Cruise missile is a type of guided missile. Cruise missiles differ from ballistic missiles in that they fly towards their target at lower altitudes, remaining within the Earth’s atmosphere throughout their trajectory. Cruise missiles are typically armed with conventional or nuclear warheads, but can also be equipped with chemical or biological warheads. In this article you can read about cruise missile of India & China.
The BrahMos (PJ-10) is a joint venture between the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace.
BrahMos is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation. The land-launched, Air-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service.
Compared to existing state of the art subsonic cruise missiles BrahMos Has
Currently BrahMos Aerospace is looking at upgrading the current BrahMos engine from 3 to 5 Mach. Scientists are trying to develop a supersonic-hypersonic engine. For that BrahMos aerospace want to do the thermal management with some kind of coatings on different components so that they can withstand high temperature. This will make current BrahMos supersonic Missile into a mach 5 hypersonic cruise Missile.
Land based BrahMos
Land based weapon complex comprises of four to six Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL) controlled by a Command Post (MCP), and a Mobile Replenishment Vehicle (MRV).
MAL is an autonomous vehicle with its own communication, power supply and fire control system. Three BrahMos missiles placed in three independent containers are installed on the MAL. Land based system is also equipped with Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System. . The advanced seeker of BrahMos is unique which helps it to hit targets, which are insignificant in terms of size, in a cluster of large buildings. India is now the only nation in the world with this advanced technology. BrahMos became the only supersonic cruise missile possessing advanced capability of selection of a particular land target amongst a group of targets, providing an edge to the user with precise hit.
Indian army inducted the land attack Block-1 variant from 2007.
The advanced Block-2 variant of the missile with supersonic steep dive and target discrimination capabilities has also inducted.
Block III has advanced guidance and upgraded software, incorporating high manoeuvres at multiple points and steep dive from high altitude. The steep dive capability of the Block III enables it to hit targets hidden behind a mountain range. It was deployed in Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh. It can engage ground targets from an altitude as low as 10 meters for surgical strikes without any collateral damage.
Mobile Autonomous Launcher (MAL) is the state of the art land based weapon complex. It consist of three missiles in ready to launch configuration housed in containers, most modern means of communications, radar receivers for target information and an ultra advanced Fire Control system for coordinating the launch.
The launcher is built on an all terrain TATRA vehicle. The missiles can be launched in single or salvo of 2 to 3 seconds within four minute of receiving command, depending on the commanders input, it can fire toward a single or three different targets.
The containers maintain thermal conditioning of the canisters and ensure the interface with the launch beam. While being transported, these containers are carried in horizontal position. The canister is brought to vertical position through the operation of a hydraulic system.
The MAL consists of a 40kVA diesel driven generator to maintain power supply. Besides a single phase UPS with battery backup of 15 Minutes is fitted in the vehicle.
Launcher also has various communication equipments, each operating in different frequency bands. The launcher control system LCS functions in coordination with fire control system and communication system. The MAL has a fully protected equipment cabin from where operations could be carried out in case of Nuclear Biological chemical Attack. It also has a containerized power supply system.
In a group of four the Mobile autonomous Launchers are controlled by Mobile Command Post.
The MCP provides telemetry and target data with instruction to each Mal for engaging specific targets or single target. The command post assists in integrating the MAL into the network centric battlefield area. It is equipped with all modern types of communication systems.
Submarine launched BrahMos
BrahMos missile is capable of being launched from submarine from a depth of 40 – 50 meters. The missile can be installed in a modular launcher vertically in the pressure hull of the submarine. The missile has identical configuration similar to the ship based system.
The canistered missile launch vertically, the nose cap prevents water from entering the air intake during the underwater flight. Once the missile emerges from the water, the sensors provide out of water command and the nose cap is fired for turning the missile in the desired direction to hit the target.
Submarine version of BrahMos is fully ready but there is no public information about the induction of Sub Launched BrahMos. In late January 2016, Russia confirmed that future Indian-made submarines would be armed with smaller version of the missile that could fit inside a torpedo tube.
Air launched BrahMos (BrahMos A)
The BrahMos-A is a modified air-launched variant of the missile. BrahMos A has a range of 500 km which can be launched from a Sukhoi Su-30MKI as a standoff weapon.
BrahMos A can be released from the height of 500 to 14,000 meters. After release, the missile free falls for 100–150 meters then goes into a cruise phase at 14,000 meters and finally the terminal phase at 15 meters.
40 IAF SU-30MKI are to undergo modifications to be equipped to carry the missile. Sukhoi had integrated with the world’s largest airborne launcher for BrahMos A. On 20 January 2020, the IAF commissioned its first squadron of Su-30MKI fighters equipped with the PJ-10 BrahMos-A missile. The IAF is expected to procure at least 200 air-launched BrahMos.
BrahMos Costal defense
On August 8 2019 Indian MoD cleared the procurement of an unknown number of Next Generation Maritime Mobile Coastal Batteries that would (NGMMCB) be fitted with supersonic BrahMos surface-to-surface cruise missile.
The DAC did not reveal an induction schedule or where the new weapons systems will be deployed. According to IHS Jane’s, the NGMMCBs could be stationed at INS Trata, a missile battery base of the Indian Navy at Mumbai.
The land-based BrahMos missiles will be an anti-ship missile fired from a land-based mobile autonomous launcher and, thus, a hybrid of the naval and Army variants. The missiles will get targeting inputs from Scanter radars. The radars can track multiple simultaneous air and surface targets up to a range of 170 km. One radar can cover up to 98,000 sq km of situational awareness. Each BrahMos NGMMCB will comprise a single command post, two radar units and two firing units with three anti-ship missiles each.
Each battery will also have a reconnaissance vehicle and two vehicles carrying Man-Portable Air Defense Missile Systems (MANPADs) to provide short-range defense against aerial targets. The systems will be delivered within two years from the date of orders being placed.
Extended Range BrahMos
India Joined the 34 nation Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in June 2016. Which helped India to extend the range of BrahMos up to 800Km After that India successfully tested Extended range BrahMos several times , the most recent test was on 30 September 2020, where India successfully test-fired an extended range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile up to 400Km.
Mass : 3000kg, 2500Kg (air launched)
Range : Up to 800 Km, 500Km (Air Launched)
Guidance : INS (Mid course), Active radar Homing + G3OM (Terminal)
Sea skimming : 3-4m
Warhead : 200Kg (Semi armor piercing/ Nuclear), 300Kg (Air Launched)
Prolusion : Solid rocket booster + Liquid Fuel Ramjet
Speed : Mach 3, BrahMos ER Mach 3 - 4
CEP : 1m
Surface-launched, Block I
Surface-launched, upgraded variants
BrahMos NG (next generation) - is a new lighter variant of the current BrahMos. The feasibility studies and engineering analysis are over. BrahMos NG can perfectly integrate into LCA, LCA MK-II & AMCA. BrahMos-NG will be ready in the next four years.
The weight of the missile will be slashed from 3000 kg to around 1600 kg. The BrahMos NG will also be 3 meter shorter than the 9-metre long BrahMos. BrahMos-NG will have lesser RCS and will have more advance electronic countermeasures.
BrahMos-NG will be compatible for launches through ground launch vehicles, naval assets, submarines torpedo tubes and air launch as well.
LCA Tejas and Mig 29K will carry 2 BrahMos NG.SU30mki and Rafale? will be able to carry 5 BrahMos NG. This will significantly increase the firepower of Indian Air force and navy.
BrahMos air to air missile
BrahMos aerospace is planning to develop the air-to-air version of BrahMos NG with anti-AWACS capability. The range can be in excess of 400-500 km and the first test will be sometime in the near future.
Hypersonic BrahMos (BrahMos 2K)
BrahMos aerospace is moving ahead with hypersonic version of BrahMos named BrahMos 2K.
According to latest reports BrahMos-2K will be developed in two versions. The first version will have a speed of Mach 5 it will be developed by 2024. The second version, a mach 7 capable BrahMos 2k will be developed by 2027.
Current mach 3 capable Ramjet will be replaced with a mach 5 Ramjet engine. Mach 7 BrahMos 2 will have a scramjet engine in place of ramjet. The new scramjet engine can be upgraded to reach up to a speed of Mach 9. BrahMos Aerospace already carried out a series of lab tests at the speed of Mach 6.5.
Hypersonic BrahMos is expected to have a range in between 500km -800 Km depending on the flight profile. That is BrahMos 2K can achieve 500Km range in Low-level flight Profile and will have a range of 800Km in a High-level Flight. Similar like BrahMos, BrahMos 2K can be deployed in all kind of platforms.
Nirbhay is a long-range, all-weather; subsonic cruise missile. The missile uses a solid propellant booster motor that is jettisoned shortly after launch, switching over to a turbojet engine with a cruise speed of 0.7 Mach and a reported range of 800-1,000 km. Nirbhay has both terrain-hugging and sea-skimming capability that helps it avoid detection and counter-measures. India moves Nirbhay missiles to defend LAC at October 2020.
Officials at Bengaluru-based Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) which is in charge of the Nirbhay program also confirmed that development work on the Nirbhay program is now complete and now their focus has shifted towards development of user-specific variants for the Air force, Navy, and Army based on their requirements which they plan to accomplish within the next 3-5 years.
According to media reports, the Indian Army, not only has asked for greater range and also wants terrain hugging features along with additional navigational equipment which can attack targets even if they are hidden in mountain terrains.
According to media reports Nirbhay cruise missile program is closed .Nirbhay project has taken a new desi avatar with a renewed outlook and will be now known as the Indigenous Technology Cruise Missile (ITCM). The first launch of Nirbhay/ITCM with indigenous Small Turbo Fan Engine and RF seeker (developed by RCI, Hyderabad) is expected to be conducted at end of October 2020.
Launch Weight : 1,500 to 1,600 kg
Payload : 450 kg of HE/submunitions, nuclear warhead with a 12 kT yield.
