Surface to air missile is a missile designed to destroy Aircrafts and other missiles. Surface-to-air missiles were developed to protect ground positions and ground troops from hostile air attacks. In modern warfare SAMs are turned out to be one of the most important assets for any country. Modern SAM systems are highly mobile, able to set up and pack away in minutes prior to and after firing. They are also supported by point-defense systems, electronic warfare assets and deception measures such as decoys. This makes them very difficult to reliably track, target and destroy from long ranges. They are also increasingly equipped with digital radars capable of frequency-hopping, offering much better resistance to jamming interference and also making them harder to detect when in operation.
In this article you can read about SAM systems and Radar systems of India and China. We are purposefully making Indian part short.
Chinese Air Defense Systems
China acquired, reverse engineered and developed a wide variety of air defense systems, most of them are older platforms and obsolete. Even though the latest generation Chinese air defense systems are very much capable and the recent addition of S400 system to Chinese inventory increased the lethality. The PLAAF possesses one of the largest forces of advanced long-range SAM systems in the world.
In this article we provided more details about HQ-9, HQ-16, HQ-19, mainly because they forms the backbone of Chinese air defense along with S-400. Information about the newest Chinese SAM/BMD such as HQ 22, HQ 26, and HQ 29 are scarce and misleading. Older Chinese SAM systems are possibly upgraded with latest technology still it is less capable compared to the newest systems , even though they are older they are working in a highly networked Chinese integrated air defense system makes it deadly for the adversaries.
The HQ-9 is a medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile. China claims HQ 9 is similar in capability to the Russian S-300 and American Patriot systems. The naval variant, HHQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant. HHQ-9 is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C Lanzhou class destroyer in VLS launch tubes. HQ-9 system likely has a limited capability to provide point defense against tactical ballistic missiles. The HQ-9 system is designed to track and destroy aircraft, cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles, and tactical ballistic missiles. The system was unveiled for the first time to the public during the military parade for the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Most land-based HQ-9 variants can hit targets at ranges of up to 200 kilometers and altitudes of up to 30,000 meters. While its single-shot kill probability is as high as 90 percent against airplanes, it may be much lower—about 30 percent—against ballistic missiles.
Each HQ-9 launcher contains four missiles stored in individual containers and is transported on Taian TA5380 8×8 high mobility chassis. The most basic formation of HQ-9 batteries consisted of one Type 305B search radar, one tracking radar, one 200 kW Diesel generator truck, and eight transporter erector launchers (TELs) each with 4 missiles, totaling 32 rounds ready to fire. These equipment's are usually mounted on Tai'an trucks. This basic formation can be expanded into more capable larger formation, with the addition of, TWS-312 command post, one site survey vehicle based on Chinese Humvee, one main power grid converter, additional transporter / loader vehicles with each vehicle housing four missiles. HQ-9 can use a variety of radar sensors to detect different targets, including ballistic missiles and stealth objects. A battery may include HT-233 engagement radar, H-200 mobile engagement radar, and a number of search radars like the Type 120 low altitude acquisition radar, Type 305A 3D acquisition radar, or Type 305B 3D acquisition radar.
In the Chinese Armed Forces, an HQ-9 battery includes a command vehicle(TWS 312), six control vehicles, 6 targeting radar vehicles, 6 search-radar vehicles, 48 missile-launch vehicles, and 192 missiles; plus a positioning vehicle, a communications vehicle, a power supply vehicle and a support vehicle. A battalion reportedly contains 8 missile launch vehicles.
Similar to the Russian S-300V HQ-9 is a two-stage missile. The first stage has a diameter of 700 mm and the 2nd stage 560 mm, with a total mass of almost 2 tons and a length of 6.8m. The thrust vector control (TVC) of HQ-9 is the most obvious visual identification that distinguishes it from S300V: TVC of HQ-9 is exposed and thus can be observed from the side, while TVC of S300V is not exposed. The system first used a missile in a box-like launcher canted at an angle, just like the MIM-104 Patriot. However the missile was very large because of China's limited experience with solid-fuel rockets in the 1990s. Due to Russian assistance and technology transfers, the missile and launcher are in their present form, a transporter erector launcher with missiles inside a cylindrical container.
Accompanying the land-mobile HQ-9 LR-SAM SAM batteries are the RWE-1 radio-frequency band active missile approach warning system (MAWS) and CETC-built TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communications systems. The MAWS is used for protecting LR-SAM batteries from attack by high-speed anti-radiation missiles, and is employed to trigger emitter shutdown and activation of active emitting decoys. The MAWS has a detection range of 40km/21.6nm. DF capability is via amplitude comparison between channels, providing 10-degree DF accuracy, adequate for cueing decoys, or cueing point-defense weapons to acquire, track and engage the inbound missiles. The TS-504 tactical digital troposcatter communication system is deployed extensively to support LR-SAM batteries by providing digital connectivity to the integrated air defense network.
For point-defense of the HQ-9 battery, the Yi Tian wheeled self-propelled very short-range air defense system (VSHORADS) is employed. The system uses the WMZ-551 6 x 6 wheeled armored fighting vehicles on which there is a mast mounted Type-120 rotating planar-array low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) radar. Against a helicopter or non-stealth attack aircraft the radar provides surveillance out to 18km, tracking at 12km, and engagement at 10km. Against an inbound cruise missile the surveillance range drops to 8km. with the missile firing at 6km from an oncoming target. The eight SAMs are carried by a 4 x 4 vehicle carrying two square quad box launchers each containing a FB-6A short-range missile, plus a fire-control system comprising a CCD day/night sight, thermal imaging sight, and a laser rangefinder. The FB-6A can intercept a target with a maximum speed of 400 meters/second (1,440kph) and the reaction time is given as 8 seconds. A Yi Tian air-defense battalion comprises a battalion headquarters and three self-supporting air defense companies.
Warhead : 180 kg
Maximum speed : Mach 4.2
Maximum range : 200 km
Altitude : 30 km.
Detonation : Proximity fuses (effective range of 35m, goes active when the missile is 5km away from its target.
Guidance : INS, mid-course uplink, active radar homing.
Range : 100km (FT-2000), 200Km (FD 2000), 250Km (9A), 300Km (9B)
Speed : 4.2 Mach
Propulsion : Two Stage, Solid rocket motor
Launch Platform : Taian TA580/TAS5380 8×8 transporter erector launcher (TEL),Type 052C destroyer, Type 052D destroyer, Type 055 destroyer
To reduce the cost, the HQ-9 is designed to be flexible enough to employ a wide range of radars, both the search/surveillance/acquisition radar and the tracking/engagement/fire control radar (FCR). A battery of HQ-9 consists of 6 TEL trucks linked to HT-233 3D C-band mono-pulse planar phased array radar, under the control of a TWS-312 battery command post. It operates in the 300 MHz bandwidth and has a detection range of 120 km and a tracking range of 90 km. The radar can detect targets in azimuth (360 degrees) and elevation (0 to 65 degrees), and is capable of tracking some 100 airborne targets and simultaneously engaging more than 50 targets. Several search radars can be used with HQ-9, including anti-ballistic radars and anti-stealth radars, as the search radar Type 305B, the low altitude radar Type 120, the search radar Type 305A, the passive radar YLC-20 and the passive radar DWL002.
