unveiled at China international Defense Electronic Exhibition 2014. JYL-1A is a new-generation S-waveband multifunction and multi-task radar with integrated capabilities of air defense early warning, anti-missile early warning, gun position detection and adjustment and airspace control.
JY-11 is 3-D air surveillance radar and is mainly used as to provide medium to low altitude target-indication for AAA battery or SAM unit. It is an F-band radar with an integrated D-band IFF sub-system. It is often used as a gap-filler for a regional air defense network. The radar uses a phased array that scans electronically in elevation while rotating in azimuth. The electronic beam deflection is performed by a frequency scanning array.
The JY-11 radar uses 14 different beams to cover an elevation range of 30º. Two of the beams are used for wide area detection, and four layers of each 3 beams serve to cover medium ranges.
The radar provides high side lobe attenuation, high immunity to interference and a constant false alarm rate. The mobile system is composed of an antenna/transmitter unit, radar electronic and operator shelter, and a supply shelter containing a diesel generator set which can be transported with a total of 3 trucks. It is transportable by land, sea or air (C-130, CH-53). Deployment and withdrawal are largely automated within 20 minutes.
Facilities and capabilities include a narrow-beam, low side lobe antenna with dual, slow-wave structure enabling the radar to operate over two sub-frequency bands separated by 100 MHz, which overcomes the disadvantage of weak anti-active jamming capability in a single band. Digital pulse compression with a relatively low power output, across a large dynamic range, is achieved by a fully coherent highly reliable frequency synthesizer.
This radar was first declared (as HUNTER1) at the International Radar Symposium in Munich 1998, where it was stated to be a highly mobile, solid-state, frequency-scanning, target indication radar. For mobility it locates very quickly piggy-back fashion on a flat-back 4x4 truck.
Band : F Band
Detection Range : >180Km
Detection Altitude : 15000m
Azimuth : 0-360
Resolution Range : 200m
Resolution Azimuth : 2.5
Peak Power Output : 13.5Kw
MTBF : 800hrs
MTTR : 0.5Hrs
JY-11B is a self-propelled version of JY 11 with enhanced accuracy and maximum range. It is a low-altitude, 3D, S band, solid state, highly mobile air surveillance radar. It adopts novel design concepts of reconfigurable transmitting beam shape and BFU (beam forming unit) receiving beams with advanced technology incorporated to provide low-altitude target detection, precision 3-D target reports, powerful ECCM, good site adaptability and strong survivability.
JY-11B can raise its antenna which is mounted on a hydraulically controlled tower to improve the radar coverage against targets flying at very low altitude, JY 11B is design to carry out most reliable missions and an effective detection & tracking of low flying targets in extremely sophisticated EW environment.
JY 11B radar can function as Ultra low altitude air surveillance and detection, medium range air coverage, Automatic target detection and tracking, target designation to weapons systems etc.
It features high mobility, long distance fast deployment and replacement because of its automation, powerful stand alone operation capability, excellent low altitude capability, powerful ECCM performance etc.
It employs ‘reconfigurable’ transmission beams and Digital Beam Forming (DBF) for reception to provide low-altitude and good sea-surface detection, with modern processing techniques including AMTI and pulse Doppler sampling.
Operating Frequency : E/F Band
Detection Range : 3- 260Km
Ceiling Height : >12000m
Elevation Range : 0-35
Azimuth Range : 0 – 360
Resolution Range : 100m
Azimuth Accuracy : 0.3Degree
Deployment : 10min by 4 persons
MTBCF : 1000hrs
MTTR : 0.5hrs
JY-50 is passive 2-D radar that uses the electromagnetic signals transmitted by distributed radio frequency stations around itself, including civilian mobile phone, radio, and television broadcasts, to perform the detection, location, and tracking of airborne targets including electromagnetic silence targets (Stealth aircraft). JY-50 radar mainly accomplishes air defense warning mission to important direction and sensitive areas. The antenna is an array of two rows of 12 inverted Vee elements backed by a reflective grating.
SLC-7 is L-band active phased-array long-range surveillance radar. Its primary vocation is medium altitude and medium distance air surveillance against targets such as aircraft, cruise missiles and guided munitions. This radar is intended as a sensor for long-range surface to air defense control stations. The SLC-7 makes its first public appearance at the China Air Show 2016.
SLC-7 radar integrating mechanical scanning with advanced phased array antenna technology. The SLC-7 radar was developed by Nanjing Research Institute of Electronic Technology . The radar is claimed to be capable of detecting stealthy aircraft or unmanned aerial systems at distances of over 450 km with a high degree of success. It can also be used to track ballistic missiles.
609 Intelligence Radar
The ‘609 Intelligence Radar’ was unveiled by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at the recent Airshow China 2018 exhibition in Zhuhai, although the company has stated that it is also offering an export-variant of the radar. While the performance specifications remain classified, it is said to be capable of providing early warning of stealth aircraft, ballistic missiles, and near-space threats.
The 609 radar is believed to be a core asset within China’s extensive air defence network, and can be easily integrated to existing air and sea combat systems to boost their interception potential.
JY 26 (Sky Watch)
JY-26 is a long-range three dimension early warning and guiding radar with duel frequency and super large aperture anti-stealth capabilities.
In November of 2014, China's JY-26 radar went through its paces at the Tenth Zhuhai Airshow. Its warning detection distance is 600 km under air defense and up to 800 km if tracking ballistic missiles. It can be carried by sea or air, and assembled by a team of ten people in an hour.
Operating in the long wave band – VHF/UHF enables the JY-26 to detect targets presenting low radar cross section (stealth aircraft) at the decimetric, centimetre and millimetre wave bands. The use of phased array technology also provides users the ability to increase the power transmitted at a certain location where a target presence is suspected, thus increasing the probability of detection of low-RCS targets. The manufacturer also claims the radar is designed with robust anti-jam and electronic counter-countermeasures, enabling it to face strike forces conducting advanced anti-access/area denial (a2/ad). According to media reports, China has deployed the JY-26 in Shandong Province and used it to monitor F-22 stealth fighters over the Korean Peninsula.
JY-26 can track 500 targets simultaneously. JY-26 UWB-radar is similar to America’s 3DELRR solution in appearance. An unusual feature is the bubble surface of the radar, which looks similar to Lockheed Martin's offering in the Three Dimensional Expeditionary Long-Range Radar (3DELRR) but JY 26 has less transmitting and receiving modules.
JY26 got Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) in 2015. JY-26 radar has been designed to operate in high clutter and jamming environments with high accuracy. The radar system has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility.
JY-27 wide mat radar of the Chinese manufacturer CETC is a fully solid-state and fully coherent long-range early warning system. It is designed and developed to provide early warning information and detect low-observable air targets. . Besides, it provides the early warning information for weapons system as well. JY 27 radar is claimed to detect stealth aircraft up to 500 km radius. The radar is mounted on a mobile platform which enables it to move away after detecting the enemy aircraft, thus avoiding counter-measures. The radar is mounted on a mobile platform which enables it to move away after detecting the enemy aircraft, thus avoiding counter-measures.
China had revealed new radar at the 2016 Zhuhai air show. Called the JY-27A 3-D, it is a Very High Frequency (VHF) active phased array radar. The newer one antenna design is clearly influenced by the 1L13 Nebo SV “Box Spring” and 1L119 Nebo SVU. The radiating elements are horizontally polarized.
JY 27A has two versions (need confirmation) the first one is belied to be VHF band JY-27A radar can detect F-22 and F-35 fighters 500 kilometers away, and UHF band JY-27A radar can detect such targets in 300 kilometers.
JY 27A is an all-round digital array active phased array radar with agile wave beam scanning and strong task scheduling and resources management capabilities, which make it a strong multi-task and multifunction radar with much greater maneuverability and reliability in carrying out its tasks.
It adopts a series of new technology such as super resolution height measuring that is commensurate with complicate topography, continuous vertical coverage of air space and integrated anti-jamming technology. Such technologies enable it to overcome the traditional shortcomings of meter-wave radar that fails to cover low elevation, monitor airspace continuously or to measure the height of a target.
The JY-14 (domestic designation: LLQ302, formerly known as: 384) is a medium to long range air defense radar . It is capable of detecting multiple targets within its range and determines their parameters, tracking them even through surface clutter and ECM jamming. It utilizes a frequency-agile mode with 31 different frequencies, has a large band of ECCM operating parameter frequencies, and uses linear FM compression. This system can simultaneously track up to 100 targets and can feed the data to missile-interceptor batteries. It can track targets flying as high as 75,000 feet and 186 miles in distance. The JY-14 system has been in production since 1998. The JY-14 can be upgraded to a more powerful power supply, giving it a wider range. This has been seen only in China so far, where multiple stations are tied together with the air defense system.
The system is notable for having wideband frequency diversity and adaptive pulse-to-pulse agility, enabling it to track even the most morphic radar signatures. It is the most common ground radar in China, and is rapidly being exported to other countries. The radar features excellent anticlutter and antijamming ability, as well as very good adaptability and automatization. Incorporated techniques include dual pulse frequency diversity, pulse-to-pulse frequency agility over a wide frequency band, adaptive MTI and CFAR techniques, and an advanced computerized BITE technique.
Range: 590 km
Frequency diversity interval: 150 MHz
Wind resistance capacity: 25 m/s, normal operations, 25 - 35 m/s, operations with degraded performance, > 35 m/s.
High gain, low sidelobe and vertically offset multibeam antenna
Full coherent high power transmitter, multi-element modulator assembly
High stability, frequency synthesiser
Low noise, wide frequency band, large dynamic range and frequency diversity multichannel receiver
Adaptive threshold, automatic clutter map
YLC-29 passive surveillance radar system that can detect targets through its reflection of civilian FM radio signals. It may supplement other radar systems in Chinese inventory. Chinese media claims it is superior to the Czech-made Vera-E system in terms of real-time tracking. It uses widely distributed civilian radio frequency-modulated signals to detect, locate and track targets moving through the air - including stealth planes - without being detected, which greatly improves the system's viability and anti-jamming ability, according to CETC's official WeChat account.
According to the data provided by China Electric Power Group, the detection distance of YLC-29 is not particularly far, and its role is not the "anti-stealth" imagined by people, but it is still of great value to the civil air defense system. At the same time, the detection distance of the system is about 200 kilometers. According to the brief introduction provided by China Electrical Science, the system can detect, locate and track the moving target in the air by receiving the FM broadcasting signal reflected by the moving target in the air.