Guidance : INS/GPS /active-radar homing
Range : 1000Km
Kill Probability : more than 90 percent (Single shot)
Speed : 0.7 Mach
Altitude : 5 meters
Nirbhay Air launched Version: Nirbhay AL-1 is believed to be an air launched version of the Nirbhay missile. Nirbhay AL-1 won’t have launch booster. It may use the same pylon developed for Air launched variant of BrahMos. A new prototype will be ready for first flight test from Sukhoi-30 by 2021.
Nirbhay Naval Variant: Indian Navy has asked, DRDO for a Ship-based Nirbhay Cruise missile variant with a range in excess of 1500 km and could prefer a range close to 2000 km, which DRDO is currently studying by making available extra onboard fuel in the missile and by also improving fuel burn ratio but Indian Army has come up with new requirements which can take more developmental time. Submarine launched Nirbhay was also planned.
Smart Cruise Missile
DRDO is planning to develop a New Smart Cruise missile with stealth characteristics. This missile will have a range of 350-500km. This stealth cruise missile will be available in Land Attack and Anti-ship versions. Smart missile will be an air launched weapon for IAF and Indian Navy fighter aircrafts.
India got SCALP EG stealth cruise missile as part of its Rafale fighter acquisition. Rafale can carry two of the missiles.
Storm Shadow / SCALP is the air-launched long range, conventionally armed, deep strike weapon, designed to meet the demanding requirements of pre-planned attacks against high value fixed or stationary targets. Able to be operated in extreme conditions, the weapon offers operators a highly flexible, deep-strike capability based around a sophisticated mission planning system. The BROACH warhead features an initial penetrating charge to clear soil or enter a bunker, then a variable delay fuse to control detonation of the main warhead.
It is a fire and forget missile, programmed before launch. Once launched, the missile cannot be controlled or commanded to self-destroy and its target information cannot be changed. Mission planners programme the missile with the target air defenses and target. The missile follows a path semi-autonomously, on a low flight path guided by GPS and terrain mapping to the target area. Close to the target, the missile climbs and then bunts into a dive. Climbing to altitude is intended to achieve the best probability of target identification and penetration. During the bunt, the nose cone is jettisoned to allow a high resolution thermographic camera (Infrared homing) to observe the target area. The missile then tries to locate its target based upon its targeting information (DSMAC). If it cannot, and there is a high risk of collateral damage, it will fly to a crash point instead of risking inaccuracy.
Recent enhancements include the capability to relay target information just before impact, usage of one-way (link back) data link, to relay battle damage assessment information back to the host aircraft. Another feature of the weapon is in-flight re-targeting capability, using a two-way data link.
Range : 560 km
Propulsion : TRI 60-30 turbojet (5.4kN)
Speed : Mach 0.8
Warhead : 450 kg
Guidance : INS, GPS, Terrain reference navigation, IIR seeker.
The Kh-59 is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile. It is primarily a land-attack missile.
The Kh-59ME is an improved version of the Kh-59 and was introduced in the early 1990s. It features two larger fragmentation and penetration warheads, minor airframe changes, and a new propulsion system for extended range. The missile can fly at altitudes between 7 and 1,000 meters. The nose-mounted TV-sensor relays target area imagery to the launch airborne platform and the pilot selects the impact point using the aircraft-mounted APK-9ME pod.
Range : 115Km
Warhead : 320 Kg, Cluster/ Shaped charge
Propulsion : Solid rocket motor + R95 TP-300 turbojet/turbofan
Speed : Mach 0.7-0.9
Guidance : INS, TV Guidance, MMW radar seeker
Kh 29 T/Kh 29 L
The Kh-29 is a short range, supersonic air-to-surface missile family intended to destroy stationary hardened ground and surface targets. The spectrum of targets for the Kh-29 missile family are big railway and highway bridges, industrial installations, concrete runways, aircraft in reinforced concrete shelters, and surface vessels displacing up to 10,000 tons.
The Kh-29L is a semi-active laser homing variant, with a 24N1 seeker. The Kh-29T is an electro-optical variant with a daylight television seeker.
The Kh-29T features a TV-based guidance system. The Kh-29L features a semi-active laser guidance system. Kh-29L has a range of 8–10 km.
Mass : 660Kg (Kh29L), 685Kg (Kh29T)
Warhead : 320Kg, HE armor piercing
Propulsion : Solid rocket booster
Range : 10Km (Kh29L), 12Km (Kh29T)
Speed : Mach 1.2
The Kh-35 is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. Indian Navy Brahmaputra class, Delhi class destroyers are carrying this missile. Each of these classes houses 16 of these missiles in four quadruple KT-184 launchers, angled at 30 degrees, two on either side of the bridge superstructure. All 16 Kh 35 can be ripple-fired in 2 to 3 second intervals. Su 30 MKIs carrying the air launched version of Kh 35.
Mass : 520Kg (air launched), 610Kg (Ship launched)
Warhead : 145Kg, HE Fragmentation shaped charge
Propulsion : R95TP-300 Turbojet
Range : 130Km
Flight altitude: 4m at terminal stage
Speed : 0.8-0.95 mach
Guidance : INS, active radar homing (Terminal)
Kh 31 P
The Kh-31P medium-range supersonic anti-radiation missile is designed to counter enemy air defenses and has a high supersonic speed. It features high kill probability against radar systems that have been turned-off when attacked.
The Kh-31P is the basic anti-radiation variant of the missile with a band specific Avtomatika L-111E family interferometric seeker, which uses an array of seven cavity back spiral antennas on a gimbaled platform. The seeker can home on pulsed or CW emitters. Unique missiles are supplied with band specific seekers and these must be chosen during sortie planning. If irradiated by enemy radar, the missile can perform an evasive 10-g pull-up maneuver.
The Kh-31A is a high speed anti-shipping missile based on the Kh-31P airframe. The Kh-31A is equipped with the ARGSN-31 jam-resistant active radar guidance system capable of discriminating the target from a dense homogenous group
Mass : 610Kg (Kh 31A) 600Kg (Kh 31P)
Range : 25-103Km ( Kh 31A) , 110Km( Kh 31P)
Speed : Mach 4.5 (Terminal)
Propulsion : Solid rocket motor+ ramjet
Warhead : HE Shaped charge, 94Kg (Kh 31A), 87Kg (Kh 31P)
Guidance : INS+ RF Seeker (Kh 31A), INS+Passive radar (Kh31P)
Launch Platform : Su 30MKI, Tejas, Mig 29K
Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Recently India ordered Harpoon Block II air-launched missiles for its P8I ASW aircrafts. The AGM-84L is a solid propellant sea-skimming missile with a range of up to 250Km and shall enable the Indian Navy to undertake Airborne maritime surface target engagement tactics more effectively.
Indian Navy also has 22 Harpoon submarine launched anti-ship missiles (UGM-84L Harpoon Block II).
Range : 250Km
Guidance : Inertial, semi-active radar
Payload : 224 kg
Warhead : HE fragmentation
Propulsion : Turbojet, solid propellant
Speed : 0.85 Mach
The Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft for hypersonic speed flight, developed by India's DRDO. HSTDV is not a weapon itself but and is being developed as a carrier vehicle for hypersonic and long-range cruise missiles. HSTDV is a major programme to develop hypersonic technologies, so that a missile in excess of 10-12 Mach speed can be developed.
India on 7-sep-2020 conducted a successful test flight of the Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The HSDTV has a range of uses, including missiles of the future for air defense, surveillance and reconnaissance besides in the development of energy-efficient, low cost and reusable satellite-launch vehicles.
Naval Anti-Ship Missile (NASM0 is a helicopter launched anti-ship missile. NASM poster revealed first time in Def Expo 2020. At the Def Expo show NASM is specifically designated ‘SR’, confirming that a longer range version will also be planned. There may be a weapon system NASM MR? with range in excess of 150-km.
Range : 5-55Km
Launch Platform : helicopter
Weight : 375 Km
Warhead : 100Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Motor
Booster Motor : 3.5T (inline ejectable)
Sustainer Motor : 120Kgf
Navigation : Midcourse INS& altimeter, Terminal IIR seeker
Cruise Altitude : 15m in midcourse, 5m in terminal
Launch altitude : 91m to3km
Impact point : water Line
Speed : 0.8 Mach
Control : Aerodynamic & JVC
Target : Ships & patrol Boats
The Long Range Land Attack Cruise Missile (LRLACM) was unveiled at the recent DefExpo 2020. This new system will have a range in excess of 1000 km launched from a UVLM (Universal Vertical Launcher Module). The unique UVLMs in operation is designed, developed and patented by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is the result of a naval requirement projected to the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The first trials of the missile could begin in early 2023.
LRLACM is based on the technologies of Nirbhay Cruise missile. The LRLACM will be a vastly improved version of the Nirbhay, not just in terms of range, but also possibly its propulsion scheme.
Around 20 developmental flights are being planned of the LRLACM, tipped to be developed with completely indigenous systems. The terminal homing featured will be aided by a indigenous radio frequency (RF) seeker. Similar to Nirbhay, LRLACM too will be capable of flying at low altitude with sea-skimming capabilities.
Once DRDO completes the trial phase of the new missile, the Indian Navy is keen to place an order on development cum production partner (DCPP). An order worth Rs 5,000 crore for 200 LRLACMs will be placed on the DCPP by Indian Navy.
Chinese Cruise Missiles
The Chang Jian (Long Sword) CJ-10 is a long range, surface-to-surface, sub sonic cruise missile system. CJ 10 which was reportedly first tested in the fall of 2004. Other reporting indicates integrated flight tests as early as 2003. China unveiled the DH-10 during its National Day Parade in 2006 .It is a land based derivative of the Kh-55/AS-15 Kent, at least six being illegally transferred from the Ukraine to China and the detailed production engineering data packages of the Kh-55 LACM were bought from Ukraine. The Tomahawk missiles that were unexploded and purchased from Iraq, Pakistan, and Serbia also helped Chinese to develop CJ10. Russian documents suggested a complete production facility had been transferred to Shanghai, for the development of a nuclear-armed cruise missile (KH-55).
The Center for Strategic and International Studies believes that the CJ-10 is a member of the Hongniao (HN) series of missiles; Ian Easton believes that the CJ-10 is the same missile as the HN-2, and that the HN-3 is the "DH-10A".