Many FCRs of other Chinese SAM can be used for HQ-9, such as FCR used in KS-1 SAM, SJ-212, itself an enlarged and improved version of the SJ-202 fire control radar (FCR) used in HQ-2J. H-200 & SJ-231 FCRs of latter models of KS-1 SAM are also compatible with HQ-9.
To maximize the combat effectiveness of HQ-9, a dedicated FCR for HQ-9 was developed, and it is most commonly seen with HQ-9. Designated as HT-233, this radar is the most advanced FCRs HQ-9 could employ, and it has greater similarities to the MIM-104 Patriot's MPQ-53 than the S-300's 30N6 (Flap-Lid) series, working in the NATO G-band (4–6 GHz) also as a search and targeting radar. This could be due to an alleged transfer of a Patriot missile to China from Israel. The radar can search a 120 degree arc in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation out to 300 km, with a peak power output on 1MW (average 60 kW). The radar is credited as being able to track 100 targets and guides up to 6 missiles to 6 targets, or alternatively, to 3 targets with a pair of missile for each target.
In comparison to earlier H-200 radar used by early models of KS-1 SAM which uses a simple horn instead of lens arrangement, HT-233 radar adopts lens arrangement of AN/MPQ-53. In comparison to SJ-231 radar used by the latest model of KS-1, HT-233 has a thousand more phase shifter on its antenna array, totaling four thousand, as opposed to the three thousand of SJ-231. In contrast, both AN/MPQ-53 & 30N6E radars have ten thousand phase shifters on their antenna arrays respectively.
HT-233 radar is mounted on Tai'an TAS5501 10 x 10 high mobility cross country truck, and operates in C-band at 300 MHz. When deployed as search radar TH-233 is fielded at brigade level, while FCR radars deployed would be SJ-212, H-200 or SJ-231. HT-233 is credited with a detection range of 120 km, scanning 360 degrees in azimuth and 0-65 degrees in elevation. It can track 100 targets and designate 50 for engagements.
Type 305A radar
Type 305A (also known as LLQ-305A) radar is search radar for HQ-9 system. This AESA radar is designed maximize the anti-ballistic capability of HQ-9, and it resembles Thales Ground Master 400 AESA radar. Very little info is released about this radar other than it can also act as fire-control radar. Type 305A 3D acquisition radar is unique and does not resemble any known Chinese radar designs. It is carried on the same Mercedes-Benz NG 80 derived chassis as the Type 120 and Type 305B radars.
Type 305A, most probably on based the same technology used in the KJ-2000 AWACS and KJ-200 AEW&C AESA radars. The antenna design physically resembles existing Western S-band AESAs such as the Thales Ground Master series, or the very much larger Israeli IAI/Elta EL/M-2080 Green Pine ABM radar series - reliable, difficult to jam, and difficult to locate, with agile beam-steering of the kind seen in US systems like the Aegis SPY-1. The depth of the primary antenna and its structural frame is typical for AESA designs in this category, using a stacked modular feed network arrangement; this is well documented in a number of Russian AESA designs.
The rear face of the antenna frame is largely occupied with voluminous equipment housings, of similar depth to the antenna frame itself, and of equal height. These would be consistent with the installation of low voltage AESA power supplies, cooling equipment, receiver, and exciter hardware.
Chinese sources have identified the radar as a long range 3D high altitude acquisition and search design, intended to support missile guidance applications. This type of functionality is consistent with a number of extant dual role acquisition radars, built to support long range acquisition of aerial targets at medium to high altitudes, and acquisition of Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) category targets.
Type 305B AESA radar
Type 305B (also known as LLQ-305B) radar is the standard search radar for HQ-9(and HQ 12). The Type 305B 3D acquisition radar appears to be a variant of the existing YLC-2V. Type 305B is a modern mechanically steered planar array with electronic beam-steering for height-finding. It is similar to a good number of US and EU radars in this category, but is built for greater mobility in the field, making it harder to engage and destroy.
305 B is 3-D radar which has an antenna height of 3.5 meters, and employs sixty 350 mm waveguide feeds. It operates in the S-band at a wavelength of 11.67 cm. Chinese sources describe this radar as optimized for search and acquisition of aerial targets. The principal distinction between the established YLC-2V and the Type 305B would appear to be the absence of the IFF/SSR array mounted across the top of the antenna.
The hydraulically folded antenna used with the Type 305B has 58 element rows and will employ frequency scanning like other radars in this family of designs. Row spacing suggests S-band operation, like the YLC-2V.
Type 120 radar
Type 120 (also known as LLQ-120) radar is the low altitude search radar, it is a telescoping radar with an antenna height of 2.3 m folded, and 7 m unfolded, using a feed network of sixteen 230mm wave guides. It rotates at a maximum of ten revolutions per minute, and operates in the L-band at a wavelength of 23.75 cm. Like the Belarus Vostok D/E series, it uses a hydraulically elevated mast to increase low altitude coverage. Use of L band clearly intended to improve detection range against stealth aircraft and cruise missiles, most of which are difficult to detect at operationally useful ranges in the S-band.
Type 120 is 2D low-altitude acquisition radar. 2D capability implies that the radar system acquires range and azimuth data on a given target, but not altitude data. As such, the Type 120 is best suited for a complementary role supporting other radar systems. The Type 120 is reportedly a derivative of the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 2D radar system. While no performance specifications yet exist for the Type 120, the earlier JY-29/LSS-1 generated 72 target tracks with an operational range of 200 kilometers. The more refined Type 120 may improve on these specifications, but they are a logical baseline.
YLC-20 passive sensor
The Chinese YLC-20 is conceptually based on the KRTP-91 Tamara, but incorporates both precision DF and DTOA capabilities to locate airborne and surface based emitters. YLC-20 is intended to detect, locate and identify:
It is likely that much of the YLC-20 design is based on documentation acquired during the abortive attempt to procure six Czech Vera E DTOA ELS systems. The YLC-20 was first disclosed in 2006.
DWL002 passive sensor
DWL002 passive detection system was displayed during the 9th China International Defense Electronics Exhibition in Beijing in May. DWL002 passive radar is incorporating Kolchuga passive sensor, four of which were sold to China. It comprises one master reconnaissance station and two slave stations. The systems can be expanded to four stations and outfitted on trucks. The DWL002 has a detection range of 400 kilometers for fighter aircraft and 600 kilometers for airborne early warning and control aircraft. According to some radar experts “Its range is limited by its parameter set and is most unlikely to achieve anywhere near 500 kilometers unless it is sited on a 10,000-foot mountain targeting aircraft at 30,000 feet,”
Chinese media says the system provides a target capacity of 100 batches and a range of detectable signal types including pulse, frequency agility, pulse duration, tactical air navigation system, distance measuring equipment, jitter/stagger radar, and identification friend or foe.
Chinese sources repeatedly claim DWL 002 as a credible counter to conventional stealth military aviation. The DWL002 is an emitter locating system (ELS) which partially iterates on innovations found in older Russian designs, including the KRTP Tamara series and ERA Vera-E. The DWL002 is a more advanced ELS compared to YLC-20 system .United States and other Western European countries have abandoned the use and development of passive-detection radar systems, citing poor accuracy.
DWL002 will have a likely range of around 400-500 kilometers and is comprised of three stations that operate in tandem, placed kilometers apart. The DWL002, if it lives up to its touted capabilities, would severely hamper stealth fighter-based attempts at establishing aerial control over Chinese territory provided Chinese air defense systems are operational. With the DWL002 ELS, Chinese air defense systems would be significantly more effective at detecting hostile stealth aircraft. Another claimed feature of the DWL002 is its ability to track aircraft without notifying pilots that they have been detected by radar.