Frequency coverage: 85 MHz-110 MHz
Coverage: 40,000 square kilometers (converted, detection radius equivalent to 177 kilometers) (Target characteristics: radar cross-section area of 3-5 square meters, detection probability 0.5)
Vertical angle of detection: 0~40 degrees
Ranging accuracy is less than 800 meters.
The accuracy of direction finding is less than 1.5 degrees.
Target detection capability: more than 200 batches.
Deployment mode: automatic retracting and erection time is less than 20 minutes.
Over The Horizon Radars
A number of OTH-B and OTH-SW radars are reportedly in operation with China. Few details are known of these systems. However, transmission from these radars causes much interference to other international licensed users.
OTH-B Over-The-Horizon Backscatter Radar
OTH-B radars are bistatic systems; this is where the transmitter and receiver use different antennas at widely separated locations to achieve detection results. The importance of these systems is that they are not limited by line of sight, as are most radars, but they do require a very significant amount of processing power. This was the limiting factor with early Chinese OTH systems, but may no longer be the case. Backscatter systems function at the upper end of the High Frequency (HF) band, typically between 12 and 28 MHz. Because of the very long wavelengths involved, to be efficient, the antenna arrays are extremely large.
The Chinese OTH backscatter (OTH-B) radar is to provide surveillance of the South China Sea. The precise location of this facility has not been released. China is reported to have developed its first OTH-B radar back in 1967, although its designation is not known .It was stated that a full-scale development program into an OTH-B radar system was being carried out in China during November 1986. A ground-based OTHR named Type-110, an operational drill is being conducted for processing the received signal data from the targets in the East China Sea Fleet OTH-B radar station
China's OTH-B is said to use Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) transmissions to enable Doppler measurements, the suppression of static objects and the display of moving targets.
On 14th November 2001 www.china.com reported that CEIEC was (then) developing new OTH radar.
OTH –B Site Locations (Tx & Rx) in Hubei Province
Transmitter site: 32°20'11.28" N 112°42'29.56" E
Receiver site: 31°37'09.15" N 111°55'07.52" E
There are 3 groups of transmitter antenna array at this site, therefore theoretically, at least 3 radar signals and on 3 different radio frequencies can be transmitted from this site simultaneously.
Each group of antenna array can also be divided and used by multiple transmitters, so that more radar signals can be sent out from this site simultaneously.
In this site group of transmitter antenna array #1, consisting of 8 high-gain large log periodic antennas (LPA) for low to high frequency operations.
The 4 equipment rooms on the left might be accommodating 4 (or more) high power HF transmitters and phase combining network in order to provide the maximum transmitter output power. An array of 8 LPAs also provide higher antenna gain and plus high transmitter output power for the maximum effective radiating power (ERP).
The transmitters in the 4 equipment rooms and the 8 LPAs can also be divided and used individually, or in different paired combinations for multiple carrier/frequency operations. Actual signal analysis shows that the transmitters and LPAs are paired for 2 carriers/frequencies operations.
Project 2319 Tianbo [Sky Wave] Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar [OTH-B]
Sky wave over the horizon radar has a range of 1000 to 4000 km. China's sky-wave system radar system can detect U.S. aircraft and ships at a long distance from the coastline of the country.
Sky wave radar and ground wave radar collectively referred to as OTHR. OTHR has two basic types: the use of ionospheric shortwave reflection effect so that radio waves to the distant radar, known as sky-wave over-the-horizon radar; the use of longwave, medium and shortwave diffraction effect in the Earth's surface so that radio waves Radar spread along the curve, known as the ground wave over-the-horizon radar. OTHR is one of the technologies that Western countries have imposed on China's major blockades and embargoes. The former Soviet Union had only given some guidance to China theoretically, and China's own world of radar has truly reached its combat readiness level based entirely on China itself.
The first Chinese OTH-B radar receiver at Sanlichong, Nanzhang, near Xiangyang, Hube Province was completed in June 2007, while the transmitter was just beginning at the same time. The radar transmitter, about 100 km to the North-East of the receiver, is managed by Team No. 52 of Unit 95980 and is located 25km north of Zaoyang City, near the Zhouquiao reservoir.
In January 2016 it was reported that China Tianbo over-the-horizon radar had entered the end of the trails, is about to be delivered for use, and set up the corresponding Tianbo Brigade. This shows that the Chinese military is vigorously developing the Tianjun. At present, it is directly responsible for the headquarters. Henri Kenhmann of EastPedulum reported 18 January 2017 that "The satellite images as of December 31, 2016 show that China has started the construction of a second trans-horizon radar (OTH-B), like the first one that was built in the center of the country and able to spot its targets over a distance of more than 3,000 km..... unlike the first Chinese OTH-B radar that targets the wide area between the coast East of China to the second chain of islands, that is to say, to Guam, where is the largest US military base in the Western Pacific, this second trans-horizon radar covers the entire peninsula of Korea, and a large majority of Japan, from Hokkaido Island in the north to Okinawa Island in the south."
Chinese state media reported 15 March 2017 that China had installed another over-the-horizon Tianbo radar in Inner Mongolia. Its main objective was detecting an opponent's missile launch and the localization of an intercontinental ballistic missile. Within a minute, Tianbo can confirm the target to strike, as it detects the launched missile.
The over-the-horizon radar, which was installed in January 2017, has a range of about three-thousand kilometers, enabling it to detect not only South Korea and Japan but even the Western Pacific. According to the Chinese media, the Tianbo radar can also detect U.S. F-35B stealth fighters deployed at the Iwakuni base in Japan. It can also monitor aircraft carriers and warships within its radius.
The receiver for the second site is located at Darhan Muminggan, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the configuration of the first site, the transmitter for the second site might be expected to be found in the vicinit of Naomugeng Sumu, Siziwang, Ulanqab, Inner Mongolia. There is some sort of larger military-type tower at this location, which is at the intersection of two highways in an area that is otherwise the epitome of a trackless wasteland.
CEIEC Surface Wave-OTH (SW-OTH) Radar
The surface wave radar is another branch of the HF OTH-B radar and has been researched and developed since 1967.The range of ground-wave over-the-horizon radar is short, but it can monitor the area that cannot be covered by sky-wave over-the-horizon radar. It is designed to detect ships and low attitude aircraft outside the coastline. The maximum detection range of the surface wave radar system is no more than 400 km and it is used for local area defense. It also collects good quality clutter and tidal information. The price for this radar system is relatively low compared to HF OTH-B radar system. Based on the geographical location of China, the potential outside threat weapon would be further away compared to the 400 km distance detected by the surface wave OTH radar.
This system, albeit undesignated, is currently being promoted for export by CEIEC. Two antenna arrays are shown. The single mast may support a rhombic transmission array whilst the reception array of dipoles appears to be arranged across a bay.
OTH RADAR - Surface Wave Sites
System 1: (Zhejiang)
Pulse bandwidth: 50 kHz
PRF: 42 Hz
Frequency logged: 5MHz
System 2: (Fujian)
PRF: Frequency logged: 5MHz
System 3: (Hainan)
Modulation: Pulse bandwidth:
PRF: Frequency logged: 5 MHz
TX site: Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Fuzhou, Fujian, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antennas (LPA, single antenna).
This is the only transmitter antenna configuration in the radar network, only one LPA
is used per one transmitter.
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Zhangpu, Fujian, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Guangdong, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
Construction took place in 2014 to relocate the Control and RX sites that are close to a nearby developing industrial park.
According to radio frequency observation, the co-located transmitters can be operated simultaneously, and the networks normally operate below 10 MHz.
Normally, all the Chinese OTH-SW radars will be up at the same time using different frequencies, and their OTH-B radars will be operating simultaneously.
Pulse Doppler Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (PD-OTH-B) Radar
Another branch of China OTH-B radar is Pulse Doppler OTH-B (PD-OTH-B) radar. In order to fulfill the performance of bistatic OTHR, the synchronization is a critical issue to deal with. Based on the Pulse Doppler (PD) technique, the system can successfully solve the synchronization problems of time, phase and spatial processing and handle sophisticated two dimensional (2D) signal processing techniques of ranging and speed measuring. The detection range of single PD-OTH-B radar is between 700 and 3,500 km with coverage up to six million km2 in a 60o azimuth sector. PD-OTH-B radar can counter low altitude penetrating bombers, have early warning ability against intercontinental ballistic missiles and deployed long range surveillance ships. The resolution of the PD-OTH-B radar to detect aircraft is 2.5o in azimuth, 20-40 km in range and 0.3 Hz in Doppler frequency. The transmitter and receiver sites of the experimental radar are both located in the middle of China. The radar beam points to the north-west region of China. A coherent transponding site is set up at the place 1,486 km away from the receiver location for the calibration, the discrimination of ionosphere mode, and the determination of sub-clutter visibility (SCV) of 55 to 60 dB.
Chinese Ground based Long-Range Early Warning System
China has also developed long-range early warning radar system, similar to that of the US PAVE PAWS. The long-range radar system is able to detect targets 5,500 kilometers away. It can be used to direct the People's Liberation Army's air defense missiles to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Such systems are established at space monitoring station in Heilongjiang province in the northeast region of China, another one with similar facilities in Xinjiang in China's northwest and another one in Fujian in the southeast. The warning system in Xinjiang is apparently designed to monitor Siberia while the one in Fujian at check Alaska and Japan.
These radars given a comprehensive anti-ballistic missile defense capability to China.
Chinese work on LPARs began in 1970. They were intended to catalogue space targets and provide for early warning of missile attacks. The MEI's 14th Institute [the Nanjing Institute of Electronic Technology], located in Nanjing, and is China's leading organization for phased array radar development. A number of Chinese technical papers have appeared in Western publications concerning phased array radar operations, but open sources were extremely vague, until recently, on the details of Chinese LPAR developments.
As early as 1958, 14th Institute director of Shen Zhongyi began to organize ultra-long-range radar research. In 1959 the Insitute developed simulation radar, for the first time received a 380,000 km from Earth, the strong echoes. The 14th Institute research base made variety of new radar technological breakthroughs. In 1965, demonstration projects began on 640-4 and in 1966 officially launched the project consisting mainly of two radars: 110 single-precision tracking radar pulse remote (referred to 110 radar) and 111 phased array early warning radar (later called the 7010 Radar). The 640-4 early warning system work is limited to ground-based radar system, not only serving the anti-missile project, but also serve other aerospace projects, such as targets for the outer space cataloging and strategic early warning experiments.