The second-generation LACM DH-10, ground-launched CJ 10 has a range of 1,500+ km and employs INS and TERCOM for guidance, as well as probably DSMAC for terminal guidance.
Ground-launched CJ-10 requires an additional small rocket booster to get the missile off the launcher where upon the engine is ignited until the missile flies aerodynamically. Air-launching version (CJ-10K) does not require a booster rocket, but only a release mechanism to drop the missile away from the aircraft before the engine takes over.
CJ-10 is mounted on WS2400 vehicles. WS2400 series is 20 tonne 8 x 8 cross-country vehicles, these vehicles are copies of the Russian MAZ-543/7910 8 x 8 TEL. When used as the TEL for the CJ-10, it is designated as the PHL-03 and has a maximum road speed of 60 km/hr with a maximum range of 650km using sealed roads. It can climb a 57% slope and cross water up to 1.1. Meters deep.
Status : In Service, 2006-present
Range : 1500- 2000km
Guidance : Integrated inertial/GPS, supported by terrain contour mapping and digital scene matching for terminal homing
CEP : 10 m.
Propulsion : Solid Rocket Booster
Warheads : 4 different warheads are available; a heavy variant weighing 500kg, and three 350kg variants: high explosive blast, submunition and earth penetrator.
Launch Platform: TEL
The YJ-100 is a high subsonic anti-ship version of the CJ-10 with a range of 800 km .The missile can be air-launched by the H-6K bomber and JH-7B fighter bomber. The YJ-100 will have onboard radar.
The YJ-100 guidance system combines the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) for mid-course guidance; and an active radar seeker and an infrared seeker in the terminal phase. The existence of the YJ-100 long-range anti-ship missile was leaked in January 2014.
YJ-100 Ship launched
It is a derivative of the YJ-100 air-launched anti-ship missile. Sea-launched version may feature a shorter range if not provided with a booster or additional fuel. The existence of the sea-launched YJ-100 long-range anti-ship missile was leaked in February 2015.
While subsonic, the missile comprises with a trajectory specialized to evade interception. This provides the destroyer with an overwhelming range advantage. The PLA Navy is estimated to be planning to deploy up to 18 of the Type 052D destroyers, with a new elongated variant (161m rather than 157m) reportedly laid down in July 2018.
Status : In Service
IOC : 2020
Range : 800-1000 Km
Warhead : 500kg
Guidance system: INS, GPS for mid-course guidance, active radar seeker and an infrared seeker in the terminal phase.
KD-20 (K/AKD20, CJ-10K) is the first generation of modern long range Chinese ALCM in the same class of American AGM-86 and Russian Kh-55, designed to attack a variety of fixed, high-value targets. Its configuration features a cylindrical body with two retractable wings, four foldable tailfins as well as a concealed belly engine inlet. However the missile appears to lack any significant stealth features. KD-20 is based on CJ-10/DH-10/DF-10 land-based cruise missile which in turn adopted some Russian Kh-55 technology. Chinese H-6M missile carrier can carry up to 2 KD 20. As a strategic weapon, it is capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warhead. However so far there is no indication that the missile is nuclear armed. The missile also has a DSMAC optical window under its nose which gives it an improved accuracy. The missile can also be carried by the H-6K and H-6N missile carriers (up to 6). KD-20 is expected to be carried internally by the new H-20 strategic stealth bomber still under development.
Status : In Service?
Range : 2000 - 2,200km (depending on the payload it carries)
Guidance : INS and TERCOM guidance (coupled with GPS/Beidou?)
Images suggested that a new variant of KD-20 (KD-20A?) has been developed. It features new high-definition imaging radar in the head section in place of DSMAC optical window which further improves its anti-jamming capability as well as its accuracy at night and in bad weather conditions.
Specifications of KD-20A (estimated)
Length : 8.9m.
Weight : 1.7t.
Cruising speed : Mach 0.48-0.77.
Cruising altitude : 40-100m.
Range : 3,000km.
Propulsion : Two stage Solid Rocket Motor
The YJ-18 was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) Third Academy starting around the mid-1990s. China could deploy YJ-18 variants to replace diverse ASCMs across the PLA. The missile was finalized in 2013 and entered service in 2014. The YJ-18 bearing a close external resemblance to the supersonic Russian 3M-54E.
The YJ-18’s have greater range and speed than previous Chinese ASCMs, along with its wide deployment across PLA platforms, would significantly increase China’s antiaccess/area denial capabilities. The YJ-18 probably will be widely deployed on China’s indigenously built ASCM-capable submarines and newest surface ships by 2020, and China could develop a variant of the YJ-18 to replace older missiles in its shore-based ASCM arsenal.
YJ-18 features a multistage propulsion system, using an air-breathing engine to cruise at Mach 0.8, when the missile is about 20 nautical miles (nm) from its target, the warhead accelerates using solid rocket booster to travel at Mach 2.5 – 3.0 in a terminal phase. The more fuel-efficient subsonic stage of the YJ-18’s flight increases its overall range, and the supersonic terminal flight stage reduces the time adversary forces have to engage the missile.
YJ-18 has a range of 220-540 Km. The YJ-18’s predecessor on many Chinese submarines, the YJ-82, has a range of about 20 nm. The YJ-18 most likely follows a sea-skimming flight path as it approaches its target. By flying only a few meters above the sea, the missile attempts to evade detection by surface radar until it breaks the radar horizon 16 to 18 nm from its target.YJ-18’s warhead weighs 300 kilograms (kg), though some other sources suggest it weighs only 140 kg.
China is focused on building a robust C4ISR system for detecting ships and aircraft over the horizon, which would provide targeting data to antiship missiles such as the YJ-18. This system incorporates an array of ship-borne and land-based radar (including over-the-horizon radar); a constellation of imaging satellites; and a variety of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance aircraft. However, China’s C4ISR infrastructure might be insufficient to generate and fuse the targeting information necessary to take advantage of the YJ-18’s assessed range. According to the US Department of Defense, “It is unclear whether China has the capability to collect accurate targeting information and pass it to launch platforms in time for successful [antiship missile] strikes in sea areas beyond the first island chain. Moreover, some systems in China’s C4ISR infrastructure may be vulnerable to countermeasures, such as electromagnetic warfare operations, that could degrade the ability of the PLA to detect, identify, and track enemy ships and employ antiship missiles against them in a contingency.
The YJ-18 most likely is capable of using waypoint navigation and onboard radar-seeking technology to navigate to its target.
Status : In Service
Range : 220- 540Km
Guidance : Active radar seeker/Beidou
Warhead : 150- 300Kg High Explosives or Anti Radaition
Speed : Mach 0.8, Mach 3 at terminal Stage (AShM)
Launch Platform: Type 052D, Type 055
China has developed several YJ-18 variants, primarily differentiated by their respective launch platforms.
YJ-18: The first production model. It was designed to launch from submarine torpedo tubes for antiship missions, and may have a shorter range than later variants. It entered service in 2015.
YJ-18A: A model designed to fit shipboard vertical launch systems (VLS). It is fitted aboard the Luyang III-class destroyer and Renhai-class cruiser. It entered service in 2015.
YJ-18B: A submarine-launched variant designed for land-attack missions. It fits in VLS tubes aboard the Song-class SS, Yuan-class SSP, and Shang-class SSN. It entered service between 2016-2019.
YJ-18C: A March 2019 report said that China was developing the YJ-18C, a land-attack variant designed to deploy in commercial shipping containers. Russia has developed a similar containerized launch system for its 3M-54 Klub-K missile, which fits four missiles into a single container.
Coastal Defense Variant: Images suggest China also deploys a truck-based YJ-18 variant for coastal defense, although U.S. government sources have not confirmed this development. It reportedly entered service around 2015. China may also be developing an aircraft-launched variant as well
SY-1 is the original Chinese version of Soviet P-15 Termit missile. The main difference between P-15 Termit and SY-1 missiles is that the unreliable aneroid altimeter of P-15 Termit was replaced by a much more reliable radar altimeter in SY-1. The successor of SY-1, designated as SY-1A. SY 1A is fully solid state (electronics) with integrated circuitry and a mono-pulse terminal guidance radar seeker replacing the original conical scanning radar seeker and new radar altimeter entered service as SY-1A in early 1980s. The missile received a NATO reporting name CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush.
Length : 6.55 metre
Diameter : 0.76 metre
Wingspan : 2.4 metre
Weight : 2,095 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 150 km
Cruising altitude: < 20 m
Guidance : Inertial guidance + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (SY-1); or inertial + active monopulse radar (SY-1A)
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
SY-2 was a new version based on SY-1. The liquid fuel engine of SY-1 was hazardous and unreliable, so a solid fuel rocket engine was developed for SY-2. This engine also made it possible to reduce the size and weight of the missile while providing greater range. The warhead weight is also reduced, but its effectiveness was actually increased when a time-delayed semi-armor-piercing high-explosive design was adopted. The extended version developed is designated SY-2A.
Warhead : 365 kg shape charged high-explosive
Propulsion : A solid rocket engine and a solid booster
Speed : Mach 0.9
Range : 130 km
Cruising altitude : 20 meter
Guidance : Inertial + active radar
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
The HY-1 is a reverse engineered P-15 Termit / SS-N-2 Styx. Development of this clone commenced during the early 1960s. The missile was eventually certified for production in 1974. The HY-1 received two separate NATO reporting names, the CSS-N-2 Safflower for the ship to ship version and the CSSC-2 Silkworm for the land based coastal defense variant.
Status : Retired
Weight : 2,300 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 85 km
Cruising altitude : 100~300m (early models); <20m (later models)
Guidance : Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (early models); or inertial + monopulse active radar (later models)
Single-shot kill probability: 70%
The HY-2 is identical to the HY-1 but with a further stretched body. The missile features a round nose accommodating the radar seeker, a pair of mid-mounted delta wings on the middle section of missile body, and three tail control surfaces. The missile is powered by a liquid-fuel rocket motor, with a solid rocket booster attached under the missile fuselage.