DWL002 apart from its other ELS predecessors is it uses “paired primary wideband apertures, displaced in elevation.” The resulting phase and time differences between the upper and lower antennas permit height finding, otherwise problematic in earlier single aperture designs. The primary apertures are housed under cylindrical radomes, in an arrangement similar to the KRTP-91 Tamara and ERA Vera systems.
The lower primary aperture is on a telescoping mast, the upper primary aperture on the articulated folding main mast, which employs hydraulic actuators. Below the upper primary aperture is a package of steerable parabolic antennas, likely operating in the upper X-band or Ku-band. These are employed to provide high data rate links between the three or four networked DWL002 systems when deployed. The aft of the equipment container also mounts three Yagi antennas, the purpose of which has not been disclosed. It is most likely that these are employed for data linking target track data from the networked DWL002 systems to other air defence assets. The system is carried on a North Benz ND1260 (Mercedes-Benz NG 80) 6 x 6 military truck.
The strategic significance of the DWL002 is that it is the first DTOA technology ELS which has been designed from the outset with the intention of providing robust height finding capability when passively tracking an emitting target. The ability to generate near-real-time or soft real-time 3D target tracks would be especially valuable in supporting SAM systems like the S-300PMU2 or HQ-9, as this could be employed to cue the SAM engagement radar very precisely to the inbound target. Should the accuracy of the ELS be sufficiently high, it could be employed to generate post-launch midcourse tracking corrections for outbound SAMs.
The CETC brochure describes the system thus:
“DWL002 Passive Detection System, also called as passive radar, is mainly used in air-defense or seashore monitoring to perform the detection to perform the detection and location to airborne, ship borne or lands based emitters in complex electromagnetic environment and display the target flight path in real time. The system can also operate together with active detection system to form a mutual supplementary surveillance network.
Typical configuration of DVL002 Passive Detection 'system is composed of three reconnaissance stations. One of them serves as master station and the other two as slave stations. The system can be expandable to four station configuration with perfect performance of full spatial coverage and altitude information of air target. Each station is carried by an individual vehicle.
* Real-time & Accurate Location and Tracking
* Signal Analysis and Identification
* Long Range Detection and Early Warning
* Real Time
* Very Good Mobility
DWL002 Passive Detection System is a three station configuration (expandable to four station configuration). Each station including antenna and power generator is housed and carried by one vehicle. which ensures the good mobility of the system
* Remote Control
* Advanced techniques
Long base line time difference of arrival (TDOA) location technique combined with AOA: Wideband digitized receiver technique; Multilevel correlation processing technique with good flight track processing result: Automatic set up. Chassis leveling techniques and automatic north calibration technique to ensure fast deployment and flexible operation.”
HQ-9: Base Variant with TVM.
HHQ-9: Naval version. It appears to be identical to the land-based variant. It is used on modern Chinese guided-missiles destroyers. These missiles are launched from vertical tubes;
HQ-9A: Upgraded version, first tested in 1999 and service entry in 2001. Chinese sources claim that the HQ-9 family of systems employ much newer computing technology than imported Russian S-300PMU/PMU1/PMU2 systems, because HQ-9 is developed more than a decade later, thus allowing it to incorporate advancement in microelectronics. Due to the superior computing capability for signal processing, data processing and guidance support, this missile can have an optional semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode, because more info can be processed on board the missile itself. ). Improved electronic equipment and software provide the 9A with higher accuracy and probability of kill.
HHQ-9A: Ship-borne naval version of HQ-9A. Eight 6-cell vertical launch silos, of cylindrical shape and using "cold launch" method, mounted on the Type 052C destroyer (48 missiles in total). Naval variant identical to HQ-9A
HQ-9B: reportedly tested in February 2006. According to Jane's Information Group, this missile has a dual seeker that incorporates both SARH & infrared homing mode. Longer 300 km range; an additional seeker provides semi-active radar homing and infrared homing modes
HQ-9C: Currently under development, incorporating active radar homing mode. Currently in development; incorporates fully active radar homing.
FD -2000: Identical to original HQ-9, but designed for export with minor electronic improvements. First revealed in the 8th Zhuhai Airshow, the export version of HQ-9, providing extra anti-stealth capability by incorporating YLC-20 passive radar sensor as an option.FD-2000 made its name by once securing Turkish surface-to-air missile contract, later cancelled due to political reasons. FD2000's reaction time from radar contact to missile engagement is around 12–15 seconds. It covers an area of 49000 square kilometers. FD-2000 was on exhibition in Zhuhai Airshow 2014.
FT-2000: Anti radiation version that was the first model of HQ-9 family being completed. First revealed in 1998, FT-2000, which was designed engage airborne warning and control system (AWACS) and other electronic warfare aircraft at long ranges. Despite being regarded as the first of its kind in the world, the real effectiveness of the FT-2000 in operation was somehow doubtful. The missile caught great attention when it was first revealed in 1998, but did not enter production due to lack of interest from either domestic or international market.
The HQ-19 is a long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) intended to engage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites and ballistic missiles. The missile is planned to be deployed as part of the HQ-19 air defense system and the Type 055 destroyer in 2020. HQ-19 might “fill the midtier of China’s BMD network”.
HQ 19 is a vastly upgraded version of HQ-9. According to Chinese military sources, it is an equivalent of the American THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense). HQ-19 is armed with a dual purpose exosphere kinetic kill vehicle (kkv) warhead designed by a team led by Professor Zhou Jun, which can be used against ballistic missile warheads or satellites. Its first flight occurred in 2003. HQ-19 using active radar homing in the terminal phase. HQ 19 make use of the Indigenous radars including the JY-27A and JL-1A – the latter advertised as capable of precision tracking of multiple ballistic missiles – reportedly provide target detection for the system.
The HQ-19 will have a range of between approximately 1,000 and 3,000 km. It could potentially have a capability against intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBM), with ranges between 3,000 km and 5,500 km, under certain circumstances. China carried out a fourth land-based mid-course missile interception test within its territory on 05 February 2018 and "achieved the desired test objective".
HQ-19 system also includes multi-purpose solid phased array radar for early warning. It is reported that the X band phased array radar can detect targets at a distance of 4,000 km. The information is provided to the HQ-19 interception system via the command-and-control system.
On July 23, 2016, the suspected red flag -19 (HQ-19) made a public appearance. When introducing the PLA's missile test expert Chen Deming, the "military program" of CCTV disclosed the first land-based mid-flight anti-missile interception test screen and intercepted missile warheads. The paper published in China on Demand Analysis of Tactical Missile Power Units and the Development of Solid Rocket Engines suggests that the Red Flag-19 anti-missile system is intended to be targeted at India's 2,500-kilometer long - medium-range ballistic missiles and requires effective interception of 3,000 kilometers Range of medium-range ballistic missile reentry warhead ability.
According to another judgment, the HQ-19 kinetic energy interceptor uses a side-window infrared seeker similar to THAAD. The window design can reduce the impact of atmospheric friction and heat on the infrared sensor detection, giving the missile the interception capability in the atmosphere. Side-window infrared seeker gives the HQ -19 in the atmosphere high attack accuracy, and can use a lighter kinetic energy interceptor to increase the interceptor's shot height and range.
