Chinese integrated air defense system
Integrated air defense systems (IADS) are a key feature of modern warfare. IADS are complex, multilayered defense systems incorporating a range of ground-based and aerial sensors, as well as surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems.
A modern IADS is one of the most formidable threats that an air force can be tasked to confront. China has a robust and redundant IADS architecture over land areas and within several hundreds of Kilometers of its coast that relies on an extensive early warning radar network, fighter aircraft, and a variety of SAM systems. China is also placing radars and air defense weapons on outposts in the South China Sea, further extending its IADS. It also employs point defenses, primarily to defend strategic targets against adversary long-range cruise missiles and airborne strike platforms.
Chinese IADS is commonly called as “air intelligence radar network”. All the various Chinese surveillance elements have been integrated into an ‘air intelligence radar network’ using fixed high speed fibre-optic links that provide interconnections that are immune to electronic intelligence intercepts and radio frequency jamming. Moreover, all mobile radars and missile batteries have been connected through indigenous TS-504 mobile tropo-scatter communications terminals.
China’s IADS is heavily distributed and mobile. It is comprised of land-based HQ-9 and S-400 long-range and multiple medium-range SAM systems on the mainland as well as on artificial reefs, and an increasingly potent naval component in the shape of People’s Liberation Army Navy major surface combatants with the navalised HHQ-9 series. China is also pursuing multiple aerial and ground-based exotic radar and multi-spectral sensor technologies to support both its IADS and the People’s Liberation Army Air Force.
Several Radars of various kinds in the likes of long range Surveillance radars, Fire Control radars, over the horizon Radars, Ground based large Phased Array radars and several other radars with high mobility integrated into Chinese IADS. The first consequence of this radar data-sharing within an IADS is that there are far more potential radar emitters that a SEAD/DEAD task force must consider a serious threat than if each individual battery was only capable of engaging using its own radars. Even if centralized C2 nodes are hit and knocked out, along with large brigade radar assets, individual battalions and even batteries can still pose a serious threat to aircraft. The second effect is that radar horizon-associated blind spots for the strategic SAM systems – equipped with active radar homing missiles and sited further from approaching threats, to a large degree, be filled by situational awareness contributed by external ground- and air-based systems. A third effect is that the spatially diverse network of radars operating across multiple different frequency bands can give more precise target information, particularly against stealth aircraft with very low radar cross-sections if all the data can be brought together and cross-referenced in real time by a data-fusion asset. These properties, as well as the more obvious benefits of mutually supporting defensive fire, make an IADS a vastly more daunting prospect than a standalone strategic SAM system. The ability of the strategic SAMs in an IADS to exchange radar and engagement data with shorter-range systems and airborne assets greatly complicates the task of SEAD/DEAD against these networks.
The PLAN is also a key component of China’s IADS. Despite serious issues with inter-service connectivity and joint exercises, China’s strategy for its land-based and naval IADS coverage is closely linked.
China is also supplementing its IADS with a much more aggressive and technologically advanced air force modernization programme .With three modern AWACS types, operational fifth-generation fighters and the Soar Dragon and Divine Eagle radar-surveillance high-altitude UAVs, as well as experiments with quantum radar. China can already boast a multi-layered and unpredictable IADS which can threaten modern combat aircraft far from the mainland. When, as opposed to it, China can link its ground-based, maritime and aerial assets at a technical and operational level, it will be a formidable challenge, able to contest airspace over 1,000 km from the mainland.
The Chinese Integrated Air Defense System (IADS) consists of three core components
China today has an advanced radar network with improved early warning coverage through ground-based sensors and airborne early-warning (AEW) aircraft. It has also designed and deployed radar systems that are optimized to detect stealthy aircraft, including passive surveillance systems. The radars are integrated in an ‘air intelligence radar network’ covering the entire country. After being snubbed in its effort to acquire the highly capable Phalcon AEW system from Israel, it has developed three viable AEW platforms; these are the KJ-2000, the KJ-200 and the Y-8 AEW. Marketing materials also emphasize these systems’ ability to counter long-range airborne strike and combat support aircraft. PLAAF airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft such as the KJ-2000 and KJ-500 can further extend China’s radar coverage well past the range of its ground-based radars.
China developed a wide variety of long range Radar systems, extremely long Range Radars for Ballistic missile shield and over the horizon radars etc. These radars systems include surveillance radars, fire control radars, passive sensors, anti stealth radars, low altitude surveillance radar etc all these assets can connect to the Chinese Integrated air defense network as will, this helps to create a comprehensive picture of the threat, and the SAM systems connected to the IADS can easily take down the intruding enemy forces. And the IADS can instruct fighters like assets to intercept or shoot down the intruder, making the Chinese air defense system an extremely reliable and a difficult system to wedge.
China initiated its current wave of modernization efforts by importing modern SAM systems from Russia, and by the 2010’s had an impressive array of modern long range SAM systems.
The core lethal component of any IADS is the SAM system. China has increasing numbers of advanced long-range SAMs, all of which have the advertised capability to protect against both aircraft and low-flying cruise missiles. To improve its strategic air defenses, China has taken initial delivery of the Russian-built S-400 Triumf SAM. Russian S-400 which is the most advanced SAM in the world and a real game changer. Compared to these other systems, the S400s feature a longer maximum range, improved missile seekers, and more sophisticated radars.