The 640-4 project began phased array radar research. The 40 meter X 20 meter radar antenna was built into the Huangyang Mountain slope 1,600 meters above sea level in Xuanhua, Hebei Province, about 140 kilometers northwest of Beijing. On 25 January 1970, 14th Institute conducted a full mobilization, and launched a comprehensive development of 7010 tasks. Engineering and technical personnel participated in the 7010 Project, without a break Chinese New Year, to engage in research topics assault trials and demonstration program, this campaign was working at the same time in all regions of the fraternal support units. In May 1970, the CMC issued to the Fourteenth Institute a phased array early warning radar research task 7010.
P-band Strategic Large Phased Array Radar
Established at an unknown space monitoring station in Heilongjiang province in the country's northeast, the long-range radar system is able to detect targets 5,500 kilometers away.
The main task of the P-band long-range early warning phased array radar is to intercept and track strategic missiles and predict the trajectory with the information it can support the missile early warning satellite. The early warning radar detects the incoming missile as soon as possible and provides sufficient interception system Reaction time to various SAM systems in the Chinese inventory.
In September 2017 at the Beijing Exhibition Hall the "five years of endeavor" exhibit was held in large-scale achievement exhibition. This featured first public display of the domestic P-band long-range strategic early warning phased array radar. It is part of China's effort to build a new generation of network information systems, part of the military's long-range anti-missile and strategic information warning core equipment.
On 08 October 2017 CCTV reported on the large-scale achievements exhibition "Five Years of Striving for Endeavor" a huge radar displayed. This is a large domestic P-band large-scale radar array.
Analysts pointed out that this P-band radar has a height of 10 floors, a width of 35 meters. It belongs to a long wave radar, the working frequency band 30 ~ 300MHz, the wavelength is 1m~10m - specifically, a frequency of 250-500 MHz and a 1.2 meters to 60 cm wavelength. The use of more than 12,000 T/R components forms a large radar array with a diameter of 30 meters and a detection range of more than 5000 km.
By deploying such large-scale radar around the country, China can easily monitor the entire eastern hemisphere region and build a powerful surveillance network for China.
The P-band long-range early warning phased array radar's main mission is the missile early warning satellite information support, the strategic missile capture and tracking, and trajectory prediction. As is well known, ballistic missiles have the characteristics of fast speed, long range and small radar reflection area. It is very difficult to find the target in time only by the radar of the interception system. Therefore, the early warning radar is required to find the incoming missile as early as possible and provide sufficient Reaction time.
The radar system is phased array, the function distance is more than 3,000-kilometer, the working frequency is low, the general work is in P band, the antenna diameter is large, the effective working diameter is more than 20 meters; the peak power reaches MW; the signal pulse is wide, and the signal processing mode is pulse stamping and accumulation.
This long-range early warning phased array radar uses the relatively rare P-band. Compared to the UHF band, the P-band keeps the detection distance far away, and is more accurate than the UHF band. P-band between VHF band [214–236 MHz] and L-band [1250-1380 MhZ], frequency range 230~1000 MHz even covers the UHF band [425-610 MhZ]. L-band is also a very popular early warning radar band. The P-band wavelength is longer, so the absorption of the atmosphere is small, in the atmosphere of the propagation of signal attenuation, signal strength, detection distance is therefore farther. The P-band belongs to the meter-wave band, with high price/performance ratio, low manufacturing difficulty, multipurpose/multi-target detection, which is the main reason of choosing P-Band of China's domestic long-range early-warning radar.
Its performance is estimated by Chinese sources to exceed the PAVE PAWS radar deployed in Taiwan, and the next generation PAVE PAWS, the United States BMEWS phased array early warning radar, is comparable.
X-band Large Phased Array Radar
In addition to the P-band radar equipped this time, China has also established several large phased array radar arrays to meet the early warning needs of the Chinese team's strategic missiles. In Heilongjiang, China, a non-rotatable 30X24-meter large X-band radar station was established. The main task of this X-band radar is to carry out target interception, tracking and identification with the information support of the P-band long-range early warning phased array radar, and to provide accurate early warning target information for Hongqi-19 and Kinetic-3( other SAM systems also) missile interception systems.
The X-band corresponds to a wavelength of 3 cm. and has a frequency range between 8–12 gigahertz. A radar operating in the P-band [UHF band with Chinese characteristics], can sweep a broad space at a range of several thousand kilometers, acquiring and tracking incoming threat objects. The narrowly focused X band radar can focus on a specific object, and could be used to determine which objects are a threat and which are decoys. The higher-frequency X-band radar is more accurate than UHF, and can concentrate energy on a target to make successful detection and tracking more likely.
According to a statement by the CETC group, a new radar, "important and the first of its kind in China," was admitted to active duty on September 27, 2016. The exact type of radar was not disclosed by the text, but it specifies that it is a "historical" moment and an "important step in the construction of the overall system of the field". The text adds that several years were necessary between the design, construction, testing, calibration and the first experimental exploitation of the site. The importance of this inauguration can also be illustrated by the fact that the Director of the ECCC Institute No. 14 - one of the two most important radar research offices in the country - attended the ceremony with all development team. According to some sources familiar with the case, several top Chinese Air Force (PLAAF) officials and an early warning missile unit were also involved.
According to one of the academic papers written by researchers at CETC Institute No. 14, this radar is 30 meters in diameter and its operation requires that the flatness of the face of the radar be less than 3.8mm. As a result, the radar is cut into 60 rectangular dies of a dimension of 2 meters x 7.5 meters, ie a total area of 900m².
Possible LPAR Sites
Next Part will Cover Indian SAM Systems
Surface to air missile is a missile designed to destroy Aircrafts and other missiles. Surface-to-air missiles were developed to protect ground positions and ground troops from hostile air attacks. In modern warfare SAMs are turned out to be one of the most important assets for any country. Modern SAM systems are highly mobile, able to set up and pack away in minutes prior to and after firing. They are also supported by point-defense systems, electronic warfare assets and deception measures such as decoys. This makes them very difficult to reliably track, target and destroy from long ranges. They are also increasingly equipped with digital radars capable of frequency-hopping, offering much better resistance to jamming interference and also making them harder to detect when in operation.
In this article you can read about SAM systems and Radar systems of India and China. We are purposefully making Indian part short.
Chinese Air Defense Systems
China acquired, reverse engineered and developed a wide variety of air defense systems, most of them are older platforms and obsolete. Even though the latest generation Chinese air defense systems are very much capable and the recent addition of S400 system to Chinese inventory increased the lethality. The PLAAF possesses one of the largest forces of advanced long-range SAM systems in the world.
In this article we provided more details about HQ-9, HQ-16, HQ-19, mainly because they forms the backbone of Chinese air defense along with S-400. Information about the newest Chinese SAM/BMD such as HQ 22, HQ 26, and HQ 29 are scarce and misleading. Older Chinese SAM systems are possibly upgraded with latest technology still it is less capable compared to the newest systems , even though they are older they are working in a highly networked Chinese integrated air defense system makes it deadly for the adversaries.
The HQ-9 is a medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile. China claims HQ 9 is similar in capability to the Russian S-300 and American Patriot systems. The naval variant, HHQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant. HHQ-9 is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C Lanzhou class destroyer in VLS launch tubes. HQ-9 system likely has a limited capability to provide point defense against tactical ballistic missiles. The HQ-9 system is designed to track and destroy aircraft, cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles, and tactical ballistic missiles. The system was unveiled for the first time to the public during the military parade for the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Most land-based HQ-9 variants can hit targets at ranges of up to 200 kilometers and altitudes of up to 30,000 meters. While its single-shot kill probability is as high as 90 percent against airplanes, it may be much lower—about 30 percent—against ballistic missiles.
Each HQ-9 launcher contains four missiles stored in individual containers and is transported on Taian TA5380 8×8 high mobility chassis. The most basic formation of HQ-9 batteries consisted of one Type 305B search radar, one tracking radar, one 200 kW Diesel generator truck, and eight transporter erector launchers (TELs) each with 4 missiles, totaling 32 rounds ready to fire. These equipment's are usually mounted on Tai'an trucks. This basic formation can be expanded into more capable larger formation, with the addition of, TWS-312 command post, one site survey vehicle based on Chinese Humvee, one main power grid converter, additional transporter / loader vehicles with each vehicle housing four missiles. HQ-9 can use a variety of radar sensors to detect different targets, including ballistic missiles and stealth objects. A battery may include HT-233 engagement radar, H-200 mobile engagement radar, and a number of search radars like the Type 120 low altitude acquisition radar, Type 305A 3D acquisition radar, or Type 305B 3D acquisition radar.
In the Chinese Armed Forces, an HQ-9 battery includes a command vehicle(TWS 312), six control vehicles, 6 targeting radar vehicles, 6 search-radar vehicles, 48 missile-launch vehicles, and 192 missiles; plus a positioning vehicle, a communications vehicle, a power supply vehicle and a support vehicle. A battalion reportedly contains 8 missile launch vehicles.
Similar to the Russian S-300V HQ-9 is a two-stage missile. The first stage has a diameter of 700 mm and the 2nd stage 560 mm, with a total mass of almost 2 tons and a length of 6.8m. The thrust vector control (TVC) of HQ-9 is the most obvious visual identification that distinguishes it from S300V: TVC of HQ-9 is exposed and thus can be observed from the side, while TVC of S300V is not exposed. The system first used a missile in a box-like launcher canted at an angle, just like the MIM-104 Patriot. However the missile was very large because of China's limited experience with solid-fuel rockets in the 1990s. Due to Russian assistance and technology transfers, the missile and launcher are in their present form, a transporter erector launcher with missiles inside a cylindrical container.
Accompanying the land-mobile HQ-9 LR-SAM SAM batteries are the RWE-1 radio-frequency band active missile approach warning system (MAWS) and CETC-built TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communications systems. The MAWS is used for protecting LR-SAM batteries from attack by high-speed anti-radiation missiles, and is employed to trigger emitter shutdown and activation of active emitting decoys. The MAWS has a detection range of 40km/21.6nm. DF capability is via amplitude comparison between channels, providing 10-degree DF accuracy, adequate for cueing decoys, or cueing point-defense weapons to acquire, track and engage the inbound missiles. The TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communication system is deployed extensively to support LR-SAM batteries by providing digital connectivity to the integrated air defense network.
For point-defense of the HQ-9 battery, the Yi Tian wheeled self-propelled very short-range air defense system (VSHORADS) is employed. The system uses the WMZ-551 6 x 6 wheeled armored fighting vehicles on which there is a mast mounted Type-120 rotating planar-array low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) radar. Against a helicopter or non-stealth attack aircraft the radar provides surveillance out to 18km, tracking at 12km, and engagement at 10km. Against an inbound cruise missile the surveillance range drops to 8km. with the missile firing at 6km from an oncoming target. The eight SAMs are carried by a 4 x 4 vehicle carrying two square quad box launchers each containing a FB-6A short-range missile, plus a fire-control system comprising a CCD day/night sight, thermal imaging sight, and a laser rangefinder. The FB-6A can intercept a target with a maximum speed of 400 meters/second (1,440kph) and the reaction time is given as 8 seconds. A Yi Tian air-defense battalion comprises a battalion headquarters and three self-supporting air defense companies.