China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Second Institute developed the endo- and exo-atmospheric Red flag-19 anti-missile missiles, belonging to the People's Liberation Army ground-based missile defense system.
HQ 19 adopted a composite guidance system, which can be used to intercept ballistic missile reentry warhead within a range of 3000km. HQ-19 is equipped with high-acceleration solid engine, which uses carbon fiber shell and the application of in-situ synthesis of composite materials. The mass ratio is 0.85, with a firing duration of 260s and 60g maneuver ability to intercept the warhead target.
US Department of Defense was of the opinion that "an HQ-19 unit may have begun preliminary operations in western China".
SC-19 is the ASAT derivative of HQ 19. SC-19 using Kaituozhe-1 space booster as engine instead of the original engine used in HQ-9/19. Due to the size difference of engines, SC-19 also has to adopt a new launcher/transporter designated as KT-409. Like HQ-19, SC-19 can also be used to counter either ballistic missile or satellite on the lower end of low Earth orbits.
On 11 January 2007, China effectively destroyed its very own defunct weather satellite Fengyun-1C at 22:28 UTC. The missile used in the destruction was SC-19 ASAT missile having a kinetic kill warhead. The interceptor missile had been blasted off from a Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) vehicle located at Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The target for the test, Fengyun-1C weighing 750 kg was a weather satellite orbiting in Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit of 865 km. The satellite was launched in 1999 and was the fourth satellite in Feng Yun series.
China conducted additional SC–19 tests in 2010, 2013, and 2014. In each test, the SC–19 intercepted a mock warhead launched by a ballistic missile rather than a satellite. The HQ-19/ SC-19 are all right for medium-range missiles and LEO satellites, but for interception at higher altitudes, the Chinese are developing the Dong Neng missiles aimed at mid-course interception. Multiple tests of the DN system have taken place since 2010.
HQ 26 is believed to be the Chinese equivalent of SM-3 for naval deployment. HQ 26 is an upgraded HQ-9/19 equipped with a dual pulse solid rocket motor for the final stage like SM-3. Very little is known about this system. HQ 26 could equip Type 055 destroyer. Type 055 with HQ 26 is to deploy in the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific.
Macau-based military expert Antony Wong Dong told the South China Morning Post that the new generation sea-based HQ-26 anti-missile system will have a 2,174-mile range cruise missile and is likely to be installed on the country's largest destroyer–the Type 055.
HQ-29 is believed to be an equivalent to the American PAC-3 MSE / ERINT in terms of technology used, with engine upgrade for the final stage: instead of a single dual pulse solid rocket motor, HQ-29 is equipped with over a hundred tiny pulse solid mini rocket motors mounted in the forebody of the missile, but the exact number remain unknown due to lack of publicized information. Its first flight was achieved in 2011.
The development project would be launched in 2003; the technology of thruster and control combined active flight was controlled between 2005 and 2007. According to reports HQ 29 was supposed to induct in 2015.
To the kinetic interceptor with lateral impulse thrust and aerodynamic force, it is required to solve the problem of combined fire of motors for attitude control. First model of combined fire of motors for attitude control is developed, and then on the basis of this model a firing rule of attitude control motor is designed and an analysis on the energy consumption efficiency is made under the condition of different position distribution of attitude control motors, finally the simulation result proves the feasibility of this firing rule and have some reference in future.
The HQ-16 is a medium range semi-active radar homing surface-to-air missile. Development of the HQ-16 began in 2005 as a joint development with Russian company Almaz-Antey, based on the older Buk-M1 and Buk-2M Surface-to-air missile systems. In 2011, development was completed and the HQ-16 was officially inducted into service. This air defense system is mainly used to protect stationary assets such as airfields, command posts, concentration of troops, bridges, and other important targets. A typical battery comprises of four launch vehicles (with six launch tubes each), a command-and-control unit, two radar units, and a generator
Using advanced technologies, of intermittent illumination semi-active radar homing guidance, phased array radar, vertical cold launch (Navy) and radio communication network, the LY-80 can be operated under the environment of strong electro-magnetic interference and during all-weather conditions. . The HQ-16 is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers, filling the gap between the HQ-7 short-range SAM and the HQ-9 long-range SAM systems. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
According to the SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) arms transfers’ database, three units of the LY-80 were ordered by Pakistan in 2014 and delivered in 2015/2016. The Pakistan Army formally inducted the LY-80 (HQ-16) medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system on March, 12, 2017. In January 2018, Pakistani army has performed the first live firing with the LY-80 during the military exercise Al Bayza-2019.
A typical formation consists of one command vehicle, one search radar vehicle, 3 radar guidance vehicles and 12 launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle carries up to 6 missiles. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launch vehicles with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The launch vehicle is a Taian TA5350 6×6 high-mobility truck developed by Taian Special Vehicle Company. It is powered by a 250hp Deutz AG BF6M1015 turbocharged diesel engine produced under license in China. Standard equipment of the TA5350 includes a central tire inflation system that can be adjusted on the move from the driver's seat. The vehicle has a maximum road speed of 85 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km, and can climb a gradient of 60% and side slope of 30%. It can cross a vertical obstacle of 0.5 m, a trench of 0.6 m and has a fording depth of 1 m without preparation. Prior to firing, the wheels are lifted off the ground by 4 hydraulic jacks and the 6 missile canisters are tilted back to a vertical position. The missiles use a cold launch system.
A typical formation consists of one searching radar vehicle, one command vehicle, 3 radar tracking and guidance vehicles, 12 launcher unit vehicles, and missiles canisters. Technical support equipment includes missile transportation and loading vehicle, power supply vehicle, maintenance vehicle, and missile-test equipment. A single radar guidance vehicle controls two to four launcher units with six missiles ready to launch. The command vehicle is responsible to send target information and combat orders.
The searching radar vehicle is equipped with solid-state an IBIS 150 S-band, 3D, PESA (passive phased-array radar) mounted on the top of a mast. When the target is detected, the searching radar vehicle performs automatic IFF (Identification Friend-or-Foe), threat judgment, flight path processing and provide target engagement information for the tracking-and-guidance radar. The S-band search radar has a range of 140 km and can detect targets flying at an altitude of 20 km. It can detect up to 144 targets and track 48 simultaneously.
The radar guidance vehicle is equipped with an L band PESA radar is mounted at the rear of the vehicle that controls the missile launching and target illumination after the missile is fired. The radar has a range of 85 km and can detect up to 6 targets, track 4 simultaneously and provide fire control for 8 missiles
Land Variant of HQ 16. The LY-80 (HQ16A) was introduced in the Chinese armed forces in September 2011. This is a land based version of the HQ-16 system used in ships and fired from Vertical Launch System (VLS) containers. The HQ-16A is able to engage aerial targets at high altitude; the mid-range HQ-16 is also able to intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers. The HQ-16A missile can hit targets of an altitude from 400 to 10,000 meters.
HQ 16 B
In 2016, an upgraded version named HQ-16B was unveiled. Due to an improved rocket motor and revised wings, the range was increased to 70 km. The upgraded version also appeared to have a longer body and new designed wings. HQ 16B can target a wide range of airborne targets such as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise missiles, stealth airplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The HQ-16B missile is intended for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Type 054B class frigates and HQ-16 ground-based air defense systems.
LY-80 : Export version of the HQ-16A.
HHQ-16/16A : Naval variant of the HQ-16 with a range of 35 to 75 km.