China manufactures a variety of long-range air surveillance radars, including models claiming to support ballistic missile defense. All new generation Chinese SAM systems have high mobility and incorporate advanced electronic counter counter measures (ECCM) even as they are capable of engaging a wide range of air threats, including those with stealth features.
In 1996, PLAAF had a large inventory mostly comprised by second-generation J-5 (MiG-17) and J-6 (MiG-19) fighters. Today, all J-5s and J-6s have been retired. Although PLAAF’s AD interceptor pool still includes third-generation aircraft such as the J-7 and J-8II, incorporating modern weapons and avionics , almost 60 percent of its inventory is now made up of fourth-generation types such as the Su-27, Su-30 MKK, the indigenous J-10 and the J-11 family based on the Su-27, including the J-11B ‘pirate’ variant which entered service around 2008. China also has fifth-generation fighter J20, around forty J 20s are available with PLAAF.
Some of the features of the current Chinese Air Defense doctrine are:
Chinese Radar Systems (Land Based)
The YLC-2 radar (domestic designation: LLQ303, formerly known as 385) is a three-dimensional main guidance and surveillance radar developed by the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology.
The radar uses an active phased array with an aperture of 7 m · 9 m that scans electronically in elevation while rotating in azimuth. The original for this radar was possibly the AN/TPS-59, an assumption supported by many similarities in the construction of the antenna. The antenna array of the YLC-2 consists of many low-power radiating elements using solid-state power-amplifier modules mounted in 54 vertical rows. The main antenna is topped by an IFF/MSSR array.
The antenna array has 54 horizontal elements, each fed by a 2.0 kW (peak, at 8% duty cycle) T/R module that is reported to have improved upon the earlier design of the AN/TPS-59 and GE-592 radars of which it appears to be a copy. The YLC-2 radar has three display consoles and can track as many as 100 targets.
A total of 5 sets of YLC-2 radar systems were delivered to Pakistan to the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) at Faisal Airbase on 15th June 2003, and probably two more in 2006, to be used in support of the PAF air defense network, where it was reported to be high-powered, solid-state, long-range 3D air surveillance radar
YLC-2 system is said to have a detection range of 330km (500 According to Wikipedia). It is reported to have a variety of electronic counter-countermeasures, to enable survival in a hostile electro-magnetic environment. There is also a new version designated YLC-2A, and a self-propelled version; YLC-2V. YLC-2A and YLC-2V employ smaller, more compact antenna arrays and have been declared to function in E/F-band.
In the mid-2000s, an improved version labeled YLC-2A was deployed to the PLA. Equipped with a new Giga-flops digital signal processor, it is capable of Digital Moving Target Indication (DMTI) and Constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing. An S-band variation called YLC-2U with similar capabilities was also developed for SAM guidance. Both of these advanced YLC-2 radars have been specifically designed to counter stealth fighters, with a claimed range of up to 200km even in heavy ECM environment.
YLC-2 is original and after that they upgraded YLC-2 A and YLC-2 V.
YLC-2 is a base system and used L-band frequency.
YLC-2 A is a highly upgraded YLC-2, it is highly Mobile the radar is mounted on vehicle system.
YLC-2 V Becomes Personalized Vehicle System and S-band frequency used.
Out of these three systems, YLC-2 V radar used as target search radar with Chinese Air Force's HQ-9 / HQ-12 SAM units.
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YLC-2V is a mobile, high altitude surveillance radar and medium/long-range guidance S-Band radar that can be quickly deployed. The radar system can be operated remotely and has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility. The YLC-2V radar was unveiled at the China Air Show in November 2014.
YLC-2V radar is especially suitable for being used as main surveillance radar in air defense or navy, target indication radar in ground to air missile troop. It can provide comprehensive information including azimuth, range, altitude, IFF attribute, of large quantities of air targets. The antenna is smaller than the YLC-2, which results in lower resolution in elevation but higher mobility (assembly/disassembly time: 40 min with 6 persons).
With excellent operational performance, especially high mobility, strong anti-jamming and anti-destruction capability, strong viability and detection capability of targets with small RCS such as cruise missile. YLC-2V radar will be the major guidance and surveillance radar for China in the 21st century.
Operation frequency band : S band
Instrumental range : 500 km
Coverage (Range) : ≥ between 350 km and 420 km
Coverage (height) : 25000 m
Coverage (elevation) : 0 - 25°
Coverage (Azimuth) : 0 - 360°
Measurement accuracy (azimuth) : ≤ 0.3°
Measurement accuracy (range) : ≤ 100 m
Measurement accuracy (height) : ≤ 600 m
Range resolution : ≤ 200 m (automatic extraction)
Assembly/disassembly time : 40 min with 6 persons
MTBCF : ≥ 1000 h
MTTR : ≤ 30 min
YLC8/8A is 2D air search radar. YLC-8 and YLC-8A are derivatives of the P-12/P-18 Spoon Rest family of radars, widely exported as part of S-75 Dvina / SA-2 Surface to Air Missile Batteries. Unlike the self propelled Soviet original, the YLC-8 is carried on a semi-trailer.
Max range : 370 km
Azimuth : 0-360Degree
Elevation : 0-18Degree
Range Accuracy : <200m
Deployment Time : 30Min
MTBCF : >800hrs
MTTR : <25Mins
YLC-8B is mobile, high altitude 3D surveillance radar which integrates mechanical scanning with two-dimensional active phased-array technology developed independently by China to spot a wide variety of threats such as ballistic missiles and aircraft at medium ranges simultaneously. The radar system, utilizing the latest digital technology, has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility and is intended for deployment by the PLA in key areas. The YLC-8B radar was first unveiled at the China Air Show in November 2014.