The HY-2 is launched from land-based launcher and flies at an altitude of 1000 m during the initial stage of the flight. After the missile switched to the cruising mode, the flight altitude was reduced to 100 ~ 300 m. During the final stage of the flight, the missile switched on its radar seeker and dives to an altitude of 8 m until it hits the target. The single-shot hit probability is estimated to be 90%. Due to its oversized body, the HY-2 did not develop a ship-to-ship variant. The missile is obsolete and was replaced by the YJ-8 series?.
The HY-2 was widely exported to the Middle East, and was the missile most associated with the silkworm nickname.
Status : Retired
Launch weight : 2,998 kg
Warhead : 513 kg shaped charge high-explosive
Propulsion : One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Speed : Mach 0.8
Range : 200 km
Flight altitude : < 20m
Guidance : Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (HY-2); or inertial + infrared homing guidance (HY-2A); or inertial + monopulse active radar (HY-2B)
Single-shot hit probability: 90%
C-601 is an air-launched version of SY-1 Anti ship cruise missiles. The missile received a NATO reporting name CAS-1 Kraken. The missile has been upgraded to be air-launched, and the air-launched version is known as C-601 (YJ-6), which is the first air-launched anti-ship missile in China. The missile received a NATO reporting name CAS-1 Kraken. Range of YJ-6/C-601 is ~100 km
C-611 /YJ 61
C-611 is an upgraded version of C-601. It has a slightly extended fuselage, and is claimed to use a higher energy density propellant mix and better engine design
These cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today and too large and slow to penetrate modern defenses on warships, the missile remains strategically important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. Used against transports, tankers, amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.
Range : ~200Km
Propulsion : Liquid Rocket Engine
Max Speed : 3500Km/h
Guidance : Homing
Single shot hit probability: 70%
The HaiYing-3 (C-301 export name; NATO codename: CSS-C-6 Sawhorse) is the active radar homing, ramjet-powered supersonic land-to-ship missile . The missile was developed in the 1980s based on the design of the HY-2 (C-201) and the ramjet technology of the cancelled YJ-1 (C-101). The development was completed in the early 1990s.
The Hy-3/C-301 is a large supersonic coastal defense anti-ship missile (AShM), and it is the basis on which two other members of the C-300 series AShM C-302 and C-303 developed from. The C-301 only saw very limited service in the People's Liberation Army Navy as a coastal defense missile and a stopgap measure in a limited scale production as more capable missiles becoming more widely available. C-301 is also used as a stopgap measure to replace the obsolete C-601 anti-ship missile, the air-launched version of the Silkworm missile carried on the Xi'an H-6 bomber, until more potent supersonic anti-ship missiles become widely available.
Weight : 3,400 kg
Warhead : 300~500 kg time-delayed semi-armour-piercing high-explosive
Propulsion : 2 side-mounted ramjet engines; 4 solid propellant boost motors
Speed : Mach 2.5
Range : 180 km
Flight altitude : 50 m
Guidance : Inertial and terminal active radar
An improved C-301 version, called C-302 was later developed as an upgrade. C-302 is highly digitized and fully solid state, and the cruising altitude is also decreased further. After entering Chinese service in very limited numbers for evaluation purposes, C-302 did not enter mass production, due to the obvious shortcomings of liquid fuel rocket: the operational cost is high because periodic maintenance is required much more frequently and the safety standard during handling is also higher in comparison to solid rocket powered AShM.
C-302 was only known to be land-based, though in theory, it could be deployed by large aerial platforms. However, unlike its smaller cousin C-101 that can be carried by numerous aircraft in the Chinese inventory, the C-301 and its upgrade C-302 can only be carried by Xi'an H-6 due to their large size and weight. It is safe to conclude that as newer missiles entering services in greater numbers, the C-301/302 would eventually reduce to a sole coastal defense missile.
The last member of C-300 series AShM is C-303, which differs drastically from C-301 & C-302. The C-303 differs from the other two AShM in that its flight path: instead of sea-skimming, C-303 would climb to 20 km altitude first before transition to level flight, and after cruising at 20 km altitude for most its journey, the seeker of the missile of would be turned on around 50 km away from target, dive down on its target at the terminal stage in a near vertical dive in a way similar to SS-N-19. C-303 can be either launched at a slant angle like most other AShM's, or launched vertically like a rocket.
Just like its smaller cousin C-301 & C-302, C-303 only entered Chinese service in extremely limited numbers, mostly for test and trial purposes.
Status : In Service
Warhead : 500Kg
Detonation : Semi Armor Piercing
Engine : Liquid rocket Motor
Range : 130-180Km
Speed : Mach 2.5
Flight Altitude : 50m cruising
Guidance : active radar homing seeker (Other types of seekers being developed)
Propulsion : 2 side-mounted ramjet engines, 4 rocket boosters.
The HY-4 (CSS-C-7 Sadsack) is the first turbojet powered derivative . The engine is reported to be the WS-11 which is also used in some PLA UAVs. This design is a clone of the US Teledyne-Ryan CAE J69-T-41A engine, rated at 880 lbf at 22,600 rpm, used in the AQM-34 Firebee reconnaissance UAV, numerous AQM-34 Firebee’s strayed into Chinese airspace during the Vietnam conflict. The US engine itself a licensed version of the French Turbomeca Marbore.
Development of HY-4 is believed to have started in the mid-1970s, replacing the HY-2 liquid propellant sustainer motor with a small turbojet engine, and adding a monopulse active radar seeker. Apart from the substitution of the turbojet engine, the overall configuration of the HY-4 variant of the missile is similar to the HY-2. The missile has a radar altimeter which allows the cruise height to be varied between 70 and 200 m altitude, followed by a steep dive onto the target.
The HY-4 uses guidance components from later variants of the HY-2, and the basic configuration employs the common monopulse active radar seeker. The standard 512 kg shaped charge warhead is retained.
Weight : 1,740 kg
Speed : Mach 0.8 – 0.85
Range : 300–500 km
Cruising altitude : 8 m
Propulsion : one turbojet engine and one solid rocket booster
The HY-41/XW-41 is an improved variant of HY-4; with a cited range performance of 200 - 300 km. XW 41 has additional GPS/GLONASS guidance. However, due to the availability of more advanced anti-ship missile with similar range, such as the C-602, the future of XW-41, like others in the Silkworm missile family, is uncertain despite its successful trials. Although still a member of Silkworm missile, the developer considers the missile was different enough to be a listed as a separate category of its own due to the amount of new technologies adopted. After the Gulf War, United Arab Emirates ordered 30 of these shore-based version for coastal defense, and accordingly to Jane's Defence Weekly, these missiles are referred by the general name Silkworm missiles, but domestic Chinese sources have claimed that these were XW-41s, though there are reports claiming these missiles are other models of Silkworm series.
Range : 200-300 km.
Guidance : GPS/GLONASS, Active Radar Seeker
Chinese XW-41 was converted to the first indigenously developed air-to-surface precision strike missile named YJ-63. The developmental work begun in the mid-1990s and the project was completed in 2002 likely with technical assistance from Russia. In comparison to XW-41; the original radar guidance was changed to TV guidance. The original inverted Y-configuration of tail control surfaces was changed to X-configuration. Like its predecessor, XW-41, turbojet engine was adopted instead of liquid fuel rocket engine used on HY-2.
China’s H-6H and H-6K bombers carry the YJ-63. The YJ-63 is capable of precision strikes against both land and maritime targets. The YJ-63 is often deployed on the H-6K bomber, which is designed for long-range and stand-off attacks and has a combat radius of 3,500 km.
Range : 200km
Guidance system : Inertial/ electro-optical terminal guidance
Payload : up to 500kg
CEP : 6m
Newest version of YJ-63 series that entered service in 2004 - 2005. This land attack version is almost identical to C-603 in appearance, except it has a solid nose instead of a window for TV guidance optronics.
The KD-63 is carried by the modernised Xi’an H-6H (Tu-16 Badger) medium-range bomber. Each H-6H carries two KD-63 missiles on its under-wing stores stations. The missile is launched at altitudes between 200 m to 5,000 m from a dive. Once leaving the carrier aircraft, the missile drops down for 70-120 m before its engine starts. The missile is then accelerated to a sustained subsonic speed of 900 km/h and flies at a typical altitude of 600 m.
The KD-63 relies on inertial navigation, with input of datalink command (and possibly GPS signal correction) and TV terminal guidance. The missile is fitted with a CCD camera, which transfers images of the target back to the carrier bomber. The bomber’s onboard fire-control computer then sends correction command back to the missile until it hits the target. Alternatively, the missile can be guided using a manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) method, where the weapon operator manually ‘flies’ the missile remotely to its target. The communications between the missile and the carrier bomber is via the datalink antenna located underneath the bomber’s fuselage behind the bomb bay doors.
The KD-63 was designed to hit large fixed land targets, such as bridges, airport, command posts, and barracks. Its TV-seeker can lock on a typical target at a distance of 12 km. The missile’s effectiveness is greatly hampered at night or in adverse weather conditions. It is also vulnerable to enemy jamming due to its dependence on the carrier aircraft for guidance command.
Status : In Service?
Powered by : FW-41B turbojet engine
Cruising speed : 900km/hr
Max range : 180km
Min range : 20km
Cruising altitude : 600m
Warhead : 500kg
CEP : 2-6m
It was reported in February 2013 that an improved version has entered the service replacing the original KD-63 named KD 63B. It features an IIR seeker replacing the TV seeker and has a new conformal data link or GPS/Beidou antenna to replace the old TV antenna. KD-63B is capable of being fired in all-weather conditions and could have a fire-and-forget capability.
The FL-series was designed as land-based counterparts to the SY-series, and had a much longer production run than the SY-series. The FL-series was less expensive since it did not have to deal with more demanding conditions at sea. An added benefit was the ability to locate the missiles separately from the targeting and control systems, which improved survivability and flexibility. The SY-, HY-, and FL-series all shared the same systems.
The FL-1 (NATO designation CSS-NX-1) was a SY-1 with a high-frequency monopulse seeker. It used a radar altimeter to cruise at 30 meters.
Operational : 1980.
Status : Unknown
Payload : 510 kg.
Gross mass : 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Height : 6.42 m (21.06 ft).
Diameter : 0.76 m (2.49 ft).