HQ-16C/ HHQ-16D : an upgraded version of HQ6B, IOC 2018
HQ-16E/LY-80N : New ship-based version, launched from vertical system similar to Mark 41 Vertical Launching System.
Weight : 650Kg
Length : 5.2m
Diameter : 0.34m
Max Range : 40Km for aircrafts, 3.5 Km to 12 km for Cruise Missiles.
Kill Probability : 85 %( Aircrafts), 60% (cruise Missiles)
Guidance : SARH
It was reported that the naval variant of the missile was designed to intercept sea-skimming missiles that can fly less than ten meters above the surface.
In Service : 2011
Range : 40 km (HQ-16) 70 km (HQ-16B)
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Warhead : 70Kg, HE Fragmentation, Proximity fuze
Max Speed : mach 3
Flight Altitude : 15m to 18Km
HQ-2(Chinese version of S-75 Dvina)
The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. HQ-2 is an upgrade of the S-75.The HQ-2 has been China's primary air defense system for over forty years but since 2016 it is being replaced by the HQ-22 system.
HQ-1: Chinese version of SA-2 with additional ECCM.
HQ-2: Upgraded HQ-1 with additional ECCM capability. Upgraded HQ-2s remain in service today, and the latest version utilizes Passive electronically scanned array radar designated SJ-202, which is able to simultaneously track and engage multiple targets at 115 km and 80 km , respectively. The adoption of multifunction SJ-202 radar has eliminated the need to have multiple, single-function radars, and thus greatly improved the overall effectiveness of the HQ-2 air defense system. A target drone version is designated BA-6.
HQ-3: Development of HQ-2 with maximum ceiling increased to 30 km specifically targeted for high altitude and high speed spy planes. Maximum range is 42 km and launching weight is around 1 ton, and maximum speed in 3.5 Mach. A total of 150 built before the program ended and the subsequent withdraw of HQ-3 from active service, and the knowledge gained from HQ-3 was used to develop later version of HQ-2.
HQ-4: Further development of HQ-2 from HQ-3, with solid rocket engines, resulting in a two-thirds reduction of logistic vehicles needed for a typical SAM battalion with six launchers: from the original more than 60 vehicles for HQ-1/2/3 to just slightly over 20 vehicles for HQ-4. After 33 missiles were built, the program was cancelled, but most of the technologies were continued as separate independent research programs, and these technologies were later used on later Chinese SAMs upgrades and developments such as HQ-2 and HQ-9.
HQ-2J: Is anti-aircraft missiles mounted on the Type 77 transporter launcher. It is an upgraded version of the HQ-2 system.
Sayyad-1: Iranian upgraded version of HQ-2 SAM differs with the Chinese versions in guidance and control subsystems. Sayyad-1 equipped with an about 200-kilogram warhead and has speed of 1,200 meters per second.
The HQ-7 is a short-range air defense missile. The missile is deployed on both ships and land-based vehicles. The HQ-7 became PLAN's standard short-range air-defense SAM in the 1990s, and was used on Type 054 until superseded by the HQ-16 on the Type 054A frigate. The typical configuration is one 8-cell launcher, with stores of reload missiles in multiples of 8. Earlier versions required manual re-loading, while later variants have an auto re-loader that can be retracted under the deck. HQ-7 is deployed in hardened shelters. The PLA has mounted the HQ-7 on towed trailers.
The Naval HQ-7 uses a Type 360S E/F-band Doppler radar with a detection range of 18.4 km, connected to the ZJK-4 combat management system. The system is capable of processing up to 30 targets, and tracking 12 targets simultaneously. China revealed the export version, FM-80, in the 1989 Dubai Air Show.
Self-Propelled HQ 7
The 206th Institute has developed a 4x4 self-propelled version of the HQ-7. 4 x HQ-7 SAMs and a tracking radar system are mounted on a 4x4 vehicle, or towed vehicle.
In 1998, the China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNPMIEC) produced an improved HQ-7 with faster and longer-range missiles, with an IR-tracking camera. This version received the export designation FM-90.
The LY-60/FD-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64 is a family of Chinese missiles, largely based on the Italian Selenia Aspide missile - itself based on the American AIM-7 Sparrow missile. There are four versions of the basic design, three of which are surface-to-air and one air-to-air.
Development of the LY-60 was precipitated by the Chinese requirement for a beyond-visual-range (BVR) weapons system. Directly copying the AIM-7 proved unsuccessful, after which China purchased a number of Alenia Aspide missiles from Italy. Due to the urgent need for BVR air-to-air missiles, PL-11 was given the priority. The very first batch of PL-11 was an Aspide assembled in China, but using Italian components, and it was accepted into Chinese service in the same year. However, hopes of locally manufacturing the missile under license collapsed after the Tiananmen Square crackdown of 1989.
The PL-10 air-to-air missile was developed for the People's Liberation Army Air Force and is carried by Jian J-8B fighters. Although it was the first member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 series to be developed, it was actually the second member to become operational, after the HQ-6, the surface-to-air version.
The HQ-6 was the second member of the LY-60/PL-10/HQ-6/6D/64/DK-10 family developed. The entire SAM system consists of four truck mounted radars (one search/surveillance radar and three tracking/fire control radars), one power supply truck, and six transporter erector launchers (TEL) s. The missile itself is directly derived from the air-to-air version PL-11. Unlike the Italian Aspide which uses containers as launchers, HQ-6 uses missile launching rails (MLR) instead, and each truck-mounted launcher has two MLRs/missiles. It entered service before the air-to-air version PL-10, despite an earlier start by the PL-10.
Length : 5.99 m
Diameter : 134 mm
Wingspan : 1.23 m
Weight : 600 kg
Speed : Mach 1
Maximum Flight Speed : 150 meters per second
Maximum maneuvering overload: 5 g
Maximum maneuvering overloads [interception]: 1 g
Normal : 5 meters - 40 meters
Slant : 14 meters - 16 meters
LY 60 is a medium-low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. The system is mainly intended for the interception of military aircraft and missiles flying in medium-low altitude. It has a command control system with artificial interference capability thanks to the use of microprocessor intelligent module technology. In October 1994, the "Lieying (Falcon)-60," was deployed to China's air defense troops.
The "Lieying-60" search radar can simultaneously track up to 40 targets, and the tracking radar is able to simultaneously track 12 targets, and engage three targets at once. The use of the moving target tracking processing system and frequency agility technology also gives the system good anti-jamming capability. LY60 has a range of 18 kilometers and reaches a maximum altitude of 12 kilometers.
The Air Force version of the LY-60 is the FD-60 semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missile carried by the J8B fighter plane, which is very similar to the Aspide AAM of Italy in appearance
Naval version of LY 60 called as LY 60N. The LY60N SAM is being deployed in place of the HQ61 SAM used in the Jiangwei-class frigates. Compared with the HQ61 with a range of 12 kilometers and maximum altitude of 10 kilometers, The LY60N is installed in Jiangwei B-class frigates. Every launch system features a sextuple launchers and each launcher contains four LY60N missiles, for a total of 24 missiles. The wings of the LY60N are foldable. In comparison, the LY60 of the ground army version features quadruple launchers, each of its launcher contains one missile, and its missile wing is not foldable.
The system adopted as the ship borne vertically-launched air defense system of the Chinese Navy's "Luhai"-class missile destroyers, with at least eight vertical launch barrels with a total of 32 missiles.
In addition, the Shanghai Academy has also developed a portable ground-to-air version called the FY-60.