This system is designed to supplement fixed radar networks with additional sensing capacity against a range of air threats such as stealthy aircraft and ballistic missiles. It can also be used as gap-filler radar as it can be rapidly moved to distant or austere locations.
According to Jane’s, the Institute has promoted for a few years its YLC-8B medium- and high-altitude three coordinates surveillance radar able to move on road and railway and at sea within 30 minutes. The radar has a range of 550km to detect and track conventional multifunction fighter jets and 350km, targets of low visibility.
YLC-8B is operating in UHF-Band . YLC-8B antenna fold-able array is designed for automatic, rapid deployment and recovery.
The YLC-18 radar, developed by the 14th Institute of Electrical Sciences of China, is high maneuverable three-coordinate low altitude blind compensation radar with outstanding performance. It can be used not only as a low-altitude target detection radar and medium-altitude surveillance radar to build a radar intelligence network, but also as an anti-aircraft artillery force or surface-to-air missile force target indicator radar.
YLC-18 radar is mainly used to detect low-altitude and medium-altitude aircraft, armed helicopters or cruise missiles. It has a good detection probability for low and small targets.
The YLC-18 radar antenna can elevate, so that it can detect low altitude flying objects, radar antennas high-speed rotation, in a short period of time is also one of the secrets of the radars low altitude detection capability. YLC 18 has high measurement accuracy and strong ECCM capability.
Operating frequency : EF-band
Range : ≥ 250km
Height : ≥ 12,000m
Elevation : 0º ~ 35º
Azimuth : 0º ~ 360º
Azimuth Accuracy : ≤ 0.3º
Range Accuracy : ≤ 100m
Height Accuracy : ≤ 600m (within 200km)
MTBCF : ≥ 1,000 hrs
MTTR : ≤ 30 mins
YLC-18A is a Long Range Three Dimension Low Altitude Blind Compensation Radar.
The YLC-18A is basically low and medium altitude target detection and surveillance radar that can also be used as a Surface to Air Missile (SAM) target indicator and Anti-Aircraft Artillery Force. It is equipped with the new Giga Flops Digital Signal Processor and it is capable of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processing and Digital Moving Target Indication (DMTI). YLC-18A Radar System is characterized by the high maneuverability and high speed technology, which can be ready on a short notice. The Radar Antenna can easily be elevated to scan the low altitude terrains. It has a Range of 200 Kilometers in Complex and Hybrid Electronic Warfare Environment.
Frequency : Three Dimension Radar
Band : L-Band
Azimuth : 360°
Scanning Tech : Pencil Beam Scan & Phased Array System
MAX Range : >500 Kilometers
Height : <500 m(R: <200km); 750 m(R: 300km)
Resolution Range : <100 Meters
Total Elevation Range : 0.50 – +200
Signal Processor : Advanced Programmable Digital Signal Processing
Signal Transmitter : Distributed High Power Solid-State Transmitter
Rated Power Output : 5.5 KW
Peak Rated Power : 85 KW
JL-3D 90 A
JL-3D-90A is L-band 3-D airspace surveillance radar. This is fully coherent, 3D radar with a low side-lobe, planar, phased array antenna.
The radar may be used for civil and friendly air traffic management, detection of hostile aircraft. It may have an IFF sub-system integrated to determine the friendliness of targets in flight.
JL3D-90A employs a radio frequency (RF) agile transmitter with a klystron amplifier chain and a low-noise linear receiver using digital pulse compression techniques to achieve long-range detection with good target discrimination. Adaptive digital signal processing is employed with comprehensive BITE. Monopulse sum/difference height measurement is employed with automatic target extraction and adaptive signal processing. Target processing capacity is 100 tracks for every antenna scan (10secs). The antenna cover diagram for a probability of detection of 80% against a radar cross section of 2m2.
Range : 300km
Altitude : 20,000m
Range accuracy : 150m
Altitude accuracy : 500m
Azimuth accuracy : 0.25°
Range resolution : 90m
Azimuth resolution : 1.5º
Peak power output : 700kW.
JYL-1 is a long-range S-Band 3D air surveillance radar. . Between 2005 and 2013 Venezuela bought 12 pieces of these radar systems to replace two older AN/TPS-70 radars. It functions in the E/F-band region and might be used as either a military or commercial asset for air traffic control and management purposes. The JYL-1 radar system is capable of providing the effective detection and tracking of targets in the complicated electromagnetic and severe clutter environments, primarily serving as a backbone sensor in an integrated air defense network.
JYL-1 can function as, Air surveillance within the area of responsibility, accurate target detection and location; quickly acquire target 3D information, Automatic target tracking, and Continuous reports of target plots/track data etc.
It can operate reliably in any weather conditions. JYL-1 can perform efficiently in intense electronic attack scenarios thanks to its excellent ECCM performance.
Frequency band : S band
Coverage instrumental range : 450 km
Coverage height : 30000 m
Coverage elevation : 30°
Coverage azimuth : 0° to 360°
Measurement accuracy (RMS) range : 100 m
Measurement accuracy (RMS) azimuth : 0.3°
Measurement accuracy (RMS) height : 600 m
Resolution range : 200 m
Resolution azimuth : 1.5°
Deployment time : 30 min by 6 persons
Withdrawal time : 20 min by 6 persons
Transport mode : by air, road, and rail
Number of transportable unit : 3
JYL-1A is long-range 3D surveillance radar first unveiled at China international Defense Electronic Exhibition 2014. JYL-1A is a new-generation S-waveband multifunction and multi-task radar with integrated capabilities of air defense early warning, anti-missile early warning, gun position detection and adjustment and airspace control.