Span : 0.76 m (2.49 ft).
The FL-2 anti-ship missiles were the land-based derivative of the SY-2. It was produced at the Nanchang Aircraft Factory
FL-3 is a Chinese analogue to the Russian Shaddock/Sandbox family of supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, but employs ramjet rather than the turbojet propulsion used in the Russian designs.
The missile is based on similar technology to the C-101(Dropped YJ-1 project, but is significantly faster, and claimed to be much longer ranging. The C-301 does not appear to have been deployed in significant numbers, and was only produced in the coastal defense variant due to its large size.
Note: this missile may be (may not be) the same one we mentioned above as C-301. We are not sure; we can’t find any sources to prove it. But looking at the specifications it may be the same one or may be two missiles with similar capabilities. These missiles are inferior and the production was very limited.
In addition to developing the C-101 and C-301 supersonic anti-ship missiles which are fairly large in size, China has developed FL-7 supersonic anti-ship missile which can be carried on airplanes and warships. The Feilong-7 has an effective range of 32 kilometers and a speed of Mach 1.4. It has powerful anti-jamming capability and its supersonic flight makes terminal interception difficult
The TL-10 (Tian Long - 10) is a light anti-ship missile unveiled in the Zhuhai Airshow in 2004 in China.
TL-10 along with TL-6 are both developed and manufactured by Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation, and the philosophy is identical to that of its French equivalent MM-15TT / AS-15TT light anti-ship missile developed by Aérospatiale.
There are thousands small of fast attack craft and patrol boats armed with anti-ship missiles that pose great threats, but are not cost effective to engage with traditional anti-ship missiles such as Harpoon and Exocet that are designed to engage large warships. Thus, it has been proved necessary to develop a light anti-ship missile to engage these small yet highly lethal boats. TL-10, like C-701 is the Chinese answer to this problem.
TL-10 is specifically designed to engage boats displacing 500 tons or less, and when launched, the missile will first climb to enable the seeker to acquire targets, and then immediately descend down to sea-skimming cruise altitude during its flight. Like the anti-ship version of the C-701, TL-10 is also armed with a television seeker that is interchangeable with TL-6. However, unlike the C-701 guidance has an additional command option which enables the operator to alter the targets; TL-10 is a purely fire-and-forget weapon.
Western sources have claimed that the Iranian anti-ship missile Kowsar which is manufactured by the Iran Aviation Industries Organization is based on TL-10 while the Nasr is based on the TL-6.
In 2004 in the PRC has been demonstrated by rocket TL-6, intended for weapons of small patrol boats and helicopters. T-6 is a solid propellant missile. It has a launch range 35 km, assumes 30 kg armor-explosive warhead.
The TL-6 is equipped with an active radar seeker. According to the Chinese military, these relatively compact and inexpensive missiles are better suited for hitting ships with a displacement of up to 1000 tons and counteracting amphibious operations in the coastal zone. A known variant of the TL-10 with a television or IR GOS, this more compact, but structurally similar to the TL-6 rocket is designed to combat boats.
In service : 2006
Mass : 350Kg
Warhead : 30 Kg
Detonation : semi armor piercing
Engine : Solid Rocket Motor
Range : 4 to 35 Km
Speed : mach 8-9
Flight altitude : 12m
Launch Platform : Air & Surface
FL-8 is the cheaper coastal defense version of TL-10. Following the tradition of Silkworm missile, a land-based version with the lowest requirement is also developed for this missile: as the missile is stored in a controlled environment in a warehouse on land, the salinity, temperature and relative humidity requirements for the missile itself are greatly reduced. Because it is designed and deployed on land, the associate C4I systems can be located separately: the distributed system prevents electromagnetic interference, and if the C4I system is attacked, the distributed nature of the FL-8 would greatly reduce casualties and damage.
FL-10 is the cheaper coastal defense version of C-701 anti-ship missile. Following the tradition of Silkworm missile, a land-based version with the lowest requirement is also developed for this missile: as the missile is stored in a controlled environment in a warehouse on land, the salinity, temperature and relative humidity requirements for the missile itself are greatly reduced. Because it is designed and deployed on land, the associate C4I systems can be located separately: the distributed system prevents electromagnetic interference, and if the C4I system is attacked, the distributed nature of the FL-10 would greatly reduce casualties and damage. FL-10 was revealed to the public at Zhuhai Airshow.
A new version of TL-10 appeared made its public debut at the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2008, together with its larger cousin TL-2. Developed by Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation, the same manufacturer of TL-10, the new missile is designated as TL-1, and appears almost identical to TL-10.
TL-1 is an upgraded TL-10 with a data link added, so that in addition to the original fire-and-forget capability, TL-1 operators can select to attack a different target other than the original one, if a greater threat has been identified after launching TL-1. TL-1 can be deployed from various platforms.
Status : In-service
Weight : 105 kg
Warhead : 30 kg, semi-armor piecing
Power plant : twin thrust chamber, solid rocket motor
Speed : Mach 0.85
Range : 4–15 km
Guidance : Electro-optics/INS
Kill probability : 0.85
A new version of TL-6 made its public debut at the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2008, together with its smaller cousin TL-1. TL-2 appears almost identical to TL-6. TL-2 is an upgraded TL-6 with a data link added.
TL-2 missile can be launched from a ground-based launcher or an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Photographs provided by CATIC show two TL-2s mounted on an ASN-209 medium altitude and medium endurance (MAME) UAV. The ASN-209 has a range of 200 km (120 miles) and the TL-2 has a range of 6 km. CATIC photographs show it destroying a light armored vehicle. It has a circular error probable range of 2-10 meters depending on the guidance system used. Modes of operation include direct attack for lock-on before launch (LOBL), mid-course navigation, and semi-active guidance for lock-on after launch (LOAL).
TL-2 was first marketed at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow as a precision strike weapon for the Chengdu-built Wing Loong unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), now in service with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
TL-7 is an anti-ship missile that can be launched from fighter aircraft (TL-7A), ground-based units (TL-7B), and ships (TL-7C). The turbojet engine allows it to hit cruising speeds of 0.8-0.85 Mach with a range of 180 km.
TL-7 is making its debut as the export model of the KD-88 precision-guided air to surface missile that entered PLA Air Force service on the Xian-built JH-7A fighter bombers in 2006 and 2007.
CJ-1 is a submarine launched anti ship Missile based on Russian SS-N-27. To simplify logistics and to reduce operational costs, the anti-ship version is developed from the solid rocket powered CJ-1 ASW weapon (which itself is copied from Russian SS N 27), instead of the original turbojet powered Russian version. A variety of seekers are developed for CJ-1 AShM, including radar, imaging infrared, and TV while the flight path of the missile is modified to have a sea-skimming capability. The warhead comes in a variety of size, with the largest weighing around half a ton.
Status : In Service
Range : 50 – 80 km, depending on warheads
Speed : Mach 2.5
Payload : 500Kg
Detonation : Semi armor piercing
Cruising altitude : 20 meter
Propulsion : solid rocket
Guidance : radar, imaging infrared, and TV
Launch Platforms : Submarines & Ships
YJ-1 / C-101
The C-101 is a Chinese supersonic anti-ship missile. The C-101 was an early Chinese supersonic cruise missile. It has been described as unsuccessful.
The YJ-8 is a Chinese surface-launched subsonic anti-ship cruise missile. The YJ-8 is an anti-ship missile of Chinese origin. It was developed as a more capable alternative to the larger and slower anti-ship missiles in Chinese service. The YJ-8 is a sea skimming anti-ship missile with active radar homing in the terminal phase. The solid propellant rocket motor makes the YJ-8 less difficult to operate and much smaller than the Chinese models of the P-15 Termit. This allows for more missiles to be carried on ships.
Several defense analysts have suggested the YJ-8 is a reverse engineered copy of the French MM38 Exocet. The general appearance of the missile, and the externally ribbed launcher, was cited in support of this theory. Other analysts and commentators disagree and argue the Chinese missile was a logical result of the development of a weapon system with similar requirements.
According to a 1991 Aerospace China article, the development of the actual YJ-8 propulsion system began in 1978, with flight-testing completed by 1985. The YJ-8 reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the PLAN in 1987. Although first announced in 1984, the export version of the YJ-8, the C801, wasn’t formally introduced to the international arms market until three years later. This initial version had fixed wings and was stored in small externally ribbed box launchers on surface ships, or in external tubes on a single modified Type 033G Romeo class submarine.
The early YJ-8/8A missiles used hybrid computers for the navigation, autopilot, and radar seeker. A hybrid computer uses a mixture of digital and analog components – that is solid-state elements along with servos, relays, and vacuum tubes. It is interesting to note that only the radio altimeter was fully digital, comprised of solid-state components only, which reflects the likely direct influence from the revolutionary French MM38 Exocet missile.
The inertial reference unit used small mechanical gyros and accelerometers that feed their input to the autopilot computer. Servomechanisms transmitted the steering commands to the four independent rudders. While the Chinese were satisfied with the YJ-8/8A’s overall performance, the electronic and navigation components were very bulky and took up a considerable amount of space inside the missile’s fuselage. By transitioning to all digital, microprocessor based computers, and a more compact strap-down mechanical inertial reference unit;
YJ-8A: Modified YJ-8 with folding wings.
YJ-81: Air-launched version without the booster.
YJ-82: Submarine-launched version.
C-801: Export version of YJ-8.
C-801K: Export version of the YJ-81.
C-801Q: Export version of YJ-82.
The YJ-8A appeared very quickly after the YJ-8 entered service, reaching IOC in 1992 or 1993. In fact, the YJ-8 was only deployed by the PLAN on the Jianghu III (Type 053HT) frigates Huangshi (Hull 535) and Wuhu (Hull 536), as well as the single Type 033G modified Romeo class submarine.