The HQ-64 is an improved version of the HQ-6, utilizing experience gained from LY-60, with firepower doubled by increasing the number of missiles for each truck mounted launcher from two to four, and by replacing the MLR mounting by missiles in container box launchers. Both the missile and TELs are directly developed from the LY-60. Although the missile is smaller than that of the HQ-6, the performance actually improved due to technological advances. HQ-64 passed state certification test and was accepted into Chinese service in 2001. The reaction time for the system in fully automated mode is 9 seconds and the maximum speed of the missile is increased to Mach 4. Other improvements is mainly concentrated on ECCM capability, and many Chinese internet sources have claimed that the HQ-64 is derived from HQ-6-4, meaning 4 missiles (for each launcher) version the HQ-6.
HQ-6D/ LY60D airport point-defense SAM
The HQ-6D is the latest development of the family, and it is basically a HQ-64 system with an addition of a command vehicle. Each command vehicle is able to command & control up to four HQ-64 batteries, thus linking up independent HQ-64 batteries to form an integrated air defense net work, and each HQ-6D network can in turn be integrated into larger air defense network. The standard time that the HQ-6D SAM system takes from travelling order to being ready to fire is less than 15 minutes, but a highly skilled crew can reduce this time to just 9 minutes.
Warhead : 33Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Range : 18Km
Guidance : SARH/ARH
The Hongqi-61 is the first generation Chinese Semi Active Radar Homing guided surface-to-air missile . It is classified by Chinese as a low-to-medium air defense missile, and the series includes both land-based and ship borne versions, and an anti-radiation version and air-to-air version (designated as PL-11) have also been developed. The naval and anti-radiation versions have been retired from Chinese service but PL-11, the air-to-air version and HQ-61A, the land-based mobile version are still currently in limited service with the Chinese military.
HQ-61B: The naval version of HQ 61 was designated as HQ-61B.
To improve the land-based air defense for Chinese ground force, China developed a mobile low-to-medium level surface-to-air missile based on HQ-61B, and named the mobile SAM system as HQ-61A.
HQ-61A SAM system consists of three vehicles: launcher / transporter, radar vehicle, C2I vehicle, all of which are based on the same SX250 6 x 6 cross country truck to simplify logistics and reducing operational cost. In November, 1984, two initial trials were completed, the missile entered Chinese service in late 1986.
Length : 3.99 meter
Diameter : 0.286 meter
Wingspan : 1.166 meter
Weight : 310 kg
Speed : Mach 3
Range : > 10 km
Ceiling : 8 km
Kill probability : 64% - 80% (single shot)
HQ-61 ARM (YJ-5): In addition to SAM versions of HQ-61, an anti radar version is also developed in the 1980s. China was seeking a replacement after the termination of Fenglei-7 anti-radar missile (FL-7). China gained the experience via the reverse engineering attempt of AGM-45 Shrike, and to a much less extend, that of AGM-78 Standard ARM. Samples of both missiles were mainly obtained from down American jets and provided to China by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though several unexploded samples launched by American jets failed to detonate were also transferred. HQ-61 ARM is basically a HQ-61 missile equipped with the guidance and control system of FL-7.
HQ-61C: HQ-61C is the upgrade of previous version, excluding the ARM. The primary improvement is in the electronics. Fully solid state and highly digitized microelectronics are used to upgrade both the missile itself and the associating C3I system. In addition to simplifying logistics and reducing costs, the upgraded system can also be automatically linked to larger air defense networks, with all information transmitted electronically in real time.
PL-11: PL-11 is the air-to-air derivative of HQ-61. The first successful flight test of PL-11 was conducted in 1992, and the missile entered Chinese service in the mid-1990s. PL-11 did not enter Chinese service in very large numbers because it was only used as a stopgap measure until the more advanced PL-12 became available.
The HQ-17 is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system.
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
In early 2015, the HQ-17 was publicly revealed. In the 2018 Zhuhai Airshow exhibition, a new wheeled variant named FM-2000 was unveiled.
Although reverse engineered from the Tor-M1, the HQ-17 is not a direct copy and instead features many improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an indigenous all terrain tracked launch vehicle, a new identification friend or foe (IFF) antenna on top of the search radar, an electronically scanned array radar for better performance against jamming and the ability to datalink with other Chinese systems.
The HQ-17 operates in batteries. A typical battery consists of 4 launch vehicles, reloading vehicles and other support vehicles. The battery is also supported by a mobile command post, based on a tracked chassis. Although a battery of the HQ-17 usually operates independently, it can also use targeting data from other surveillance radars.
The HQ-17 is designed to keep up with mechanized troops like tank battalions, frontline units to provide air cover from helicopter and drone attacks on the move, as well as protect military sites. Its vertically launched missiles also allow it to simultaneously engage multiple cruise missiles.
The HQ-17 is physically similar to the Tor-M1. Its slant range for intercepting flying aerial targets is 1.5 km to 15 km, slightly longer than the Tor-M1, and operates at an altitude of 10 m to 10 km.The missile guidance system comprises of semi-active radar homing guided by the radar on the launch vehicle.
The launch vehicle of the HQ-17 integrates launchers with missiles and radar on a single chassis and thus is able to operate independently.
Each launch vehicle carries one PESA search radar and one AESA guidance radar. Notably, the location of the radars are opposite for the tracked variant and wheeled variant. For the tracked variant, the search radar is located at the front and guidance radar at the rear. For the wheeled variant, the search radar is located at the rear and guidance radar at the front.
Each launch vehicle carries 2 x 4 missile canisters for a total of 8 missiles, which can be reloaded 4 missiles at a time by a Shaanxi SX2306 reloading truck equipped with a crane.
HQ-17: Tracked variant (Base Variant)
The vehicle weighs around 32 tons, and is about 8 m long, 3.2 m tall and 4 m wide. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 750-800 hp diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 65 km/h and range of 600 km. It is manned by a crew of 3.
HQ-17A: Wheeled variant
HQ-17A is a short-range air defense system. It evolved from the HQ-17 . Pre-production version of the HQ-17A was first publicly revealed in 2018 in the form of FM-2000 air defense missile system. Operational HQ-17A systems were first publicly revealed in 2019 during a military parade.
The HQ-17A uses a new wheeled chassis instead of tracked. In terms of capabilities it is broadly similar to the Russian Tor M2 system. Overall it resembles versions of the Tor.. Some components of the HQ-17A, such as the radar, might be actually more advanced than those of the Russian Tor.
The HQ-17A launcher vehicle carries both radars and missiles. A total of 16 missiles. Missiles are launched vertically. Maximum range of fire is around 15 km. Missiles can reach their targets at an altitude of up to 10 km. Hit probability of a single missile against aircraft is up to around 45-80%.
The wheeled launch vehicle is produced by Dongfeng Motor Corporation and is a 6x6 chassis similar to a Belarusian MZKT-6922. The vehicle weighs around 30 tons, and is about 9.7 m long, 3.1 m tall and 3.7 m wide. Features include an all-wheel drive system, central tire pressure system and a lightly armored which provides some degree of protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. It is reportedly powered by a roughly 400 HP diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 80 km/h and range of 800 km.
Supposedly, the wheeled launch vehicle was produced because of a flaw of the tracked variant, which was having a long lag time between stopping and shooting.