JY-11 is 3-D air surveillance radar and is mainly used as to provide medium to low altitude target-indication for AAA battery or SAM unit. It is an F-band radar with an integrated D-band IFF sub-system. It is often used as a gap-filler for a regional air defense network. The radar uses a phased array that scans electronically in elevation while rotating in azimuth. The electronic beam deflection is performed by a frequency scanning array.
The JY-11 radar uses 14 different beams to cover an elevation range of 30º. Two of the beams are used for wide area detection, and four layers of each 3 beams serve to cover medium ranges.
The radar provides high side lobe attenuation, high immunity to interference and a constant false alarm rate. The mobile system is composed of an antenna/transmitter unit, radar electronic and operator shelter, and a supply shelter containing a diesel generator set which can be transported with a total of 3 trucks. It is transportable by land, sea or air (C-130, CH-53). Deployment and withdrawal are largely automated within 20 minutes.
Facilities and capabilities include a narrow-beam, low side lobe antenna with dual, slow-wave structure enabling the radar to operate over two sub-frequency bands separated by 100 MHz, which overcomes the disadvantage of weak anti-active jamming capability in a single band. Digital pulse compression with a relatively low power output, across a large dynamic range, is achieved by a fully coherent highly reliable frequency synthesizer.
This radar was first declared (as HUNTER1) at the International Radar Symposium in Munich 1998, where it was stated to be a highly mobile, solid-state, frequency-scanning, target indication radar. For mobility it locates very quickly piggy-back fashion on a flat-back 4x4 truck.
Band : F Band
Detection Range : >180Km
Detection Altitude : 15000m
Azimuth : 0-360
Resolution Range : 200m
Resolution Azimuth : 2.5
Peak Power Output : 13.5Kw
MTBF : 800hrs
MTTR : 0.5Hrs
JY-11B is a self-propelled version of JY 11 with enhanced accuracy and maximum range. It is a low-altitude, 3D, S band, solid state, highly mobile air surveillance radar. It adopts novel design concepts of reconfigurable transmitting beam shape and BFU (beam forming unit) receiving beams with advanced technology incorporated to provide low-altitude target detection, precision 3-D target reports, powerful ECCM, good site adaptability and strong survivability.
JY-11B can raise its antenna which is mounted on a hydraulically controlled tower to improve the radar coverage against targets flying at very low altitude, JY 11B is design to carry out most reliable missions and an effective detection & tracking of low flying targets in extremely sophisticated EW environment.
JY 11B radar can function as Ultra low altitude air surveillance and detection, medium range air coverage, Automatic target detection and tracking, target designation to weapons systems etc.
It features high mobility, long distance fast deployment and replacement because of its automation, powerful stand alone operation capability, excellent low altitude capability, powerful ECCM performance etc.
It employs ‘reconfigurable’ transmission beams and Digital Beam Forming (DBF) for reception to provide low-altitude and good sea-surface detection, with modern processing techniques including AMTI and pulse Doppler sampling.
Operating Frequency : E/F Band
Detection Range : 3- 260Km
Ceiling Height : >12000m
Elevation Range : 0-35
Azimuth Range : 0 – 360
Resolution Range : 100m
Azimuth Accuracy : 0.3Degree
Deployment : 10min by 4 persons
MTBCF : 1000hrs
MTTR : 0.5hrs
JY-50 is passive 2-D radar that uses the electromagnetic signals transmitted by distributed radio frequency stations around itself, including civilian mobile phone, radio, and television broadcasts, to perform the detection, location, and tracking of airborne targets including electromagnetic silence targets (Stealth aircraft). JY-50 radar mainly accomplishes air defense warning mission to important direction and sensitive areas. The antenna is an array of two rows of 12 inverted Vee elements backed by a reflective grating.
SLC-7 is L-band active phased-array long-range surveillance radar. Its primary vocation is medium altitude and medium distance air surveillance against targets such as aircraft, cruise missiles and guided munitions. This radar is intended as a sensor for long-range surface to air defense control stations. The SLC-7 makes its first public appearance at the China Air Show 2016.
SLC-7 radar integrating mechanical scanning with advanced phased array antenna technology. The SLC-7 radar was developed by Nanjing Research Institute of Electronic Technology . The radar is claimed to be capable of detecting stealthy aircraft or unmanned aerial systems at distances of over 450 km with a high degree of success. It can also be used to track ballistic missiles.
609 Intelligence Radar
The ‘609 Intelligence Radar’ was unveiled by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at the recent Airshow China 2018 exhibition in Zhuhai, although the company has stated that it is also offering an export-variant of the radar. While the performance specifications remain classified, it is said to be capable of providing early warning of stealth aircraft, ballistic missiles, and near-space threats.
The 609 radar is believed to be a core asset within China’s extensive air defence network, and can be easily integrated to existing air and sea combat systems to boost their interception potential.
JY 26 (Sky Watch)
JY-26 is a long-range three dimension early warning and guiding radar with duel frequency and super large aperture anti-stealth capabilities.