Warhead : 180 kg
Maximum speed : Mach 4.2
Maximum range : 200 km
Altitude : 30 km.
Detonation : Proximity fuses (effective range of 35m, goes active when the missile is 5km away from its target.
Guidance : INS, mid-course uplink, active radar homing.
Range : 100km (FT-2000), 200Km (FD 2000), 250Km (9A), 300Km (9B)
Speed : 4.2 Mach
Propulsion : Two Stage, Solid rocket motor
Launch Platform : Taian TA580/TAS5380 8×8 transporter erector launcher (TEL),Type 052C destroyer, Type 052D destroyer, Type 055 destroyer
To reduce the cost, the HQ-9 is designed to be flexible enough to employ a wide range of radars, both the search/surveillance/acquisition radar and the tracking/engagement/fire control radar (FCR). A battery of HQ-9 consists of 6 TEL trucks linked to HT-233 3D C-band mono-pulse planar phased array radar, under the control of a TWS-312 battery command post. It operates in the 300 MHz bandwidth and has a detection range of 120 km and a tracking range of 90 km. The radar can detect targets in azimuth (360 degrees) and elevation (0 to 65 degrees), and is capable of tracking some 100 airborne targets and simultaneously engaging more than 50 targets. Several search radars can be used with HQ-9, including anti-ballistic radars and anti-stealth radars, as the search radar Type 305B, the low altitude radar Type 120, the search radar Type 305A, the passive radar YLC-20 and the passive radar DWL002.
Many FCRs of other Chinese SAM can be used for HQ-9, such as FCR used in KS-1 SAM, SJ-212, itself an enlarged and improved version of the SJ-202 fire control radar (FCR) used in HQ-2J. H-200 & SJ-231 FCRs of latter models of KS-1 SAM are also compatible with HQ-9.
To maximize the combat effectiveness of HQ-9, a dedicated FCR for HQ-9 was developed, and it is most commonly seen with HQ-9. Designated as HT-233, this radar is the most advanced FCRs HQ-9 could employ, and it has greater similarities to the MIM-104 Patriot's MPQ-53 than the S-300's 30N6 (Flap-Lid) series, working in the NATO G-band (4–6 GHz) also as a search and targeting radar. This could be due to an alleged transfer of a Patriot missile to China from Israel. The radar can search a 120 degree arc in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation out to 300 km, with a peak power output on 1MW (average 60 kW). The radar is credited as being able to track 100 targets and guides up to 6 missiles to 6 targets, or alternatively, to 3 targets with a pair of missile for each target.
In comparison to earlier H-200 radar used by early models of KS-1 SAM which uses a simple horn instead of lens arrangement, HT-233 radar adopts lens arrangement of AN/MPQ-53. In comparison to SJ-231 radar used by the latest model of KS-1, HT-233 has a thousand more phase shifter on its antenna array, totaling four thousand, as opposed to the three thousand of SJ-231. In contrast, both AN/MPQ-53 & 30N6E radars have ten thousand phase shifters on their antenna arrays respectively.
HT-233 radar is mounted on Tai'an TAS5501 10 x 10 high mobility cross country truck, and operates in C-band at 300 MHz. When deployed as search radar TH-233 is fielded at brigade level, while FCR radars deployed would be SJ-212, H-200 or SJ-231. HT-233 is credited with a detection range of 120 km, scanning 360 degrees in azimuth and 0-65 degrees in elevation. It can track 100 targets and designate 50 for engagements.
Type 305A radar
Type 305A (also known as LLQ-305A) radar is search radar for HQ-9 system. This AESA radar is designed maximize the anti-ballistic capability of HQ-9, and it resembles Thales Ground Master 400 AESA radar. Very little info is released about this radar other than it can also act as fire-control radar. Type 305A 3D acquisition radar is unique and does not resemble any known Chinese radar designs. It is carried on the same Mercedes-Benz NG 80 derived chassis as the Type 120 and Type 305B radars.
Type 305A, most probably on based the same technology used in the KJ-2000 AWACS and KJ-200 AEW&C AESA radars. The antenna design physically resembles existing Western S-band AESAs such as the Thales Ground Master series, or the very much larger Israeli IAI/Elta EL/M-2080 Green Pine ABM radar series - reliable, difficult to jam, and difficult to locate, with agile beam-steering of the kind seen in US systems like the Aegis SPY-1. The depth of the primary antenna and its structural frame is typical for AESA designs in this category, using a stacked modular feed network arrangement; this is well documented in a number of Russian AESA designs.
The rear face of the antenna frame is largely occupied with voluminous equipment housings, of similar depth to the antenna frame itself, and of equal height. These would be consistent with the installation of low voltage AESA power supplies, cooling equipment, receiver, and exciter hardware.
Chinese sources have identified the radar as a long range 3D high altitude acquisition and search design, intended to support missile guidance applications. This type of functionality is consistent with a number of extant dual role acquisition radars, built to support long range acquisition of aerial targets at medium to high altitudes, and acquisition of Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) category targets.
Type 305B AESA radar
Type 305B (also known as LLQ-305B) radar is the standard search radar for HQ-9(and HQ 12). The Type 305B 3D acquisition radar appears to be a variant of the existing YLC-2V. Type 305B is a modern mechanically steered planar array with electronic beam-steering for height-finding. It is similar to a good number of US and EU radars in this category, but is built for greater mobility in the field, making it harder to engage and destroy.
305 B is 3-D radar which has an antenna height of 3.5 meters, and employs sixty 350 mm waveguide feeds. It operates in the S-band at a wavelength of 11.67 cm. Chinese sources describe this radar as optimized for search and acquisition of aerial targets. The principal distinction between the established YLC-2V and the Type 305B would appear to be the absence of the IFF/SSR array mounted across the top of the antenna.
The hydraulically folded antenna used with the Type 305B has 58 element rows and will employ frequency scanning like other radars in this family of designs. Row spacing suggests S-band operation, like the YLC-2V.
Type 120 radar
Type 120 (also known as LLQ-120) radar is the low altitude search radar, it is a telescoping radar with an antenna height of 2.3 m folded, and 7 m unfolded, using a feed network of sixteen 230mm wave guides. It rotates at a maximum of ten revolutions per minute, and operates in the L-band at a wavelength of 23.75 cm. Like the Belarus Vostok D/E series, it uses a hydraulically elevated mast to increase low altitude coverage. Use of L band clearly intended to improve detection range against stealth aircraft and cruise missiles, most of which are difficult to detect at operationally useful ranges in the S-band.
Type 120 is 2D low-altitude acquisition radar. 2D capability implies that the radar system acquires range and azimuth data on a given target, but not altitude data. As such, the Type 120 is best suited for a complementary role supporting other radar systems. The Type 120 is reportedly a derivative of the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 2D radar system. While no performance specifications yet exist for the Type 120, the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 generated 72 target tracks with an operational range of 200 kilometers. The more refined Type 120 may improve on these specifications, but they are a logical baseline.
YLC-20 passive sensor
The Chinese YLC-20 is conceptually based on the KRTP-91 Tamara, but incorporates both precision DF and DTOA capabilities to locate airborne and surface based emitters. YLC-20 is intended to detect, locate and identify:
It is likely that much of the YLC-20 design is based on documentation acquired during the abortive attempt to procure six Czech Vera E DTOA ELS systems. The YLC-20 was first disclosed in 2006.
DWL002 passive sensor
DWL002 passive detection system was displayed during the 9th China International Defense Electronics Exhibition in Beijing in May. DWL002 passive radar is incorporating Kolchuga passive sensor, four of which were sold to China. It comprises one master reconnaissance station and two slave stations. The systems can be expanded to four stations and outfitted on trucks. The DWL002 has a detection range of 400 kilometers for fighter aircraft and 600 kilometers for airborne early warning and control aircraft. According to some radar experts “Its range is limited by its parameter set and is most unlikely to achieve anywhere near 500 kilometers unless it is sited on a 10,000-foot mountain targeting aircraft at 30,000 feet,”
Chinese media says the system provides a target capacity of 100 batches and a range of detectable signal types including pulse, frequency agility, pulse duration, tactical air navigation system, distance measuring equipment, jitter/stagger radar, and identification friend or foe.
Chinese sources repeatedly claim DWL 002 as a credible counter to conventional stealth military aviation. The DWL002 is an emitter locating system (ELS) which partially iterates on innovations found in older Russian designs, including the KRTP Tamara series and ERA Vera-E. The DWL002 is a more advanced ELS compared to YLC-20 system .United States and other Western European countries have abandoned the use and development of passive-detection radar systems, citing poor accuracy.
DWL002 will have a likely range of around 400-500 kilometers and is comprised of three stations that operate in tandem, placed kilometers apart. The DWL002, if it lives up to its touted capabilities, would severely hamper stealth fighter-based attempts at establishing aerial control over Chinese territory provided Chinese air defense systems are operational. With the DWL002 ELS, Chinese air defense systems would be significantly more effective at detecting hostile stealth aircraft. Another claimed feature of the DWL002 is its ability to track aircraft without notifying pilots that they have been detected by radar.
DWL002 apart from its other ELS predecessors is it uses “paired primary wideband apertures, displaced in elevation.” The resulting phase and time differences between the upper and lower antennas permit height finding, otherwise problematic in earlier single aperture designs. The primary apertures are housed under cylindrical radomes, in an arrangement similar to the KRTP-91 Tamara and ERA Vera systems.
The lower primary aperture is on a telescoping mast, the upper primary aperture on the articulated folding main mast, which employs hydraulic actuators. Below the upper primary aperture is a package of steerable parabolic antennas, likely operating in the upper X-band or Ku-band. These are employed to provide high data rate links between the three or four networked DWL002 systems when deployed. The aft of the equipment container also mounts three Yagi antennas, the purpose of which has not been disclosed. It is most likely that these are employed for data linking target track data from the networked DWL002 systems to other air defence assets. The system is carried on a North Benz ND1260 (Mercedes-Benz NG 80) 6 x 6 military truck.