Mass : 815Kg
Warhead : 165Kg
Range : 42Km
Engine : Solid Rocket
Flight Altitude : 5-7m
Max Speed : Mach 0.9
Guidance : Inertial navigation/active radar homing terminal guidance
Launch Platform : Air, land & See
The PLAN’s keen desire for an air-launched version of the YJ-8 drove a near simultaneous development and test program alongside the ship-launched missile. The YJ-81 is very similar to the YJ-8, but without the booster. The shorter section aft of the wings, lack of a scoop, and an underbelly cable run, identify this as a rocket-propelled missile. Like the YJ-8 it has fixed wings, but there is a faired boat tail cap over the rocket exhaust to help reduce the missile’s drag when carried on an aircraft’s pylon. The small size and low weight of the YJ-81 provided smaller tactical aircraft in the PLAN inventory with a standoff anti-ship strike capability for the first time.
The YJ-81 is reported to have begun flight-testing in the mid-1980s, and reached IOC in 1989. The missile was marketed as the C801K. The “K” reportedly means “Kongjun” or air force, indicating an aircraft launched missile. Iran purchased the C801K and began receiving shipments in the mid-1990s.
The YJ-82(Yingji-82) is the submarine-launched version of the YJ-8 missile family. It is launched from submarines from a buoyant launch canister. The YJ-82 lacks the solid-rocket booster of the surface-launched YJ-8/8A and likely has less range than the latter's 42 km. The YJ-82 was first test fired from a Type 039 submarine in 1997; initial tests did not go well. The first photographs of the missile appeared at the 2004 China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition.
The launch capsule is a copy of the one used by submarine-launched Harpoons; China likely received the technology from Pakistan, which had such weapons. Pakistani Navy’s Agosta and Daphne class submarines had been modified to launch Sub-Harpoon missiles between 1984 and 1986. An additional motivating factor was China’s considerable technical assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear and ballistic missile programs.
YJ-82 missile's small radar reflectivity, low attack flight path and strong anti-jamming capability of its guidance system, target ships have a very small chance of intercepting the missile. The single shot hit probability of the YJ 82 is estimated to be as high as 98%. The YJ-82 can be launched from airplanes, surface ships, submarines and land-based vehicles.
Status : In Service?
Warhead : 165 kg high Explosives
Range : ~42 Km
Max Speed : Mach 0.9
Guidance : Inertial navigation/active radar homing terminal guidance
Launch Platform : Submarines/Ships/Land based vehicles?
Propulsion : Solid-fuelled rocket.
Flight Altitude : 5 to 7 m (terminal sea-skimming)
CM 708 UNA (Export version?)
CM-708UNA is a submarine-launched, subsonic anti-ship missile derived from the YJ-82 missile. Chinese CM-708UNA Submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) can be launched from torpedo tubes of submarines. CM-708UNA missile will use strap-down inertial navigation coupled with satellite navigation for midcourse guidance and using a radar seeker for terminal homing. CM-708UNA is developed by Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) and has estimated range of 128 km.
CM 708 UNB (Export Version?)
CM-708 UNB is purportedly a derivative of a longer-range version of the submarine-borne YJ-83 ASCM. CM 708 UNB has a range of about 290 kilometers more than twice the range of CM-708 UNA. This missile has a speed of mach 0.8-0.9.
Like the CM-708 UNA, the CM-708 UNB is likely designed to target medium-to-large. The CM-708, encased in a torpedo like case, is shot out from the submarine’s torpedo tube, through the water and into the air. The missile then breaks free of its casing, fires its booster and then engine, and flies out to hit its target ship.
The domestic version of the missile is (or will) likely be deployed aboard China’s conventional submarine fleet, which consists of 13 Song-class (Type 039) diesel-electric attack submarines and 13 more advanced Yuan-class (Type 039A) submarines equipped with air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems.
The YJ-83 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a subsonic anti-ship cruise missile. Developed by CASIC’s Third Academy, the YJ-83 is based on the YJ-8 but employs a different rocket motor, a turbojet with paraffin-based fuel. The YJ-83 has been in service on PLA Navy surface vessels for more than 20 years.
With a well-established airframe and mature propulsion plant already in place, the YJ-83 benefitted from an exceptionally short development timeline and began flight-testing in 1997. Apparently the missile passed through its trials quickly, as it was reported to have reached IOC in 1998. It was formally announced in October 1999 at the National Day Military Parade, and it has slowly worked up to become the dominant ASCM in the PLAN inventory.
The YJ-83 has been improved through a series of variants. The YJ-83A uses microprocessors and a strap down inertial reference unit (IRU); these are more compact than the equivalent electronics used in the YJ-8 and the export C-802, allowing the YJ-83A to have a 180-km range at Mach 0.9. The missile is powered by the Chinese CTJ-2 turbojet, and carries 190-kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead. Terminal guidance is by active radar.
YJ-83A, exported as the C-802A, has “strong defense penetrating capability, high hitting accuracy, powerful warhead and easy operation and maintenance.” It is designed to attack a 5,000-ton destroyer with a radar cross section of at least 3,000 sqm. The YJ-83A can be launched from air-, ship-, and land-based platforms. It features “multiple flight paths and waypoints, sea skimming flight altitude, multiple antijamming capabilities, fire and forget and over-the-horizon attack capabilities.” The YJ-83A’s range is 180 km. For guidance, it uses a strap down inertial navigation system (INS) and employs a frequency agility radar and digital control to achieve a single-shot kill probability of 90 percent. Its response time is 9 minutes in cold and 30 seconds in hot.
The YJ-83 had more internal volume (than Yj-8) available for fuel and a slightly larger semi-armor piercing warhead (190 kg vice 165 kg). These changes increased the maximum range of the YJ-83 and its export variant, the C802A, from 120 km to 180 km.
The YJ-83has equipped a large number of its surface warships. The YJ-83K equips the Chengdu J-10, Xian JH-7 and H-6G.
Status : In service
Warhead : 165 kg
Range : 120 km (ground/ship) and 130 km (air)
Guidance : inertial/active radar for guidance.
Speed : Mach 0.9 and it skims the sea at an altitude of 20 to 30 m.
YJ-83: Base Variant
C-802A: export variant of surface launched YJ-83
C-802AK: export variant of air launched YJ-83(has a range of190 km).
YJ-83K: air-launched anti ship variant (range 200 km).
YJ-83KH has an electro-optical seeker, and may receive course corrections by remote link.
YJ-83Q: Submarine-launched version??????
There are three YJ-83K-based land attack missiles with a command data link, two versions of the KD-88 (one electro optic and the other probably IR-guided) and the electro optical homing CM802AKG. These missiles all showed up much later than the YJ-83.
The KD-88 (KongDi-88, official designation K/AKD88) is the land-attack version of the YJ-83K series air-launched subsonic sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile. It is PLA’s second-generation standoff weapon, designed for use against fixed high-value targets. The first photos of the electro optical version of the KD-88 were posted in 2006.
KD-88/88A can be carried by PLAN JH-7A (4 missiles) and J-15 against enemy surface ships. Its export version was first unveiled at 2016 Zhuhai Airshow as TL-17. It was reported in July & September 2018 that KD-88/88A can also be carried by J-10C (2) as well as J-16.
Additional types of seeker including anti-radiation and MMW may be developed in the future. KD-88 has provided a much-needed enhancement to PLAAF's precision attack capability
KD-88: Base Variant with CCD TV Seeker.
KD 88A: Variant with IIR seeker
Alternatively the missile could be fitted with semi-active radar or infrared imaging seekers for all-weather, day/night operation capability.
KD-88C? : A new variant with conformal data link antenna on top of the forward missile body for a longer range and/or a better HD image transmission.
Propulsion : turbojet engine
Speed : 0.8-0.85 Mach
Range : 15-180 km.
Warhead weighs : 320 kg.
CM-802 AKG is a passive infrared-homing version of the YJ 83. CM802AKG made its initial appearance at the Zhuhai Airshow China 2010 exposition.The missile uses infrared homing with datalink command input, and is capable of attacking targets both on land and in the sea. The missile has a launch weight of 670 kg and carries a heavier semi-armour-piercing HE warhead (285 kg), with a maximum range of 230km.
Land attack version of C802A Anti ship missile was introduced as C-802KD during the 2005 DSEI exhibition. Fitted with a semi-active radar-homing seeker, the missile could be used to attack both surface vessels and fixed land targets. Other features of the missile included on-off-on radar operation and multiple target selection capabilities. The missile had a launch weight of 600 kg and could deliver a 190 kg HE warhead to a maximum distance of 180 km.
The YJ-85, C-805 export name, is a supersonic, long-range, land-attack cruise missile variant of the YJ-8 anti-ship missile family. It is said that YJ-85 navigation system is based on a combination of GPS and terrain recognition
YJ-91 is the Chinese version of the Kh-31. After purchasing 200 Kh-31Ps from Russia, China decided to develop its own version. The experience gained from YJ-91 also helped the engine development of another supersonic missile indigenously developed in China, YJ-12.
Kh-31P uses a wide array of seekers to cover the entire radar frequency band. The Chinese were not satisfied with the requirement to include multiple seekers and preferred to have a single seeker capable of covering multiple frequency bands, like the AGM-88 HARM.
The resulting anti-radiation version of YJ-91 missile has a slightly increased the range to 120 km in comparison to 110 km of the original Kh-31P.Addition to a seeker that covers multiple frequency bands, additional measures to upgrade the missile are in development, such as, an open software architecture. Additional measures reportedly include prioritizing threats, which could be uploaded to the onboard computer from the ground or by the pilots while in flight. Threats could then be updated in real time. The multi-band seeker is of higher priority.
YJ-91 Anti-ship missile
The Chinese have also developed an anti-ship version of the YJ-91 missile. However, this version is an indigenous development of the Chinese from the Kh-31P anti-radiation missile, and not from the Kh-31A anti-ship missile. China did not order any of the Kh-31A. The Chinese felt that the original Kh-31A could not fully satisfy their requirements, because the high-low trajectory of the missile meant early detection, thus it is prone to interception. In contrast, the low-low trajectory usually adopted by subsonic anti-ship missiles better uses the supersonic speed of Kh-31A. Such a trajectory shortens the detection range and the high-speed reduces the target’s reaction time, once the missile is detected. As a result, China did not order any Kh-31A anti-ship missiles.