In November of 2014, China's JY-26 radar went through its paces at the Tenth Zhuhai Airshow. Its warning detection distance is 600 km under air defense and up to 800 km if tracking ballistic missiles. It can be carried by sea or air, and assembled by a team of ten people in an hour.
Operating in the long wave band – VHF/UHF enables the JY-26 to detect targets presenting low radar cross section (stealth aircraft) at the decimetric, centimetre and millimetre wave bands. The use of phased array technology also provides users the ability to increase the power transmitted at a certain location where a target presence is suspected, thus increasing the probability of detection of low-RCS targets. The manufacturer also claims the radar is designed with robust anti-jam and electronic counter-countermeasures, enabling it to face strike forces conducting advanced anti-access/area denial (a2/ad). According to media reports, China has deployed the JY-26 in Shandong Province and used it to monitor F-22 stealth fighters over the Korean Peninsula.
JY-26 can track 500 targets simultaneously. JY-26 UWB-radar is similar to America’s 3DELRR solution in appearance. An unusual feature is the bubble surface of the radar, which looks similar to Lockheed Martin's offering in the Three Dimensional Expeditionary Long-Range Radar (3DELRR) but JY 26 has less transmitting and receiving modules.
JY26 got Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) in 2015. JY-26 radar has been designed to operate in high clutter and jamming environments with high accuracy. The radar system has been integrated onto a wheeled platform providing for high mobility.
JY-27 wide mat radar of the Chinese manufacturer CETC is a fully solid-state and fully coherent long-range early warning system. It is designed and developed to provide early warning information and detect low-observable air targets. . Besides, it provides the early warning information for weapons system as well. JY 27 radar is claimed to detect stealth aircraft up to 500 km radius. The radar is mounted on a mobile platform which enables it to move away after detecting the enemy aircraft, thus avoiding counter-measures. The radar is mounted on a mobile platform which enables it to move away after detecting the enemy aircraft, thus avoiding counter-measures.
China had revealed new radar at the 2016 Zhuhai air show. Called the JY-27A 3-D, it is a Very High Frequency (VHF) active phased array radar. The newer one antenna design is clearly influenced by the 1L13 Nebo SV “Box Spring” and 1L119 Nebo SVU. The radiating elements are horizontally polarized.
JY 27A has two versions (need confirmation) the first one is belied to be VHF band JY-27A radar can detect F-22 and F-35 fighters 500 kilometers away, and UHF band JY-27A radar can detect such targets in 300 kilometers.
JY 27A is an all-round digital array active phased array radar with agile wave beam scanning and strong task scheduling and resources management capabilities, which make it a strong multi-task and multifunction radar with much greater maneuverability and reliability in carrying out its tasks.
It adopts a series of new technology such as super resolution height measuring that is commensurate with complicate topography, continuous vertical coverage of air space and integrated anti-jamming technology. Such technologies enable it to overcome the traditional shortcomings of meter-wave radar that fails to cover low elevation, monitor airspace continuously or to measure the height of a target.
The JY-14 (domestic designation: LLQ302, formerly known as: 384) is a medium to long range air defense radar . It is capable of detecting multiple targets within its range and determines their parameters, tracking them even through surface clutter and ECM jamming. It utilizes a frequency-agile mode with 31 different frequencies, has a large band of ECCM operating parameter frequencies, and uses linear FM compression. This system can simultaneously track up to 100 targets and can feed the data to missile-interceptor batteries. It can track targets flying as high as 75,000 feet and 186 miles in distance. The JY-14 system has been in production since 1998. The JY-14 can be upgraded to a more powerful power supply, giving it a wider range. This has been seen only in China so far, where multiple stations are tied together with the air defense system.
The system is notable for having wideband frequency diversity and adaptive pulse-to-pulse agility, enabling it to track even the most morphic radar signatures. It is the most common ground radar in China, and is rapidly being exported to other countries. The radar features excellent anticlutter and antijamming ability, as well as very good adaptability and automatization. Incorporated techniques include dual pulse frequency diversity, pulse-to-pulse frequency agility over a wide frequency band, adaptive MTI and CFAR techniques, and an advanced computerized BITE technique.
Range: 590 km
Frequency diversity interval: 150 MHz
Wind resistance capacity: 25 m/s, normal operations, 25 - 35 m/s, operations with degraded performance, > 35 m/s.
High gain, low sidelobe and vertically offset multibeam antenna
Full coherent high power transmitter, multi-element modulator assembly
High stability, frequency synthesiser
Low noise, wide frequency band, large dynamic range and frequency diversity multichannel receiver
Adaptive threshold, automatic clutter map
YLC-29 passive surveillance radar system that can detect targets through its reflection of civilian FM radio signals. It may supplement other radar systems in Chinese inventory. Chinese media claims it is superior to the Czech-made Vera-E system in terms of real-time tracking. It uses widely distributed civilian radio frequency-modulated signals to detect, locate and track targets moving through the air - including stealth planes - without being detected, which greatly improves the system's viability and anti-jamming ability, according to CETC's official WeChat account.
According to the data provided by China Electric Power Group, the detection distance of YLC-29 is not particularly far, and its role is not the "anti-stealth" imagined by people, but it is still of great value to the civil air defense system. At the same time, the detection distance of the system is about 200 kilometers. According to the brief introduction provided by China Electrical Science, the system can detect, locate and track the moving target in the air by receiving the FM broadcasting signal reflected by the moving target in the air.