The strategic significance of the DWL002 is that it is the first DTOA technology ELS which has been designed from the outset with the intention of providing robust height finding capability when passively tracking an emitting target. The ability to generate near-real-time or soft real-time 3D target tracks would be especially valuable in supporting SAM systems like the S-300PMU2 or HQ-9, as this could be employed to cue the SAM engagement radar very precisely to the inbound target. Should the accuracy of the ELS be sufficiently high, it could be employed to generate post-launch midcourse tracking corrections for outbound SAMs.
The CETC brochure describes the system thus:
“DWL002 Passive Detection System, also called as passive radar, is mainly used in air-defense or seashore monitoring to perform the detection to perform the detection and location to airborne, ship borne or lands based emitters in complex electromagnetic environment and display the target flight path in real time. The system can also operate together with active detection system to form a mutual supplementary surveillance network.
Typical configuration of DVL002 Passive Detection 'system is composed of three reconnaissance stations. One of them serves as master station and the other two as slave stations. The system can be expandable to four station configuration with perfect performance of full spatial coverage and altitude information of air target. Each station is carried by an individual vehicle.
* Real-time & Accurate Location and Tracking
* Signal Analysis and Identification
* Long Range Detection and Early Warning
* Real Time
* Very Good Mobility
DWL002 Passive Detection System is a three station configuration (expandable to four station configuration). Each station including antenna and power generator is housed and carried by one vehicle. which ensures the good mobility of the system
* Remote Control
* Advanced techniques
Long base line time difference of arrival (TDOA) location technique combined with AOA: Wideband digitized receiver technique; Multilevel correlation processing technique with good flight track processing result: Automatic set up. Chassis leveling techniques and automatic north calibration technique to ensure fast deployment and flexible operation.”
HQ-9: Base Variant with TVM.
HHQ-9: Naval version. It appears to be identical to the land-based variant. It is used on modern Chinese guided-missiles destroyers. These missiles are launched from vertical tubes;
HQ-9A: Upgraded version, first tested in 1999 and service entry in 2001. Chinese sources claim that the HQ-9 family of systems employ much newer computing technology than imported Russian S-300PMU/PMU1/PMU2 systems, because HQ-9 is developed more than a decade later, thus allowing it to incorporate advancement in microelectronics. Due to the superior computing capability for signal processing, data processing and guidance support, this missile can have an optional semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode, because more info can be processed on board the missile itself. ). Improved electronic equipment and software provide the 9A with higher accuracy and probability of kill.
HHQ-9A: Ship-borne naval version of HQ-9A. Eight 6-cell vertical launch silos, of cylindrical shape and using "cold launch" method, mounted on the Type 052C destroyer (48 missiles in total). Naval variant identical to HQ-9A
HQ-9B: reportedly tested in February 2006. According to Jane's Information Group, this missile has a dual seeker that incorporates both SARH & infrared homing mode. Longer 300 km range; an additional seeker provides semi-active radar homing and infrared homing modes
HQ-9C: Currently under development, incorporating active radar homing mode. Currently in development; incorporates fully active radar homing.
FD -2000: Identical to original HQ-9, but designed for export with minor electronic improvements. First revealed in the 8th Zhuhai Airshow, the export version of HQ-9, providing extra anti-stealth capability by incorporating YLC-20 passive radar sensor as an option.FD-2000 made its name by once securing Turkish surface-to-air missile contract, later cancelled due to political reasons. FD2000's reaction time from radar contact to missile engagement is around 12–15 seconds. It covers an area of 49000 square kilometers. FD-2000 was on exhibition in Zhuhai Airshow 2014.
FT-2000: Anti radiation version that was the first model of HQ-9 family being completed. First revealed in 1998, FT-2000, which was designed engage airborne warning and control system (AWACS) and other electronic warfare aircraft at long ranges. Despite being regarded as the first of its kind in the world, the real effectiveness of the FT-2000 in operation was somehow doubtful. The missile caught great attention when it was first revealed in 1998, but did not enter production due to lack of interest from either domestic or international market.
The HQ-19 is a long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) intended to engage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites and ballistic missiles. The missile is planned to be deployed as part of the HQ-19 air defense system and the Type 055 destroyer in 2020. HQ-19 might “fill the midtier of China’s BMD network”.
HQ 19 is a vastly upgraded version of HQ-9. According to Chinese military sources, it is an equivalent of the American THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense). HQ-19 is armed with a dual purpose exosphere kinetic kill vehicle (kkv) warhead designed by a team led by Professor Zhou Jun, which can be used against ballistic missile warheads or satellites. Its first flight occurred in 2003. HQ-19 using active radar homing in the terminal phase. HQ 19 make use of the Indigenous radars including the JY-27A and JL-1A – the latter advertised as capable of precision tracking of multiple ballistic missiles – reportedly provide target detection for the system.
The HQ-19 will have a range of between approximately 1,000 and 3,000 km. It could potentially have a capability against intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBM), with ranges between 3,000 km and 5,500 km, under certain circumstances. China carried out a fourth land-based mid-course missile interception test within its territory on 05 February 2018 and "achieved the desired test objective".
HQ-19 system also includes multi-purpose solid phased array radar for early warning. It is reported that the X band phased array radar can detect targets at a distance of 4,000 km. The information is provided to the HQ-19 interception system via the command-and-control system.
On July 23, 2016, the suspected red flag -19 (HQ-19) made a public appearance. When introducing the PLA's missile test expert Chen Deming, the "military program" of CCTV disclosed the first land-based mid-flight anti-missile interception test screen and intercepted missile warheads. The paper published in China on Demand Analysis of Tactical Missile Power Units and the Development of Solid Rocket Engines suggests that the Red Flag-19 anti-missile system is intended to be targeted at India's 2,500-kilometer long - medium-range ballistic missiles and requires effective interception of 3,000 kilometers Range of medium-range ballistic missile reentry warhead ability.
According to another judgment, the HQ-19 kinetic energy interceptor uses a side-window infrared seeker similar to THAAD. The window design can reduce the impact of atmospheric friction and heat on the infrared sensor detection, giving the missile the interception capability in the atmosphere. Side-window infrared seeker gives the HQ -19 in the atmosphere high attack accuracy, and can use a lighter kinetic energy interceptor to increase the interceptor's shot height and range.
China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Second Institute developed the endo- and exo-atmospheric Red flag-19 anti-missile missiles, belonging to the People's Liberation Army ground-based missile defense system.
HQ 19 adopted a composite guidance system, which can be used to intercept ballistic missile reentry warhead within a range of 3000km. HQ-19 is equipped with high-acceleration solid engine, which uses carbon fiber shell and the application of in-situ synthesis of composite materials. The mass ratio is 0.85, with a firing duration of 260s and 60g maneuver ability to intercept the warhead target.
US Department of Defense was of the opinion that "an HQ-19 unit may have begun preliminary operations in western China".
SC-19 is the ASAT derivative of HQ 19. SC-19 using Kaituozhe-1 space booster as engine instead of the original engine used in HQ-9/19. Due to the size difference of engines, SC-19 also has to adopt a new launcher/transporter designated as KT-409. Like HQ-19, SC-19 can also be used to counter either ballistic missile or satellite on the lower end of low Earth orbits.
On 11 January 2007, China effectively destroyed its very own defunct weather satellite Fengyun-1C at 22:28 UTC. The missile used in the destruction was SC-19 ASAT missile having a kinetic kill warhead. The interceptor missile had been blasted off from a Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) vehicle located at Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The target for the test, Fengyun-1C weighing 750 kg was a weather satellite orbiting in Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit of 865 km. The satellite was launched in 1999 and was the fourth satellite in Feng Yun series.
China conducted additional SC–19 tests in 2010, 2013, and 2014. In each test, the SC–19 intercepted a mock warhead launched by a ballistic missile rather than a satellite. The HQ-19/ SC-19 are all right for medium-range missiles and LEO satellites, but for interception at higher altitudes, the Chinese are developing the Dong Neng missiles aimed at mid-course interception. Multiple tests of the DN system have taken place since 2010.
HQ 26 is believed to be the Chinese equivalent of SM-3 for naval deployment. HQ 26 is an upgraded HQ-9/19 equipped with a dual pulse solid rocket motor for the final stage like SM-3. Very little is known about this system. HQ 26 could equip Type 055 destroyer. Type 055 with HQ 26 is to deploy in the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific.
Macau-based military expert Antony Wong Dong told the South China Morning Post that the new generation sea-based HQ-26 anti-missile system will have a 2,174-mile range cruise missile and is likely to be installed on the country's largest destroyer–the Type 055.
HQ-29 is believed to be an equivalent to the American PAC-3 MSE / ERINT in terms of technology used, with engine upgrade for the final stage: instead of a single dual pulse solid rocket motor, HQ-29 is equipped with over a hundred tiny pulse solid mini rocket motors mounted in the forebody of the missile, but the exact number remain unknown due to lack of publicized information. Its first flight was achieved in 2011.
The development project would be launched in 2003; the technology of thruster and control combined active flight was controlled between 2005 and 2007. According to reports HQ 29 was supposed to induct in 2015.
To the kinetic interceptor with lateral impulse thrust and aerodynamic force, it is required to solve the problem of combined fire of motors for attitude control. First model of combined fire of motors for attitude control is developed, and then on the basis of this model a firing rule of attitude control motor is designed and an analysis on the energy consumption efficiency is made under the condition of different position distribution of attitude control motors, finally the simulation result proves the feasibility of this firing rule and have some reference in future.
The HQ-16 is a medium range semi-active radar homing surface-to-air missile. Development of the HQ-16 began in 2005 as a joint development with Russian company Almaz-Antey, based on the older Buk-M1 and Buk-2M Surface-to-air missile systems. In 2011, development was completed and the HQ-16 was officially inducted into service. This air defense system is mainly used to protect stationary assets such as airfields, command posts, concentration of troops, bridges, and other important targets. A typical battery comprises of four launch vehicles (with six launch tubes each), a command-and-control unit, two radar units, and a generator
Using advanced technologies, of intermittent illumination semi-active radar homing guidance, phased array radar, vertical cold launch (Navy) and radio communication network, the LY-80 can be operated under the environment of strong electro-magnetic interference and during all-weather conditions. . The HQ-16 is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers, filling the gap between the HQ-7 short-range SAM and the HQ-9 long-range SAM systems. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
According to the SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) arms transfers’ database, three units of the LY-80 were ordered by Pakistan in 2014 and delivered in 2015/2016. The Pakistan Army formally inducted the LY-80 (HQ-16) medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system on March, 12, 2017. In January 2018, Pakistani army has performed the first live firing with the LY-80 during the military exercise Al Bayza-2019.