A battery of the launcher vehicles is also supported by other associated vehicles, such as command post vehicle and resupply vehicles. Two types of resupply vehicles were observed. One is based on a FAW MV3 truck chassis with 6x6 configurations. Another is based on a new Shaanxi SX2306 heavy high mobility truck chassis with 8x8 configurations. Both reloading vehicles are fitted with cranes and carrier reloads missiles.
FM-2000: Export designation for wheeled variant
The FM-2000 short-range air defense weapon system is mainly used to provide air defense support for mechanized troops and key military sites. The FM-2000 was unveiled during the China Air Show in November 2018. FM 2000 offers similar performance as HQ 17. FM-2000 supposedly features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
The FM-2000 features two radar units with different purposes, search radar mounted at the top rear of the turret which is used to detect targets and one tracking radar to engage targets located at the front of the turret. The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. The FM-2000 also features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets.
FM3000 is a 30 km range surface-to-air missile system based on the HQ-17. FM-3000 missile system was unveiled by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow. It uses a 6x6 TEL truck with 8 missile tubes. Engagement range is 30 kilometres against aircraft and 20 kilometres against missiles. It features rotating rotary phased-array radar. Guidance is inertial, plus low speed command guidance and terminal active radar homing. It can simultaneously intercept 8 targets with a reaction time of 4-8s. Chinese Internet claims that, the FM-3000 is also able to detect and destroy stealth aircraft. FM-3000 is particularly suitable for defense against precision guided munitions such as air-to-ground tactical missiles and laser-guided bombs.
The system features advanced technologies, such as three-dimensional rotary phased array radar, the multifunctional radar is capable of scanning 360 degrees, tracking targets and then guiding missiles to their targets. Each combat unit can handle 32 incoming targets from different directions within a short time.
HQ 17AE is the latest version of the HQ-17 air defense system, which has been in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) since 2015. It is unclear whether the HQ-17AE is just a new designation for the FM-2000, or whether it is a distinct variant that uses a transporter, launcher, and radar (TLAR) vehicle more closely based on the HQ-17A TLAR design.
The HQ-17AE, dubbed a “low altitude aircraft hunter”, is designed to keep up with frontline units like tank battalions and protect them from drone and helicopter attacks. It consists of a six-wheeled launch vehicle carrying eight short-range air-defence missiles and a solid-state phased-array radar system. Chinese state media Global Times lauded the new system’s capabilities, describing it as a “perfect choice” to accompany troops or defend key facilities. The HQ-17AE’s advanced vertical cold launch capability and rotatable tail wings give it a fast reaction time and ability to adapt to complex electromagnetic environments on the battlefield, it said.
The HQ-17AE has detection radar which can scan 25km while it is on the move while a second radar tracks and engages once a target has been identified. Each of its eight missiles can track four different targets at the same time. The HQ-17AE can also intercept attacks from tactical air-to-surface missiles, subsonic cruise missiles, stealth aircraft and supersonic cruise missiles and rockets.
The HQ-18 is a highly-capable, air and missile defense system developed by China; most scholars agree it is directly reverse-engineered from the Russian S-300V system, but relatively little information is publicly known about the differences between the two systems. A typical HQ-18 battery contains between two and six launchers, each of which can hold four missiles.
HQ 12 (KS-1)
The KaiShan-1 (Hong Qi-12) is the first Chinese aerial defense system to feature a phased-array radar, with each variant having a further range than the last. A typical HQ-12 battery includes one planar passive phased-array radar (PPAR), four launchers preloaded with two missiles each, and 16 additional missiles, along with command-and-control and generator units. The PLA claims HQ-12 has a single-shot kill probability of 89 percent. The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2(a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina). This launcher could be mounted on a 6x6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.
The HQ-12 was primarily designed to destroy UAVs and helicopters, but its more advanced variants are also capable of destroying ballistic and cruise missiles flying at speeds exceeding Mach 3. While the original HQ-12 system is largely obsolete, the KS-1A and KS-1C offer reliable protection for Chinese military assets and coastal cities.
The first successful test-firing of the missile was in 1989; KS-1 development was complete in 1994. The missile was first publicized in 1998 at the Zhuhai Airshow. An improved version, the KS-1A, which greatly enhanced its minimum altitude and range, has already been developed and first appeared at the sixth Zhuhai airshow in 2006. It was rumored that this improvement also increased its ability to engage targets maneuvering at a higher g force. In 2007 HQ-12A enters service in the PLA.
The HQ-12 is a much shorter ranging system, intended to provide an inner layer defense, inside the footprint of the HQ-9. It is also mobile, and the radar looks to be based on much the same technology as the HQ-9, making it hard to detect, hard to track and hard to jam.
Differences between the variants are primarily about different radar units
KS-1 typically uses SJ-212 engagement radar, derived from the Russian 30N6E1 Tomb Stone, which can track up to 50 targets and engage three of them at ranges up to 27 kilometers. The initial version with SJ-202 engagement radar, which adopts a simple horn instead of a lens arrangement, the missile seeker has a traditional parabolic antenna, and can guide up to two missiles against one target. Range is in excess of 40 km. The KS-1 resembles the US SM-1 or SM-2 Standard. HQ-12 air defense system intended as the replacement for the SA-2/HQ-2 air defense system.
HQ 12 was successfully tested in 1989, and the tests were completed in 1994. The KS-1 did not enter military service in China when development was completed in 1994. A likely reason was the poor maneuvering capability of the missile. It could only engage targets with a 5g maneuvering capability, making the KS-1 largely ineffective for defending against new-generation combat aircraft.
In the late 1990s an improved KS-1A model came out with new target detection / tracking radar maneuvering. Many experts’ believes that china obtained some technology from overseas for KS 1A Radars, possibly from Israel.
It was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. It is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1. The missile has also made the improvement, uses the double thrust force solid propellant engine, the maximum range is 50 kilometers, versus the original 27 kilometers. KS 1A got Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 2007.
KS-1A has used two types of engagement radar; the original HT-233 radar has a range of 50 kilometers, and the newer H-200 radar has a range of 70 kilometers and can track up to 100 targets. H-200 consists of an antenna station, placed on a four-axle trailer , and a hardware container on the chassis of Taian TA5150A cross-country vehicle with the wheel arrangement 6x6 . Later, there were versions of this radar, placed on two Taian TA5270A (6x6) trucks. The antenna device of the H-200 radar is a phased antenna array of circular rotation with digital control of the beam position, which is similar in size to that of the HT-233 radar of the HQ-9. In some cases a KS-1A Fire Unit receives early warning of enemy ballistic missile launch, along with direction and time-of-arrival data. Some news reports said that the new search-track radar is in fact a synthesis of the American AN/MPQ-53 and the Russian S-300 system radar.
The HQ-12A air defense system is mounted on 6x6 trucks..Standard deployment of a KS-1A SAM battery typically includes, 1 Planar Passive phased array radar (PPAR), 4 launchers, each with 2 missiles and other support equipment. The KS-1A radiofrequency guided missile has a maximum range of 50 kilometers and flies at Mach 3. It is said that this missile system has limited capability against cruise missiles and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).
To date, the HQ-12 air defense system is largely obsolete. However, its mass production and deployment continues (Probably Upgraded with latest technology). The air defense forces of the People's Republic of China have at least 20 air defense divisions HQ-12. Components of the KS-1A system such as the modern planar array engagement radars could be used for upgrading legacy HQ-2 and S-75 systems, dramatically improving their performance.