Frequency coverage: 85 MHz-110 MHz
Coverage: 40,000 square kilometers (converted, detection radius equivalent to 177 kilometers) (Target characteristics: radar cross-section area of 3-5 square meters, detection probability 0.5)
Vertical angle of detection: 0~40 degrees
Ranging accuracy is less than 800 meters.
The accuracy of direction finding is less than 1.5 degrees.
Target detection capability: more than 200 batches.
Deployment mode: automatic retracting and erection time is less than 20 minutes.
Over The Horizon Radars
A number of OTH-B and OTH-SW radars are reportedly in operation with China. Few details are known of these systems. However, transmission from these radars causes much interference to other international licensed users.
OTH-B Over-The-Horizon Backscatter Radar
OTH-B radars are bistatic systems; this is where the transmitter and receiver use different antennas at widely separated locations to achieve detection results. The importance of these systems is that they are not limited by line of sight, as are most radars, but they do require a very significant amount of processing power. This was the limiting factor with early Chinese OTH systems, but may no longer be the case. Backscatter systems function at the upper end of the High Frequency (HF) band, typically between 12 and 28 MHz. Because of the very long wavelengths involved, to be efficient, the antenna arrays are extremely large.
The Chinese OTH backscatter (OTH-B) radar is to provide surveillance of the South China Sea. The precise location of this facility has not been released. China is reported to have developed its first OTH-B radar back in 1967, although its designation is not known .It was stated that a full-scale development program into an OTH-B radar system was being carried out in China during November 1986. A ground-based OTHR named Type-110, an operational drill is being conducted for processing the received signal data from the targets in the East China Sea Fleet OTH-B radar station
China's OTH-B is said to use Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) transmissions to enable Doppler measurements, the suppression of static objects and the display of moving targets.
On 14th November 2001 www.china.com reported that CEIEC was (then) developing new OTH radar.
OTH –B Site Locations (Tx & Rx) in Hubei Province
Transmitter site: 32°20'11.28" N 112°42'29.56" E
Receiver site: 31°37'09.15" N 111°55'07.52" E
There are 3 groups of transmitter antenna array at this site, therefore theoretically, at least 3 radar signals and on 3 different radio frequencies can be transmitted from this site simultaneously.
Each group of antenna array can also be divided and used by multiple transmitters, so that more radar signals can be sent out from this site simultaneously.
In this site group of transmitter antenna array #1, consisting of 8 high-gain large log periodic antennas (LPA) for low to high frequency operations.
The 4 equipment rooms on the left might be accommodating 4 (or more) high power HF transmitters and phase combining network in order to provide the maximum transmitter output power. An array of 8 LPAs also provide higher antenna gain and plus high transmitter output power for the maximum effective radiating power (ERP).
The transmitters in the 4 equipment rooms and the 8 LPAs can also be divided and used individually, or in different paired combinations for multiple carrier/frequency operations. Actual signal analysis shows that the transmitters and LPAs are paired for 2 carriers/frequencies operations.
Project 2319 Tianbo [Sky Wave] Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar [OTH-B]
Sky wave over the horizon radar has a range of 1000 to 4000 km. China's sky-wave system radar system can detect U.S. aircraft and ships at a long distance from the coastline of the country.
Sky wave radar and ground wave radar collectively referred to as OTHR. OTHR has two basic types: the use of ionospheric shortwave reflection effect so that radio waves to the distant radar, known as sky-wave over-the-horizon radar; the use of longwave, medium and shortwave diffraction effect in the Earth's surface so that radio waves Radar spread along the curve, known as the ground wave over-the-horizon radar. OTHR is one of the technologies that Western countries have imposed on China's major blockades and embargoes. The former Soviet Union had only given some guidance to China theoretically, and China's own world of radar has truly reached its combat readiness level based entirely on China itself.
The first Chinese OTH-B radar receiver at Sanlichong, Nanzhang, near Xiangyang, Hube Province was completed in June 2007, while the transmitter was just beginning at the same time. The radar transmitter, about 100 km to the North-East of the receiver, is managed by Team No. 52 of Unit 95980 and is located 25km north of Zaoyang City, near the Zhouquiao reservoir.
In January 2016 it was reported that China Tianbo over-the-horizon radar had entered the end of the trails, is about to be delivered for use, and set up the corresponding Tianbo Brigade. This shows that the Chinese military is vigorously developing the Tianjun. At present, it is directly responsible for the headquarters. Henri Kenhmann of EastPedulum reported 18 January 2017 that "The satellite images as of December 31, 2016 show that China has started the construction of a second trans-horizon radar (OTH-B), like the first one that was built in the center of the country and able to spot its targets over a distance of more than 3,000 km..... unlike the first Chinese OTH-B radar that targets the wide area between the coast East of China to the second chain of islands, that is to say, to Guam, where is the largest US military base in the Western Pacific, this second trans-horizon radar covers the entire peninsula of Korea, and a large majority of Japan, from Hokkaido Island in the north to Okinawa Island in the south."
Chinese state media reported 15 March 2017 that China had installed another over-the-horizon Tianbo radar in Inner Mongolia. Its main objective was detecting an opponent's missile launch and the localization of an intercontinental ballistic missile. Within a minute, Tianbo can confirm the target to strike, as it detects the launched missile.
The over-the-horizon radar, which was installed in January 2017, has a range of about three-thousand kilometers, enabling it to detect not only South Korea and Japan but even the Western Pacific. According to the Chinese media, the Tianbo radar can also detect U.S. F-35B stealth fighters deployed at the Iwakuni base in Japan. It can also monitor aircraft carriers and warships within its radius.