The resulting anti-ship version of the YJ-91 is capable of sea-skimming. Its cruising altitude is no more than 20 metre above sea level. At the terminal attack stage (usually after the active radar seeker of the missile is turned on), the missile drops to 7 metre above sea level. This attack altitude can be further reduced to just 1.2 metre above sea level, when the sea state allows. Alternatively, the missile can be programmed to popup-and-dive like that the Boeing Harpoon. However, such sea-skimming capability comes at the expense of maximum range: in comparison to the original 70 km range of the Kh-31A, the maximum range of YJ-91 anti-ship missile was reduced by more than a quarter to 50 km. Like the anti-radiation version, it is reported that many planned upgrades are in development. An application for research grants to develop a submerged launched version of YJ-91 anti-ship missile once appeared on Chinese websites on the Internet, indicating China is attempting to develop a version for its submarine fleet. Fighter like J10, J11B, and J 15 can carry YJ 91 Missiles
Warhead : 90 kg
Speed : > Mach 4.5
Minimum range : 5 km
Maximum range : 50 km (anti-ship version), 120 km (anti-radiation version)
Engine : ramjet with solid rocket fuel booster
Guidance : active radar homing (anti-ship) & passive radar homing (anti-radiation)
YJ-12 is a family of air-launched, long-range, highly supersonic missiles designed to take out large surface ships, radar sites and ground-based targets protected by sophisticated air defense systems. YJ-12 resembles a lengthened Kh-31 and is close in shape to the GQM-163 Coyote aerial target. Its development started in the late 1990s or early 2000s under the management of China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC).
YJ-12 employs a ramjet engine that allows it to cruise at supersonic speed Mach 2 to 3, or a maximum range of 280 to 400 kilometers depending on launch altitude. According to Chinese sources, the YJ-12 has a speed of around Mach 2 if launched from low altitude and up to Mach 3.2 if launched from high altitude. Achieving maximum performance at an altitude of 40 km (130,000 ft) and degrading as it gets lower. YJ-12 can also do evasive maneuvers to avoid anti-missile threats.
The missile utilizes an inertial guidance system that is coupled with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The new missiles are also reportedly being refitted to the PLAN’s Sovremenny-class destroyers, which are based on Russian designs.
It has been test-launched from Xian H-6 bombers and will be fitted on the JH-7B. Reportedly, they may also be launched from the J-10, Su-30MKK, the J-11, J-16, and JF-17?. For warships, it equips the Type 051B destroyer
Status : In Service
Range : 400Km
Terminal attack altitude: 15 m
Guidance : Inertial/GPS
CEP : 5-7m
Speed : Mach 2- Mach 3.2.
Propulsion : combines a solid fuel rocket booster and a liquid fuel ramjet
Warhead : 200kg, blast fragmentation/ penetration warhead
YJ-12: Air-launched variant
YJ-12A: Ship-based variant, launched by rocket booster.
YJ-12B: Land-based variant with 300 km range.
YJ-12 ARM: anti-radiation missile derived from the YJ-12(Under Development?)
YJ-12 ASM: air-to-surface standoff attack missile derived from the YJ-12(Under development?)
YJ-12B: ground-based anti-ship missile system
CM-400AKG: export version of the YJ-12
CM-302/YJ-12E: export version of the YJ-12
The CM-400AKG is a smaller and lighter version of the YJ-12 anti-ship missile intended for use by tactical fighter aircraft such as the FC-1, J-10 and Su-30MKK/J-11.
The missile is fitted with either a blast fragmentation or a penetration warhead to engage surface ships or fixed-position ground targets respectively. The propulsion system uses a solid fuel rocket motor. The CM-400AKG anti-ship missile has been ordered by the Air Forces of Pakistan and China.
Pakistani air force officials described the missile as "an aircraft carrier killer". The missile can be launched when the aircraft reaches speeds of between 750&800Km/h. speed of the cruise missile is between 3.5to mach 4. It can be equipped with high explosive and armor piercing warheads. An important feature of the rocket is the "triple" guidance system. The missile can be fitted with an active radar seeker or an imaging infrared (IIR) seeker. Chinese claims this missile has a special flight profile.
Range : 100–250 km.
Weight : 400 kg
War head : 150 kg blast warhead or 200 kg Penetration warhead.
Terminal speed : Mach 4.5-5.
Guidance : INS + GNSS + Passive Radar Seeker, potentially for anti-ship
CEP : 5 m
CM-302 is an export version of the YJ-12. It is marketed as "the world's best anti-ship missile" that it is supersonic throughout its flight, can be launched from air, land, and naval platforms, can disable a 5,000-tonne warship, and be used in a land attack role. It was first unveiled In November 2016.
Range : 280 km
Warhead : 250 kg
Guidance : active radar seeker /BeiDou
Speed : Mach 1.5-2 and Mach 3 or higher during the terminal flight phase.
YJ 12 ARM
The YJ-12 ARM is an anti-radiation missile derived from the YJ-12 missile family and fitted with a passive radar seeker that covers the entire radiofrequency spectrum. The missile's complex navigation has been designed to hit a target even the radar has been shut down. This heavyweight missile is carried by either the H-6K bomber (two) and the JH-7B (one). It can reach a maximum speed of Mach 4, a maximum range of 400 kilometers carrying a 400/500 kg warhead
YJ-12 ASM is an air-to-surface standoff attack missile derived from the YJ-12 missile family and intended to hit land targets protected by sophisticated air defenses. A two-way data-link allowing re-targeting of missile while in-flight. The YJ-12 missile can be fitted with a variety of seekers depending on the target's profile. This heavyweight missile is carried by either the H-6K bomber and the JH-7B. It can reach a maximum speed of Mach 4, a maximum range of 400 kilometers carrying a 400/500 kg warhead. The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) has deployed the YJ-12 land attack missile fitted with a radar seeker.
The YJ-12B is a ground-based anti-ship missile system deployed on 10x10 Tractor-Erector-Launcher (TEL) wheeled truck systems with each vehicle carrying three missiles. The YJ-12B specifications remain uncertain but its range might be greater than the basic YJ-12 missile while the speed may remain almost the same. It was deployed in early 2018 to protect the Spratly Islands and then it was shown to the public during the military parade in Beijing on October 1, 2019. Its primary goal is to target aircraft carriers and other large warships and supply vessels.
China was seeking a replacement after the termination of Fenglei-7 anti-radar missile (FL-7), and it was decided to utilize HQ-61(SAM Missile) to develop an anti-radiation missile (ARM) to meet the urgent need. Development of most subsystems of FL-7 continued as research projects after the production was shelved, and these subsystems were mated with HQ-61 to create the anti-radar missile needed, and most experience was gained via the reverse engineering attempt of AGM-45 Shrike, and to a much less extend, that of AGM-78 Standard ARM. Samples of both missiles were mainly obtained from down American jets and provided to China by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though several unexploded samples launched by American jets failed to detonate were also transferred.
HQ-61 ARM is basically a HQ-61 missile equipped with the guidance and control system of FL-7. Due to the highly classified nature and small number produced, HQ-61 ARM is relatively unknown to the public and its YJ-5 designation is often erroneously identified as an anti-ship or land attack cruise missile, as most of other YJ series produced by China.
The Hong Niao series (HN-1/-2/-3) of short- and intermediate-range cruise missiles began development in the late 1970s. These ground-, ship-, submarine-, and air-launched cruise missiles were initially based on designs of the X-600, similar to the HY-2 Silkworm. The primary goal of the HN series was to create a nuclear-capable cruise missile with a range of 3,000 km
The HN-1 is reportedly a Chinese development of the native X-600 missile. Some sources believe it was based on the Kh-SD. In 1988, China built an improved missile based on the X-600, called the HN-1. Flight tests for the HN-1A started 1988, and are believed to have entered service around 1996. The air-launched HN-1B was first reported in June 2001, and is thought to enter into service a year later.
The top priority of HN-1 development was to have a land attack cruise missile compact enough to be carried by the Xian H-6, which was successfully achieved, but the claims of the HN-1 being able to be carried by the Xian JH-7 has yet to be verified.
It is reported that HN-1 missiles consist of two versions, the air-launched HN-1A and ground-launched HN-1B. The maximum range of the ground-launched version designated HN-1A, is 600 km. The maximum range of the air-launched version designated HN-1B, is 650 km. The missile cruises at around Mach 0.8 at an altitude of 20 m. The HN-1A version is believed to be launched from a Transporter-Erector-Launch (TEL) vehicle that is capable of carrying three missiles. The HN-1B version is air-launched from B-6D bombers, each of which carries two to four missiles.
The HN-2 is reportedly an upgraded version of HN-1. The HN-2 is widely believed to be based on reverse engineered U.S. Tomahawk technology. The engine for the HN-2 may be based on the Russian Omsk OKB-designed TRDD-50 engine that is used in both the Kh55 and RK-55 missiles. It carries a 20-90 kiloton warhead and a 400 kg warhead. The HN-2 was first flight tested in 1995 and entered into service in 2002.
The primary improvement over the HN-1 missiles is an increase in range. The ground and ship-launched versions (HN-2A, HN-2B) both have a range of 1,800 km. A third version, the HN-2C, is submarine-launched and has a range of 1,400 km. Other improvements and changes include: a body diameter of 0.7 m, an increase in launch weight to 1,400 kg, an accuracy improvement to 5 m CEP, and an overall improvement of various systems including the guidance, engine, airframe, and wing design. Another improvement of HN-2 is that a high altitude approach mode is added.
A U.S. report from 2010 stated that China possesses 200 to 500 nuclear armed operational HN-2 missiles.
The HN-3 is an enlarged version of the Chinese HN-2. The HN-3 series of cruise missiles is likely based on the Russian AS-15B Kent and U.S. Tomahawk technologies. The HN-3A is a ground- or ship-launched missile with a maximum range of 3,000 km. A second variant, known as HN-3B, is submarine-launched and has a maximum range of 2,200 km. Other improvements and changes include a slight increase in body diameter to 0.75 m, an increased launch weight to 1,800 kg, and an increase in accuracy to 5 m CEP. The HN-3 was first flight tested in 1999 and entered into service in 2007.