A typical formation consists of one command vehicle, one search radar vehicle, 3 radar guidance vehicles and 12 launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle carries up to 6 missiles. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launch vehicles with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The launch vehicle is a Taian TA5350 6×6 high-mobility truck developed by Taian Special Vehicle Company. It is powered by a 250hp Deutz AG BF6M1015 turbocharged diesel engine produced under license in China. Standard equipment of the TA5350 includes a central tire inflation system that can be adjusted on the move from the driver's seat. The vehicle has a maximum road speed of 85 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km, and can climb a gradient of 60% and side slope of 30%. It can cross a vertical obstacle of 0.5 m, a trench of 0.6 m and has a fording depth of 1 m without preparation. Prior to firing, the wheels are lifted off the ground by 4 hydraulic jacks and the 6 missile canisters are tilted back to a vertical position. The missiles use a cold launch system.
A typical formation consists of one searching radar vehicle, one command vehicle, 3 radar tracking and guidance vehicles, 12 launcher unit vehicles, and missiles canisters. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launcher units with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The searching radar vehicle is equipped with solid-state an IBIS 150 S-band, 3D, PESA (passive phased-array radar) mounted on the top of a mast. When the target is detected, the searching radar vehicle performs automatic IFF (Identification Friend-or-Foe), threat judgment, flight path processing and provide target engagement information for the tracking-and-guidance radar. The S-band search radar has a range of 140 km and can detect targets flying at an altitude of 20 km. It can detect up to 144 targets and track 48 simultaneously.
The radar guidance vehicle is equipped with an L band PESA radar is mounted at the rear of the vehicle that controls the missile launching and target illumination after the missile is fired. The radar has a range of 85 km and can detect up to 6 targets, track 4 simultaneously and provide fire control for 8 missiles
Land Variant of HQ 16. The LY-80 (HQ16A) was introduced in the Chinese armed forces in September 2011. This is a land based version of the HQ-16 system used in ships and fired from Vertical Launch System (VLS) containers. The HQ-16A is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
HQ 16 B
In 2016, an upgraded version named HQ-16B was unveiled. Due to an improved rocket motor and revised wings, the range was increased to 70 km. The upgraded version also appeared to have a longer body and new designed wings. HQ 16B can target a wide range of airborne targets such as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise missiles, stealth airplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The HQ-16B missile is intended for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Type 054B class frigates and HQ-16 ground-based air defense systems.
LY-80 : Export version of the HQ-16A.
HHQ-16/16A : Naval variant of the HQ-16 with a range of 35 to 75 km.
HQ-16C/ HHQ-16D : an upgraded version of HQ6B, IOC 2018
HQ-16E/LY-80N : New ship-based version, launched from vertical system similar to Mark 41 Vertical Launching System.
Weight : 650Kg
Length : 5.2m
Diameter : 0.34m
Max Range : 40Km for aircrafts, 3.5 Km to 12 km for Cruise Missiles.
Kill Probability : 85 %( Aircrafts), 60% (cruise Missiles)
Guidance : SARH
It was reported that the naval variant of the missile was designed to intercept sea-skimming missiles that can fly less than ten meters above the surface.
In Service : 2011
Range : 40 km (HQ-16) 70 km (HQ-16B)
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Warhead : 70Kg, HE Fragmentation, Proximity fuze
Max Speed : mach 3
Flight Altitude : 15m to 18Km
HQ-2(Chinese version of S-75 Dvina)
The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. HQ-2 is an upgrade of the S-75.The HQ-2 has been China's primary air defense system for over forty years but since 2016 it is being replaced by the HQ-22 system.
HQ-1: Chinese version of SA-2 with additional ECCM.
HQ-2: Upgraded HQ-1 with additional ECCM capability. Upgraded HQ-2s remain in service today, and the latest version utilizes Passive electronically scanned array radar designated SJ-202, which is able to simultaneously track and engage multiple targets at 115 km and 80 km , respectively. The adoption of multifunction SJ-202 radar has eliminated the need to have multiple, single-function radars, and thus greatly improved the overall effectiveness of the HQ-2 air defense system. A target drone version is designated BA-6.
HQ-3: Development of HQ-2 with maximum ceiling increased to 30 km specifically targeted for high altitude and high speed spy planes. Maximum range is 42 km and launching weight is around 1 ton, and maximum speed in 3.5 Mach. A total of 150 built before the program ended and the subsequent withdraw of HQ-3 from active service, and the knowledge gained from HQ-3 was used to develop later version of HQ-2.
HQ-4: Further development of HQ-2 from HQ-3, with solid rocket engines, resulting in a two-thirds reduction of logistic vehicles needed for a typical SAM battalion with six launchers: from the original more than 60 vehicles for HQ-1/2/3 to just slightly over 20 vehicles for HQ-4. After 33 missiles were built, the program was cancelled, but most of the technologies were continued as separate independent research programs, and these technologies were later used on later Chinese SAMs upgrades and developments such as HQ-2 and HQ-9.
HQ-2J: Is anti-aircraft missiles mounted on the Type 77 transporter launcher. It is an upgraded version of the HQ-2 system.
Sayyad-1: Iranian upgraded version of HQ-2 SAM differs with the Chinese versions in guidance and control subsystems. Sayyad-1 equipped with an about 200-kilogram warhead and has speed of 1,200 meters per second.
The HQ-7 is a short-range air defense missile. The missile is deployed on both ships and land-based vehicles. The HQ-7 became PLAN's standard short-range air-defense SAM in the 1990s, and was used on Type 054 until superseded by the HQ-16 on the Type 054A frigate. The typical configuration is one 8-cell launcher, with stores of reload missiles in multiples of 8. Earlier versions required manual re-loading, while later variants have an auto re-loader that can be retracted under the deck. HQ-7 is deployed in hardened shelters. The PLA has mounted the HQ-7 on towed trailers.
The Naval HQ-7 uses a Type 360S E/F-band Doppler radar with a detection range of 18.4 km, connected to the ZJK-4 combat management system. The system is capable of processing up to 30 targets, and tracking 12 targets simultaneously. China revealed the export version, FM-80, in the 1989 Dubai Air Show.
Self-Propelled HQ 7
The 206th Institute has developed a 4x4 self-propelled version of the HQ-7. 4 x HQ-7 SAMs and a tracking radar system are mounted on a 4x4 vehicle, or towed vehicle.
In 1998, the China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNPMIEC) produced an improved HQ-7 with faster and longer-range missiles, with an IR-tracking camera. This version received the export designation FM-90.
The LY-60/FD-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64 is a family of Chinese missiles, largely based on the Italian Selenia Aspide missile - itself based on the American AIM-7 Sparrow missile. There are four versions of the basic design, three of which are surface-to-air and one air-to-air.
Development of the LY-60 was precipitated by the Chinese requirement for a beyond-visual-range (BVR) weapons system. Directly copying the AIM-7 proved unsuccessful, after which China purchased a number of Alenia Aspide missiles from Italy. Due to the urgent need for BVR air-to-air missiles, PL-11 was given the priority. The very first batch of PL-11 was an Aspide assembled in China, but using Italian components, and it was accepted into Chinese service in the same year. However, hopes of locally manufacturing the missile under license collapsed after the Tiananmen Square crackdown of 1989.
The PL-10 air-to-air missile was developed for the People's Liberation Army Air Force and is carried by Jian J-8B fighters. Although it was the first member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 series to be developed, it was actually the second member to become operational, after the HQ-6, the surface-to-air version.
The HQ-6 was the second member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 family developed. The entire SAM system consists of four truck mounted radars (one search/surveillance radar and three tracking/fire control radars), one power supply truck, and six transporter erector launchers (TEL) s. The missile itself is directly derived from the air-to-air version PL-11. Unlike the Italian Aspide which uses containers as launchers, HQ-6 uses missile launching rails (MLR) instead, and each truck-mounted launcher has two MLRs/missiles. It entered service before the air-to-air version PL-10, despite an earlier start by the PL-10.
Length : 5.99 m
Diameter : 134 mm
Wingspan : 1.23 m
Weight : 600 kg
Speed : Mach 1
Maximum Flight Speed : 150 meters per second
Maximum maneuvering overload: 5 g
Maximum maneuvering overloads [interception]: 1 g
Normal : 5 meters - 40 meters
Slant : 14 meters - 16 meters
LY 60 is a medium-low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. The system is mainly intended for the interception of military aircraft and missiles flying in medium-low altitude. It has a command control system with artificial interference capability thanks to the use of microprocessor intelligent module technology. In October 1994, the "Lieying (Falcon)-60," was deployed to China's air defense troops.
The "Lieying-60" search radar can simultaneously track up to 40 targets, and the tracking radar is able to simultaneously track 12 targets, and engage three targets at once. The use of the moving target tracking processing system and frequency agility technology also gives the system good anti-jamming capability. LY60 has a range of 18 kilometers and reaches a maximum altitude of 12 kilometers.
The Air Force version of the LY-60 is the FD-60 semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missile carried by the J8B fighter plane, which is very similar to the Aspide AAM of Italy in appearance
Naval version of LY 60 called as LY 60N. The LY60N SAM is being deployed in place of the HQ61 SAM used in the Jiangwei-class frigates. Compared with the HQ61 with a range of 12 kilometers and maximum altitude of 10 kilometers, The LY60N is installed in Jiangwei B-class frigates. Every launch system features a sextuple launchers and each launcher contains four LY60N missiles, for a total of 24 missiles. The wings of the LY60N are foldable. In comparison, the LY60 of the ground army version features quadruple launchers, each of its launcher contains one missile, and its missile wing is not foldable.
The system adopted as the ship borne vertically-launched air defense system of the Chinese Navy's "Luhai"-class missile destroyers, with at least eight vertical launch barrels with a total of 32 missiles.
In addition, the Shanghai Academy has also developed a portable ground-to-air version called the FY-60.
The HQ-64 is an improved version of the HQ-6, utilizing experience gained from LY-60, with firepower doubled by increasing the number of missiles for each truck mounted launcher from two to four, and by replacing the MLR mounting by missiles in container box launchers. Both the missile and TELs are directly developed from the LY-60. Although the missile is smaller than that of the HQ-6, the performance actually improved due to technological advances. HQ-64 passed state certification test and was accepted into Chinese service in 2001. The reaction time for the system in fully automated mode is 9 seconds and the maximum speed of the missile is increased to Mach 4. Other improvements is mainly concentrated on ECCM capability, and many Chinese internet sources have claimed that the HQ-64 is derived from HQ-6-4, meaning 4 missiles (for each launcher) version the HQ-6.