KS-1C was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). Range was increased to 70 km, and engagement altitude to 27 km. Along with using the H-200 radar, KS-1C fires individually-launched, canister-encased missile rounds instead of paired, rail-mounted missiles; this effectively doubles the number of potential interceptors available in each battery. KS-1C features canister-encased missile rounds, rather than the paired rail-mounted missiles of the earlier variants.
HQ-22 / FK-3
In 2016, China unveiled the advanced HQ-22 and its identical downgraded export designation, FK-3. FK 3 can be seen as a predecessor of the HQ-22.
The HQ-22 is developed by Jiangnan Space Industry, also known as Base 061, part of China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation Limited (CASIC). HQ-22 is a second-generation variant of the HQ-12, which features a medium-long engagement range of 150 to 170 km and an effective altitude from 50 m to 27 km. It is relatively cheaper to produce than the HQ-9 and will form one of the mainstays of China's air defense system, replacing the Cold-War era HQ-2. The complex was first presented at Air show China 2016. So far it is one of the most capable air defense missile systems of China.
HQ 22 is designed to destroy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and helicopters of the enemy at all altitudes of their combat application, day and night, in any weather conditions. HQ 22 has been designed to withstand to electronic countermeasures and operate in heavy jamming environments. The HQ-22 is sometimes referred as indigenous equivalent of the Russian S-400. It is actually not, as the Russian S-400 is a more capable system.
The first unit to receive the HQ-22 was the PLA division of the Beijing Air Defense System located in Lianshui County, Hebei Province. According to information published in the Western media, 13 HQ-22 battalions were deployed in 2018. A typical battery of HQ-22 includes 3 launcher vehicles. A battery can engage 6 air targets simultaneously.
The missiles are equipped with a semi-active radar CNS complemented by a two-way radio command line for data transmission. The flight is controlled by a combined guidance system. At the initial stage of flight (up to 75 km) is implemented radio command guidance, at the final - by the method of TVM (Track-via-missile - escort through the missile), combining command guidance with a semi-active. The use of this method of guidance allows reducing the sensitivity of the system to various measures of electronic counteraction, makes it possible to ensure the flight of the missile on the optimal trajectories and hitting targets with high efficiency.
HQ-22 is mounted on 8x8 TA5450 vehicle. TAS5450 is equipped with a diesel engine Deutz BF6M1015CP with an output of 517 hp and gearbox WSK400 of German company ZF. Maximum speed is 65 km/h. TAS 5450 has a four-door fully protected cabin with air conditioning system. When deployed in combat position, the radar is mounted on hydraulic supports. Judging from the chassis this missile system is mainly designed for traveling on hard surface roads.
Range: 5Km -150Km
Altitude: 50m – 27Km
Guidance: SARH, with 2 way Data link
DK-10 (Sky Dragon 50)
The DK-10, also known as the Sky Dragon 50, is a surface-to-air missile system developed by Chinese arms manufacturer Norinco. It was designed to be a competitor to the HQ-16 (LY-80), but has not been adopted by the People's Liberation Army for service as the HQ-16 has been preferred. Instead, it has been exported for use by foreign armed forces.
The DK-10 missile is derived from the PL-12 air-to-air missile in service with the PLAAF. The DK-10 missile inherits the active radar seeker of the PL-12 but is physically wider and longer due to the addition of a booster. The maximum range of the SAM is around 50 km and an engagement altitude of between 30 meters and 20 km.
A typical battery consists of one IBIS 150 3D radar vehicle, one fire distribution vehicle and up to six launch vehicles. Each launch vehicle consists of a 6x6 Beiben Truck Model 2628 carrying 4 ready-to-launch missile canisters.
The IBIS 150 3D radar has a range of over 130km. The radar can simultaneously track 144 targets and engage 12 targets by guiding a total of 24 missiles, with two missiles against each target to ensure that the minimum probability of kill is greater than eighty percent. Other than the IBIS 150 radar, it can also used intelligence received from superior command & control systems.
In November 2014, the Sky Dragon 50 air defense system was placed on exhibition at the Zhuhai Airshow 2014. It was revealed that the Sky Dragon 50 system is formed by one command centre vehicle, one IBIS130 search radar vehicle and up to 6 launch vehicles, each carrying 4 missiles. A new code name GAS2 was also published in promotion materials.
In 2014, it was reported that the Rwandan Armed Forces has purchased at least 4 launchers of the Sky Dragon 50. In 2017, the Sky Dragon 50 was sold to the Moroccan Armed Forces.
DN 2 interceptor
Dong Neng-2 is an anti-satellite missile of the People's Liberation Army, developed in the early 2010s. It is designed as a low-earth orbit interceptor which destroys orbiting satellites by high speed kinetic impact.
DN 3 Interceptor
The DN-3 is known as a direct-ascent anti-satellite missile that destroys satellites with a warhead that rams into orbiting systems at high speeds. DN 3 is for destroying spy satellites and Navigational satellites in high orbit. The DN-3 is also said to have the capability to intercept ballistic missiles in flight. DN3 could be a modified version of the DN-2. Information Regarding DN-3 is not available in public.
Richard Fisher, a China military affairs specialist, said the DN-3 appears to be based on the Kuaizhou-1 (KZ-1) mobile space launch vehicle. Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the DN-3 could be capable of hitting satellites more than 18,640 miles away in space – more than enough to reach large US surveillance satellites that occupy orbit 186 to 620 miles from earth.
Russian Air defense systems
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000. Around 2000, China sought to license-produce the Tor-M1 missile system locally. However Russia reportedly refused. As a result China decided to reverse-engineer the missile system.
The Chinese armed forces were the first customer of the Russian-made S-300PMU2, a long-range air defense missile system able to destroy aircraft, cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles in intense clutter and jamming environments.
The S-300PMU2 can fire the 48N6E2 surface-to-air missiles can engage aerial targets with a range from 3 to 200 kilometers, at altitudes between 10 to 27,000 meters. The S-300PMU2 has also the ability to detect and destroy anti-ballistic missiles with a range between 5 to 40 kilometers and altitudes between 2,000 to 25,000 meters.
The S-300PMU2 air defense missile system can engage up to 6 targets simultaneously while providing guidance for up to 12 missiles - two missiles per target ensuring target kill. In addition, highly automated detection and acquisition procedures provide outstanding performance over previous SAM systems.
“S-300V has two different versions distinguished by the missile it uses: The SA-12A Gladiator is used primarily for targeting aircraft, whereas the SA-12B Giant is primarily for countering tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. The Gladiator has a range of 75 km and a maximum altitude of 25 km, and the Giant has a range of 100 km and an altitude ceiling between 30 and 40 km. The S-300V systems uses phased-array sector-scan radar with a range of 175 km and can track up to 16 targets simultaneously,” the report noted.
“A modified version of the S-300V system was revealed in 1998, called the S-300VM, or “Antey-2500.” The Antey-2500 variant has a range of 200 km, a max altitude of 30 km, and can engage 24 targets simultaneously.
China became also the first foreign buyer of Russia’s most advanced S-400 Triumph surface-to-air missile systems. Russia signed a contract with China on the delivery of two regimental sets of S-400 in 2014. The first regimental set of S-400 was delivered to China in the spring of 2018. The Chinese military successfully test-fired the missile launchers and hit an aerodynamic and ballistic target.
To Know the complete details of S 400 Visit : http://fullafterburner.weebly.com/next-gen-weapons/s-400-the-impenetrable-shield
Next Part will cover Chinese Radars and Integrated air defense system.
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