A stealthy, supersonic cruise/anti-ship missile has been reported under development. It is reported to be equipped with a millimeter wave active radar homing, infrared imaging mapping, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and Beidou satellite guidance. It has a CEP of as little as 1–3 meters and a range of 4000 km. However such a weapon is still said to be under development, with little information on them currently available.
HD-1 is a supersonic land-attack and anti-ship missile. Chinese mining company Guangdong Hongda Blasting revealed technical details of HD-1, at the Airshow China 2018 in Zhuhai.
The HD-1 is predicted to compete on the international defense market with the Indo-Russian joint venture BrahMos cruise missile. Beijing-based military analyst Wei Dongxu told local media that the HD-1’s solid fuel ramjet requires less fuel than other supersonic cruise missiles on the market, which could make it lighter, faster, and less expensive than the BrahMos. In a separate statement, Hongda claimed the HD-1 can be adapted to aircraft, ships, and ground-based vehicles. The missile weighs 2,200 kilograms, can fly as high as 15 kilometres and as low as 5-10 meters when sea skimming. The flight speed and altitudes of HD-1 make it very difficult to intercept. "It could be an awesome aircraft carrier killer. A saturated attack by the HD-1 can even demolish an entire fleet," wei said as reported by Global Times. The HD-1's capability has already surpassed early versions of the BrahMos, the reporter said quoting Wei. The HD-1's advanced solid fuel ramjet needs less fuel than its competitors, rendering the lighter missile able to fly faster and farther, Wei said.
The company claimed that the time taken to prepare for the launch of the missile is less than 5 minutes and less than 10 seconds to launch a second missile. It also described that the missile can accurately hit ground and sea targets. The HD-1 can be launched from a land-based transport erection and launch vehicle (TEL). One TEL can be loaded with 6 missiles, which can be fired with a single push of a button. The vehicle adopts an 8x8 all-wheel chassis, making it very mobile and can withdraw within 3 minutes after launch, ensuring its strong battlefield survivability. The HD-1 is a comprehensive weapon system consisting of missile, launch, command and control, target indication and comprehensive support systems. The HD-1 can be adapted to aircraft and ships as well as the basic ground-based vehicle version, the company said.
Along with the basic version, the company also unveiled the HD-1A, an HD-1 variant that can be launched in the air by fighter jets and bombers and has similar capabilities. The HD-1 can also be launched from a ship.
Status : UnKnown
Range : 290Km
Warhead : 240-400Kg
Propulsion : Integrated Ramjet/booster propulsion
Flight Altitude : 15Km cruise, 5-10m Terminal
Speed : 2.5 to 3.5 Mach
Guidance : INS/Satellite, Terminal Radar/ Infrared guidance
Launch Platform : Aircraft, Ship
Sea-skimming altitude: 4.8-9.7 m.
Pakistan might buy a supersonic missile (HD-1?) successfully test-fired by China which is said to be cost-effective and better than the BrahMos developed by India and Russia, Chinese state media reported.
YJ-62 is a highly subsonic, long-range, anti-ship missile developed by HaiYing Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy in China for use by surface ships. The YJ-62, was first deployed by the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) in 2004 onboard the Type 052C destroyer.
Despite using a similar designation, there are no ties between the YJ-62 and YJ-6 anti-ship missile. The YJ-62 active radar seeker uses an agile frequency antenna to better withstand the effects of electromagnetic jamming. The weapon has a similar general configuration to the Tomahawk family, but employs a unique fixed scoop inlet for the air breathing engine. The YJ-62 can be fitted with an alternative seeker to enable engagement of land targets.
C-602 is the export name of YJ 62.The C-602 was revealed in September 2005, and displayed outside of China for the first time at the African Aerospace and Defense exhibition in 2006. YJ 62 is available in ship, sub, coastal battery and air launch configurations. YJ 62 is designed to sink or disable medium to large size ships.
China has developed an improved YJ-62A variant with a 400 km range. The YJ-62 has been deployed on both ground- and ship-launchers and is currently fitted on China’s 8 Luyang II–class (Type 052C) destroyers. Some 120 units of a YJ-62C variant were reportedly deployed on mobile TELs at Fujian bases for use as coastal defense missiles, a role previously played by HY-1 and HY-2 missiles.
Guidance : GPS/INS + active radar homing seeker with a monopulse antenna.
Propulsion : Rocket motor for launch and a turbofan/turbojet engine for cruise.
Flight altitude : 30 meters at cruise, 10 meters at terminal attack phase.
Warhead : 210 Kg (YJ-62), 300Kg (C-602)
Range : 400Km (YJ-62), 280Km (C-602)
Flight Altitude : 7-10 Meter Terminal
Max Speed : Mach 0.6-0.8
Launch Platform: TEL, Type 052C Destroyer
The CM-602G is a land-attack version of the C-602. It is advertised as having a range of 290 km, a 480 kg penetrating blast/fragmentation warhead, and an inertial guidance system using GPS data which may be augmented to provide man-in-the-loop control. The missile was revealed at the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in 2012.
Russian Origin Missiles
The Kh-31P is the anti-radiation missile (ARM) developed by the Russian Zvezda Bureau, based on the Kh-31A (AS-17A) supersonic anti-ship missile. The PLA obtained some Kh-31P examples in the late 1990s, and has developed an indigenous version known as YJ-91 (YingJi-91). It is not known whether the YJ-91 production has been licensed by Russia. However, other sources suggested that the PLA imported some Kh-31P missiles from Russia between 2002 and 2004, possibly due to the delay in the YJ-91 development.
The Kh-31P was designed to suppress enemy air defense systems and makes its early warning ‘blind’ by striking their radar. The Kh-31P entered service with the PLA around 2003-2004, offering an advanced medium-range standoff anti-radiation strike capability previously lacked by the force. The missile can be carried by its Su-30MKK Flanker-G fighter or the indigenous JH-7 fighter-bomber.
The missile features a unique dual propulsion system designed by the Soyuz Design Bureau. First the missile is accelerated by its solid-fuel rocket engine to a speed of Mach 1.8, then the engine is discarded and the interior of the missile is converted into the combustion chamber of the missile’s jet engine. The latter accelerates the missile to a speed of almost Mach 4.5, while four air intake holes on the sides of the missile body open up.
Propulsion : Ramjet + Integral Solid Rocket Booster
Speed : Mach 4.5
Max Range : 110 Km
Min Range : 15Km
Guidance : L-112 E Passive Radar Homing D~F band
The Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingpost) is a standoff, TV-guided, medium-range air-to-surface missile developed by Russian Raduga Design Bureau. The missile was designed to engage large static ground targets such as bridges and buildings. First revealed in the 1991 Dubai Defence Exhibition, the Kh-59 missile is somewhat similar in concept to the U.S. AGM-84E SLAM. The PLA obtained the Kh-59 as a part of the Su-30MKK fighter acquisition package.
Status : In Service
Max Range : 50Km
Warhead : 148Kg HE
Propulsion : Solid Rocket booster
Speed : 0.8 Mach
Guidance : Inertial +TV terminal
CEP : 2-3m
Sea skimming altitude: 7m, 100-1000m above ground
The Kh-29 is the short-range air-to-surface missile designed by Russian Matus Bisnovat’s “Molniya” (Lightning) and Vympel Design Bureau in the 1980s. The missile is available in two variants: (Article 63) semi-active laser guided version designated Kh-29L, and (Article 64) TV-guided version designated Kh-29T. The PLAAF acquired Kh-29T missiles in 2002 from Russia, as part of the weapon package for the Su-30MKK fighters it ordered from Russia.
The PLAAF ordered 2,000 Kh-29T missiles from Russia in July 2002 and received them in the same year. This may suggest that they came out of existing Russian Air Force inventory rather than new production.
Kh-29 is intended primarily for use against larger battlefield targets and infrastructures such as industrial buildings, airports, depots and bridges. The T variant of the missile is fitted with a Tubus-2 television seeker, with automatic optical homing to a distinguishable object indicated by the pilot in the cockpit.
The missile can be fired from altitudes from 200 m to 10,000 m, at the speeds between 600 and 1,250 km/h. At altitudes of 20 -500 m it is launched from horizontal flight, at altitudes 800-2,000 m from shallow dive and at 1,500-4,000 m (optimal altitudes) is launched from more step dive. However, some sources suggest that the launch altitude above 5,000 m is purely theoretical capability, without serious tactical use.
Status : In Service
CEP : 5-8m
Warhead : 317Kg
Propulsion : Solid Rocket.
Max Range : 8-10Km
Min Range : 3Km
Speed : 1 Mach
Guidance : TV Seeker
3M-80MBE/E Moskit (SS-N-22)
The first operational PLAN ASCM was the erstwhile Soviet/ Russian Raduga P-270/3M-80E Moskit/SS-N-22 Sunburn on two Sovremenny Class DDGs. The Chinese variant, 3M-80MBE differs from the original 3M-80E with a range of 240 km over 220 km respectively. The Chinese financed the development of the Moskit for the PLAN which boasts a speed of Mach 3 and a 320 kg warhead. It is certain that the Chinese employed the technology for their subsequent missile development programs
Status : Retired
Range: min : 10–12 km, Max 140Km
Cruising altitude : 10 – 20 m (low-altitude trajectory), 7 m in terminal stage.
Warhead : 300Kg penetrator
3M-54E/E1 Klub (SS-N-27)
The SS-N-27 “Sizzler” (3M54) is a Russian short-range ship-, and submarine-launched anti-ship missile. The Sizzler is part of the Kalibr family of missiles and has several export versions known as the ‘Klub’ missile series. The People's Liberation Army Navy uses the 'Club-S' variant for its Kilo class submarines
Even though china has developed a large variety of cruise missiles through, reverse engineering, copying and illegal Transfer of technology still Chinese cruise missiles are inferior to Indian cruise Missiles. BrahMos and its variants, Nirbhay , and acquired SCALP , Harpoon is much better than anything in the Chinese arsenal .
China significantly out numbers India in terms of no of cruise missiles, CJ 10 alone may go up to 1000 in Numbers (Not confirmed). India may have more than 600 BrahMos (approximate) cruise missiles in navy and army service.
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