HQ-6D/ LY60D airport point-defense SAM
The HQ-6D is the latest development of the family, and it is basically a HQ-64 system with an addition of a command vehicle. Each command vehicle is able to command & control up to four HQ-64 batteries, thus linking up independent HQ-64 batteries to form an integrated air defense net work, and each HQ-6D network can in turn be integrated into larger air defense network. The standard time that the HQ-6D SAM system takes from travelling order to being ready to fire is less than 15 minutes, but a highly skilled crew can reduce this time to just 9 minutes.
Warhead : 33Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Range : 18Km
Guidance : SARH/ARH
The Hongqi-61 is the first generation Chinese Semi Active Radar Homing guided surface-to-air missile . It is classified by Chinese as a low-to-medium air defense missile, and the series includes both land-based and ship borne versions, and an anti-radiation version and air-to-air version (designated as PL-11) have also been developed. The naval and anti-radiation versions have been retired from Chinese service but PL-11, the air-to-air version and HQ-61A, the land-based mobile version are still currently in limited service with the Chinese military.
HQ-61B: The naval version of HQ 61 was designated as HQ-61B.
To improve the land-based air defense for Chinese ground force, China developed a mobile low-to-medium level surface-to-air missile based on HQ-61B, and named the mobile SAM system as HQ-61A.
HQ-61A SAM system consists of three vehicles: launcher / transporter, radar vehicle, C2I vehicle, all of which are based on the same SX250 6 x 6 cross country truck to simplify logistics and reducing operational cost. In November, 1984, two initial trials were completed, the missile entered Chinese service in late 1986.
Length : 3.99 meter
Diameter : 0.286 meter
Wingspan : 1.166 meter
Weight : 310 kg
Speed : Mach 3
Range : > 10 km
Ceiling : 8 km
Kill probability : 64% - 80% (single shot)
HQ-61 ARM (YJ-5): In addition to SAM versions of HQ-61, an anti radar version is also developed in the 1980s. China was seeking a replacement after the termination of Fenglei-7 anti-radar missile (FL-7). China gained the experience via the reverse engineering attempt of AGM-45 Shrike, and to a much less extend, that of AGM-78 Standard ARM. Samples of both missiles were mainly obtained from down American jets and provided to China by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though several unexploded samples launched by American jets failed to detonate were also transferred. HQ-61 ARM is basically a HQ-61 missile equipped with the guidance and control system of FL-7.
HQ-61C: HQ-61C is the upgrade of previous version, excluding the ARM. The primary improvement is in the electronics. Fully solid state and highly digitized microelectronics are used to upgrade both the missile itself and the associating C3I system. In addition to simplifying logistics and reducing costs, the upgraded system can also be automatically linked to larger air defense networks, with all information transmitted electronically in real time.
PL-11: PL-11 is the air-to-air derivative of HQ-61. The first successful flight test of PL-11 was conducted in 1992, and the missile entered Chinese service in the mid-1990s. PL-11 did not enter Chinese service in very large numbers because it was only used as a stopgap measure until the more advanced PL-12 became available.
The HQ-17 is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system.
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
In early 2015, the HQ-17 was publicly revealed. In the 2018 Zhuhai Airshow exhibition, a new wheeled variant named FM-2000 was unveiled.
Although reverse engineered from the Tor-M1, the HQ-17 is not a direct copy and instead features many improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an indigenous all terrain tracked launch vehicle, a new identification friend or foe (IFF) antenna on top of the search radar, an electronically scanned array radar for better performance against jamming and the ability to datalink with other Chinese systems.
The HQ-17 operates in batteries. A typical battery consists of 4 launch vehicles, reloading vehicles and other support vehicles. The battery is also supported by a mobile command post, based on a tracked chassis. Although a battery of the HQ-17 usually operates independently, it can also use targeting data from other surveillance radars.
The HQ-17 is designed to keep up with mechanized troops like tank battalions, frontline units to provide air cover from helicopter and drone attacks on the move, as well as protect military sites. Its vertically launched missiles also allow it to simultaneously engage multiple cruise missiles.
The HQ-17 is physically similar to the Tor-M1. Its slant range for intercepting flying aerial targets is 1.5 km to 15 km, slightly longer than the Tor-M1, and operates at an altitude of 10 m to 10 km.The missile guidance system comprises of semi-active radar homing guided by the radar on the launch vehicle.
The launch vehicle of the HQ-17 integrates launchers with missiles and radar on a single chassis and thus is able to operate independently.
Each launch vehicle carries one PESA search radar and one AESA guidance radar. Notably, the location of the radars are opposite for the tracked variant and wheeled variant. For the tracked variant, the search radar is located at the front and guidance radar at the rear. For the wheeled variant, the search radar is located at the rear and guidance radar at the front.
Each launch vehicle carries 2 x 4 missile canisters for a total of 8 missiles, which can be reloaded 4 missiles at a time by a Shaanxi SX2306 reloading truck equipped with a crane.
HQ-17: Tracked variant (Base Variant)
The vehicle weighs around 32 tons, and is about 8 m long, 3.2 m tall and 4 m wide. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 750-800 hp diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 65 km/h and range of 600 km. It is manned by a crew of 3.
HQ-17A: Wheeled variant
HQ-17A is a short-range air defense system. It evolved from the HQ-17 . Pre-production version of the HQ-17A was first publicly revealed in 2018 in the form of FM-2000 air defense missile system. Operational HQ-17A systems were first publicly revealed in 2019 during a military parade.
The HQ-17A uses a new wheeled chassis instead of tracked. In terms of capabilities it is broadly similar to the Russian Tor M2 system. Overall it resembles versions of the Tor.. Some components of the HQ-17A, such as the radar, might be actually more advanced than those of the Russian Tor.
The HQ-17A launcher vehicle carries both radars and missiles. A total of 16 missiles. Missiles are launched vertically. Maximum range of fire is around 15 km. Missiles can reach their targets at an altitude of up to 10 km. Hit probability of a single missile against aircraft is up to around 45-80%.
The wheeled launch vehicle is produced by Dongfeng Motor Corporation and is a 6x6 chassis similar to a Belarusian MZKT-6922. The vehicle weighs around 30 tons, and is about 9.7 m long, 3.1 m tall and 3.7 m wide. Features include an all-wheel drive system, central tire pressure system and a lightly armored which provides some degree of protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 400 HP diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 80 km/h and range of 800 km.
Supposedly, the wheeled launch vehicle was produced because of a flaw of the tracked variant, which was having a long lag time between stopping and shooting.
A battery of the launcher vehicles is also supported by other associated vehicles, such as command post vehicle and resupply vehicles. Two types of resupply vehicles were observed. One is based on a FAW MV3 truck chassis with 6x6 configurations. Another is based on a new Shaanxi SX2306 heavy high mobility truck chassis with 8x8 configurations. Both reloading vehicles are fitted with cranes and carrier reloads missiles.
FM-2000: Export designation for wheeled variant
The FM-2000 short-range air defense weapon system is mainly used to provide air defense support for mechanized troops and key military sites. The FM-2000 was unveiled during the China Air Show in November 2018. FM 2000 offers similar performance as HQ 17. FM-2000 supposedly features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
The FM-2000 features two radar units with different purposes, search radar mounted at the top rear of the turret which is used to detect targets and one tracking radar to engage targets located at the front of the turret. The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. The FM-2000 also features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
FM3000 is a 30 km range surface-to-air missile system based on the HQ-17. FM-3000 missile system was unveiled by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow. It uses a 6x6 TEL truck with 8 missile tubes. Engagement range is 30 kilometres against aircraft and 20 kilometres against missiles. It features rotating rotary phased-array radar. Guidance is inertial, plus low speed command guidance and terminal active radar homing. It can simultaneously intercept 8 targets with a reaction time of 4-8s. Chinese Internet claims that, the FM-3000 is also able to detect and destroy stealth aircraft. FM-3000 is particularly suitable for defense against precision guided munitions such as air-to-ground tactical missiles and laser-guided bombs.
The system features advanced technologies, such as three-dimensional rotary phased array radar, the multifunctional radar is capable of scanning 360 degrees, tracking targets and then guiding missiles to their targets. Each combat unit can handle 32 incoming targets from different directions within a short time.
HQ 17AE is the latest version of the HQ-17 air defense system, which has been in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) since 2015. It is unclear whether the HQ-17AE is just a new designation for the FM-2000, or whether it is a distinct variant that uses a transporter, launcher, and radar (TLAR) vehicle more closely based on the HQ-17A TLAR design.
The HQ-17AE, dubbed a “low altitude aircraft hunter”, is designed to keep up with frontline units like tank battalions and protect them from drone and helicopter attacks. It consists of a six-wheeled launch vehicle carrying eight short-range air-defence missiles and a solid-state phased-array radar system. Chinese state media Global Times lauded the new system’s capabilities, describing it as a “perfect choice” to accompany troops or defend key facilities. The HQ-17AE’s advanced vertical cold launch capability and rotatable tail wings give it a fast reaction time and ability to adapt to complex electromagnetic environments on the battlefield, it said.
The HQ-17AE has detection radar which can scan 25km while it is on the move while a second radar tracks and engages once a target has been identified. Each of its eight missiles can track four different targets at the same time. The HQ-17AE can also intercept attacks from tactical air-to-surface missiles, subsonic cruise missiles, stealth aircraft and supersonic cruise missiles and rockets.
The HQ-18 is a highly-capable, air and missile defense system developed by China; most scholars agree it is directly reverse-engineered from the Russian S-300V system, but relatively little information is publicly known about the differences between the two systems. A typical HQ-18 battery contains between two and six launchers, each of which can hold four missiles.
HQ 12 (KS-1)
The KaiShan-1 (Hong Qi-12) is the first Chinese aerial defense system to feature a phased-array radar, with each variant having a further range than the last. A typical HQ-12 battery includes one planar passive phased-array radar (PPAR), four launchers preloaded with two missiles each, and 16 additional missiles, along with command-and-control and generator units. The PLA claims HQ-12 has a single-shot kill probability of 89 percent. The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2(a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina). This launcher could be mounted on a 6x6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.
The HQ-12 was primarily designed to destroy UAVs and helicopters, but its more advanced variants are also capable of destroying ballistic and cruise missiles flying at speeds exceeding Mach 3. While the original HQ-12 system is largely obsolete, the KS-1A and KS-1C offer reliable protection for Chinese military assets and coastal cities.