The receiver for the second site is located at Darhan Muminggan, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the configuration of the first site, the transmitter for the second site might be expected to be found in the vicinit of Naomugeng Sumu, Siziwang, Ulanqab, Inner Mongolia. There is some sort of larger military-type tower at this location, which is at the intersection of two highways in an area that is otherwise the epitome of a trackless wasteland.
CEIEC Surface Wave-OTH (SW-OTH) Radar
The surface wave radar is another branch of the HF OTH-B radar and has been researched and developed since 1967.The range of ground-wave over-the-horizon radar is short, but it can monitor the area that cannot be covered by sky-wave over-the-horizon radar. It is designed to detect ships and low attitude aircraft outside the coastline. The maximum detection range of the surface wave radar system is no more than 400 km and it is used for local area defense. It also collects good quality clutter and tidal information. The price for this radar system is relatively low compared to HF OTH-B radar system. Based on the geographical location of China, the potential outside threat weapon would be further away compared to the 400 km distance detected by the surface wave OTH radar.
This system, albeit undesignated, is currently being promoted for export by CEIEC. Two antenna arrays are shown. The single mast may support a rhombic transmission array whilst the reception array of dipoles appears to be arranged across a bay.
OTH RADAR - Surface Wave Sites
System 1: (Zhejiang)
Pulse bandwidth: 50 kHz
PRF: 42 Hz
Frequency logged: 5MHz
System 2: (Fujian)
PRF: Frequency logged: 5MHz
System 3: (Hainan)
Modulation: Pulse bandwidth:
PRF: Frequency logged: 5 MHz
TX site: Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Fuzhou, Fujian, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antennas (LPA, single antenna).
This is the only transmitter antenna configuration in the radar network, only one LPA
is used per one transmitter.
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Zhangpu, Fujian, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
TX site: Guangdong, 2 transmitters, 2x Log Periodic Antenna Arrays (LPAA).
RX site: 1x Monopole antenna array.
Construction took place in 2014 to relocate the Control and RX sites that are close to a nearby developing industrial park.
According to radio frequency observation, the co-located transmitters can be operated simultaneously, and the networks normally operate below 10 MHz.
Normally, all the Chinese OTH-SW radars will be up at the same time using different frequencies, and their OTH-B radars will be operating simultaneously.
Pulse Doppler Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (PD-OTH-B) Radar
Another branch of China OTH-B radar is Pulse Doppler OTH-B (PD-OTH-B) radar. In order to fulfill the performance of bistatic OTHR, the synchronization is a critical issue to deal with. Based on the Pulse Doppler (PD) technique, the system can successfully solve the synchronization problems of time, phase and spatial processing and handle sophisticated two dimensional (2D) signal processing techniques of ranging and speed measuring. The detection range of single PD-OTH-B radar is between 700 and 3,500 km with coverage up to six million km2 in a 60o azimuth sector. PD-OTH-B radar can counter low altitude penetrating bombers, have early warning ability against intercontinental ballistic missiles and deployed long range surveillance ships. The resolution of the PD-OTH-B radar to detect aircraft is 2.5o in azimuth, 20-40 km in range and 0.3 Hz in Doppler frequency. The transmitter and receiver sites of the experimental radar are both located in the middle of China. The radar beam points to the north-west region of China. A coherent transponding site is set up at the place 1,486 km away from the receiver location for the calibration, the discrimination of ionosphere mode, and the determination of sub-clutter visibility (SCV) of 55 to 60 dB.
Chinese Ground based Long-Range Early Warning System
China has also developed long-range early warning radar system, similar to that of the US PAVE PAWS. The long-range radar system is able to detect targets 5,500 kilometers away. It can be used to direct the People's Liberation Army's air defense missiles to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Such systems are established at space monitoring station in Heilongjiang province in the northeast region of China, another one with similar facilities in Xinjiang in China's northwest and another one in Fujian in the southeast. The warning system in Xinjiang is apparently designed to monitor Siberia while the one in Fujian at check Alaska and Japan.
These radars given a comprehensive anti-ballistic missile defense capability to China.
Chinese work on LPARs began in 1970. They were intended to catalogue space targets and provide for early warning of missile attacks. The MEI's 14th Institute [the Nanjing Institute of Electronic Technology], located in Nanjing, and is China's leading organization for phased array radar development. A number of Chinese technical papers have appeared in Western publications concerning phased array radar operations, but open sources were extremely vague, until recently, on the details of Chinese LPAR developments.
As early as 1958, 14th Institute director of Shen Zhongyi began to organize ultra-long-range radar research. In 1959 the Insitute developed simulation radar, for the first time received a 380,000 km from Earth, the strong echoes. The 14th Institute research base made variety of new radar technological breakthroughs. In 1965, demonstration projects began on 640-4 and in 1966 officially launched the project consisting mainly of two radars: 110 single-precision tracking radar pulse remote (referred to 110 radar) and 111 phased array early warning radar (later called the 7010 Radar). The 640-4 early warning system work is limited to ground-based radar system, not only serving the anti-missile project, but also serve other aerospace projects, such as targets for the outer space cataloging and strategic early warning experiments.