The first successful test-firing of the missile was in 1989; KS-1 development was complete in 1994. The missile was first publicized in 1998 at the Zhuhai Airshow. An improved version, the KS-1A, which greatly enhanced its minimum altitude and range, has already been developed and first appeared at the sixth Zhuhai airshow in 2006. It was rumored that this improvement also increased its ability to engage targets maneuvering at a higher g force. In 2007 HQ-12A enters service in the PLA.
The HQ-12 is a much shorter ranging system, intended to provide an inner layer defense, inside the footprint of the HQ-9. It is also mobile, and the radar looks to be based on much the same technology as the HQ-9, making it hard to detect, hard to track and hard to jam.
Differences between the variants are primarily about different radar units
KS-1 typically uses SJ-212 engagement radar, derived from the Russian 30N6E1 Tomb Stone, which can track up to 50 targets and engage three of them at ranges up to 27 kilometers. The initial version with SJ-202 engagement radar, which adopts a simple horn instead of a lens arrangement, the missile seeker has a traditional parabolic antenna, and can guide up to two missiles against one target. Range is in excess of 40 km. The KS-1 resembles the US SM-1 or SM-2 Standard. HQ-12 air defense system intended as the replacement for the SA-2/HQ-2 air defense system.
HQ 12 was successfully tested in 1989, and the tests were completed in 1994. The KS-1 did not enter military service in China when development was completed in 1994. A likely reason was the poor maneuvering capability of the missile. It could only engage targets with a 5g maneuvering capability, making the KS-1 largely ineffective for defending against new-generation combat aircraft.
In the late 1990s an improved KS-1A model came out with new target detection / tracking radar maneuvering. Many experts’ believes that china obtained some technology from overseas for KS 1A Radars, possibly from Israel.
It was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. It is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1. The missile has also made the improvement, uses the double thrust force solid propellant engine, the maximum range is 50 kilometers, versus the original 27 kilometers. KS 1A got Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 2007.
KS-1A has used two types of engagement radar; the original HT-233 radar has a range of 50 kilometers, and the newer H-200 radar has a range of 70 kilometers and can track up to 100 targets. H-200 consists of an antenna station, placed on a four-axle trailer , and a hardware container on the chassis of Taian TA5150A cross-country vehicle with the wheel arrangement 6x6 . Later, there were versions of this radar, placed on two Taian TA5270A (6x6) trucks. The antenna device of the H-200 radar is a phased antenna array of circular rotation with digital control of the beam position, which is similar in size to that of the HT-233 radar of the HQ-9. In some cases a KS-1A Fire Unit receives early warning of enemy ballistic missile launch, along with direction and time-of-arrival data. Some news reports said that the new search-track radar is in fact a synthesis of the American AN/MPQ-53 and the Russian S-300 system radar.
The HQ-12A air defense system is mounted on 6x6 trucks..Standard deployment of a KS-1A SAM battery typically includes, 1 Planar Passive phased array radar (PPAR), 4 launchers, each with 2 missiles and other support equipment. The KS-1A radiofrequency guided missile has a maximum range of 50 kilometers and flies at Mach 3. It is said that this missile system has limited capability against cruise missiles and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).
To date, the HQ-12 air defense system is largely obsolete. However, its mass production and deployment continues (Probably Upgraded with latest technology). The air defense forces of the People's Republic of China have at least 20 air defense divisions HQ-12. Components of the KS-1A system such as the modern planar array engagement radars could be used for upgrading legacy HQ-2 and S-75 systems, dramatically improving their performance.
KS-1C was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). Range was increased to 70 km, and engagement altitude to 27 km. Along with using the H-200 radar, KS-1C fires individually-launched, canister-encased missile rounds instead of paired, rail-mounted missiles; this effectively doubles the number of potential interceptors available in each battery. KS-1C features canister-encased missile rounds, rather than the paired rail-mounted missiles of the earlier variants.
HQ-22 / FK-3
In 2016, China unveiled the advanced HQ-22 and its identical downgraded export designation, FK-3. FK 3 can be seen as a predecessor of the HQ-22.
The HQ-22 is developed by Jiangnan Space Industry, also known as Base 061, part of China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation Limited (CASIC). HQ-22 is a second-generation variant of the HQ-12, which features a medium-long engagement range of 150 to 170 km and an effective altitude from 50 m to 27 km. It is relatively cheaper to produce than the HQ-9 and will form one of the mainstays of China's air defense system, replacing the Cold-War era HQ-2. The complex was first presented at Air show China 2016. So far it is one of the most capable air defense missile systems of China.
HQ 22 is designed to destroy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and helicopters of the enemy at all altitudes of their combat application, day and night, in any weather conditions. HQ 22 has been designed to withstand to electronic countermeasures and operate in heavy jamming environments. The HQ-22 is sometimes referred as indigenous equivalent of the Russian S-400. It is actually not, as the Russian S-400 is a more capable system.
The first unit to receive the HQ-22 was the PLA division of the Beijing Air Defense System located in Lianshui County, Hebei Province. According to information published in the Western media, 13 HQ-22 battalions were deployed in 2018. A typical battery of HQ-22 includes 3 launcher vehicles. A battery can engage 6 air targets simultaneously.
The missiles are equipped with a semi-active radar CNS complemented by a two-way radio command line for data transmission. The flight is controlled by a combined guidance system. At the initial stage of flight (up to 75 km) is implemented radio command guidance, at the final - by the method of TVM (Track-via-missile - escort through the missile), combining command guidance with a semi-active. The use of this method of guidance allows reducing the sensitivity of the system to various measures of electronic counteraction, makes it possible to ensure the flight of the missile on the optimal trajectories and hitting targets with high efficiency.
HQ-22 is mounted on 8x8 TA5450 vehicle. TAS5450 is equipped with a diesel engine Deutz BF6M1015CP with an output of 517 hp and gearbox WSK400 of German company ZF. Maximum speed is 65 km/h. TAS 5450 has a four-door fully protected cabin with air conditioning system. When deployed in combat position, the radar is mounted on hydraulic supports. Judging from the chassis this missile system is mainly designed for traveling on hard surface roads.
Range: 5Km -150Km
Altitude: 50m – 27Km
Guidance: SARH, with 2 way Data link
DK-10 (Sky Dragon 50)
The DK-10, also known as the Sky Dragon 50, is a surface-to-air missile system developed by Chinese arms manufacturer Norinco. It was designed to be a competitor to the HQ-16 (LY-80), but has not been adopted by the People's Liberation Army for service as the HQ-16 has been preferred. Instead, it has been exported for use by foreign armed forces.
The DK-10 missile is derived from the PL-12 air-to-air missile in service with the PLAAF. The DK-10 missile inherits the active radar seeker of the PL-12 but is physically wider and longer due to the addition of a booster. The maximum range of the SAM is around 50 km and an engagement altitude of between 30 meters and 20 km.
A typical battery consists of one IBIS 150 3D radar vehicle, one fire distribution vehicle and up to six launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle consists of a 6x6 Beiben Truck Model 2628 carrying 4 ready-to-launch missile canisters.
The IBIS 150 3D radar has a range of over 130km. The radar can simultaneously track 144 targets and engage 12 targets by guiding a total of 24 missiles, with two missiles against each target to ensure that the minimum probability of kill is greater than eighty percent. Other than the IBIS 150 radar, it can also used intelligence received from superior command & control systems.
In November 2014, the Sky Dragon 50 air defense system was placed on exhibition at the Zhuhai Airshow 2014. It was revealed that the Sky Dragon 50 system is formed by one command centre vehicle, one IBIS130 search radar vehicle and up to 6 launch vehicles, each carrying 4 missiles. A new code name GAS2 was also published in promotion materials.
In 2014, it was reported that the Rwandan Armed Forces has purchased at least 4 launchers of the Sky Dragon 50. In 2017, the Sky Dragon 50 was sold to the Moroccan Armed Forces.
DN 2 interceptor
Dong Neng-2 is an anti-satellite missile of the People's Liberation Army, developed in the early 2010s. It is designed as a low-earth orbit interceptor which destroys orbiting satellites by high speed kinetic impact.
DN 3 Interceptor
The DN-3 is known as a direct-ascent anti-satellite missile that destroys satellites with a warhead that rams into orbiting systems at high speeds. DN 3 is for destroying spy satellites and Navigational satellites in high orbit. The DN-3 is also said to have the capability to intercept ballistic missiles in flight. DN3 could be a modified version of the DN-2. Information Regarding DN-3 is not available in public.
Richard Fisher, a China military affairs specialist, said the DN-3 appears to be based on the Kuaizhou-1 (KZ-1) mobile space launch vehicle. Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the DN-3 could be capable of hitting satellites more than 18,640 miles away in space – more than enough to reach large US surveillance satellites that occupy orbit 186 to 620 miles from earth.
Russian Air defense systems
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
The Chinese armed forces were the first customer of the Russian-made S-300PMU2, a long-range air defense missile system able to destroy aircraft, cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles in intense clutter and jamming environments.
The S-300PMU2 can fire the 48N6E2 surface-to-air missiles can engage aerial targets with a range from 3 to 200 kilometers, at altitudes between 10 to 27,000 meters. The S-300PMU2 has also the ability to detect and destroy anti-ballistic missiles with a range between 5 to 40 kilometers and altitudes between 2,000 to 25,000 meters.
The S-300PMU2 air defense missile system can engage up to 6 targets simultaneously while providing guidance for up to 12 missiles - two missiles per target ensuring target kill. In addition, highly automated detection and acquisition procedures provide outstanding performance over previous SAM systems.
“S-300V has two different versions distinguished by the missile it uses: The SA-12A Gladiator is used primarily for targeting aircraft, whereas the SA-12B Giant is primarily for countering tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. The Gladiator has a range of 75 km and a maximum altitude of 25 km, and the Giant has a range of 100 km and an altitude ceiling between 30 and 40 km. The S-300V systems uses phased-array sector-scan radar with a range of 175 km and can track up to 16 targets simultaneously,” the report noted.
“A modified version of the S-300V system was revealed in 1998, called the S-300VM, or “Antey-2500.” The Antey-2500 variant has a range of 200 km, a max altitude of 30 km, and can engage 24 targets simultaneously.
China became also the first foreign buyer of Russia’s most advanced S-400 Triumph surface-to-air missile systems. Russia signed a contract with China on the delivery of two regimental sets of S-400 in 2014. The first regimental set of S-400 was delivered to China in the spring of 2018. The Chinese military successfully test-fired the missile launchers and hit an aerodynamic and ballistic target.
To Know the complete details of S 400 Visit : http://fullafterburner.weebly.com/next-gen-weapons/s-400-the-impenetrable-shield
Next Part will cover Chinese Radars and Integrated air defense system.
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