The 640-4 project began phased array radar research. The 40 meter X 20 meter radar antenna was built into the Huangyang Mountain slope 1,600 meters above sea level in Xuanhua, Hebei Province, about 140 kilometers northwest of Beijing. On 25 January 1970, 14th Institute conducted a full mobilization, and launched a comprehensive development of 7010 tasks. Engineering and technical personnel participated in the 7010 Project, without a break Chinese New Year, to engage in research topics assault trials and demonstration program, this campaign was working at the same time in all regions of the fraternal support units. In May 1970, the CMC issued to the Fourteenth Institute a phased array early warning radar research task 7010.
P-band Strategic Large Phased Array Radar
Established at an unknown space monitoring station in Heilongjiang province in the country's northeast, the long-range radar system is able to detect targets 5,500 kilometers away.
The main task of the P-band long-range early warning phased array radar is to intercept and track strategic missiles and predict the trajectory with the information it can support the missile early warning satellite. The early warning radar detects the incoming missile as soon as possible and provides sufficient interception system Reaction time to various SAM systems in the Chinese inventory.
In September 2017 at the Beijing Exhibition Hall the "five years of endeavor" exhibit was held in large-scale achievement exhibition. This featured first public display of the domestic P-band long-range strategic early warning phased array radar. It is part of China's effort to build a new generation of network information systems, part of the military's long-range anti-missile and strategic information warning core equipment.
On 08 October 2017 CCTV reported on the large-scale achievements exhibition "Five Years of Striving for Endeavor" a huge radar displayed. This is a large domestic P-band large-scale radar array.
Analysts pointed out that this P-band radar has a height of 10 floors, a width of 35 meters. It belongs to a long wave radar, the working frequency band 30 ~ 300MHz, the wavelength is 1m~10m - specifically, a frequency of 250-500 MHz and a 1.2 meters to 60 cm wavelength. The use of more than 12,000 T/R components forms a large radar array with a diameter of 30 meters and a detection range of more than 5000 km.
By deploying such large-scale radar around the country, China can easily monitor the entire eastern hemisphere region and build a powerful surveillance network for China.
The P-band long-range early warning phased array radar's main mission is the missile early warning satellite information support, the strategic missile capture and tracking, and trajectory prediction. As is well known, ballistic missiles have the characteristics of fast speed, long range and small radar reflection area. It is very difficult to find the target in time only by the radar of the interception system. Therefore, the early warning radar is required to find the incoming missile as early as possible and provide sufficient Reaction time.
The radar system is phased array, the function distance is more than 3,000-kilometer, the working frequency is low, the general work is in P band, the antenna diameter is large, the effective working diameter is more than 20 meters; the peak power reaches MW; the signal pulse is wide, and the signal processing mode is pulse stamping and accumulation.
This long-range early warning phased array radar uses the relatively rare P-band. Compared to the UHF band, the P-band keeps the detection distance far away, and is more accurate than the UHF band. P-band between VHF band [214–236 MHz] and L-band [1250-1380 MhZ], frequency range 230~1000 MHz even covers the UHF band [425-610 MhZ]. L-band is also a very popular early warning radar band. The P-band wavelength is longer, so the absorption of the atmosphere is small, in the atmosphere of the propagation of signal attenuation, signal strength, detection distance is therefore farther. The P-band belongs to the meter-wave band, with high price/performance ratio, low manufacturing difficulty, multipurpose/multi-target detection, which is the main reason of choosing P-Band of China's domestic long-range early-warning radar.
Its performance is estimated by Chinese sources to exceed the PAVE PAWS radar deployed in Taiwan, and the next generation PAVE PAWS, the United States BMEWS phased array early warning radar, is comparable.
X-band Large Phased Array Radar
In addition to the P-band radar equipped this time, China has also established several large phased array radar arrays to meet the early warning needs of the Chinese team's strategic missiles. In Heilongjiang, China, a non-rotatable 30X24-meter large X-band radar station was established. The main task of this X-band radar is to carry out target interception, tracking and identification with the information support of the P-band long-range early warning phased array radar, and to provide accurate early warning target information for Hongqi-19 and Kinetic-3( other SAM systems also) missile interception systems.
The X-band corresponds to a wavelength of 3 cm. and has a frequency range between 8–12 gigahertz. A radar operating in the P-band [UHF band with Chinese characteristics], can sweep a broad space at a range of several thousand kilometers, acquiring and tracking incoming threat objects. The narrowly focused X band radar can focus on a specific object, and could be used to determine which objects are a threat and which are decoys. The higher-frequency X-band radar is more accurate than UHF, and can concentrate energy on a target to make successful detection and tracking more likely.
According to a statement by the CETC group, a new radar, "important and the first of its kind in China," was admitted to active duty on September 27, 2016. The exact type of radar was not disclosed by the text, but it specifies that it is a "historical" moment and an "important step in the construction of the overall system of the field". The text adds that several years were necessary between the design, construction, testing, calibration and the first experimental exploitation of the site. The importance of this inauguration can also be illustrated by the fact that the Director of the ECCC Institute No. 14 - one of the two most important radar research offices in the country - attended the ceremony with all development team. According to some sources familiar with the case, several top Chinese Air Force (PLAAF) officials and an early warning missile unit were also involved.
According to one of the academic papers written by researchers at CETC Institute No. 14, this radar is 30 meters in diameter and its operation requires that the flatness of the face of the radar be less than 3.8mm. As a result, the radar is cut into 60 rectangular dies of a dimension of 2 meters x 7.5 meters, ie a total area of 900m².
Possible LPAR Sites
Next Part will Cover Indian SAM Systems