Terrain Battle Machines
When Soviet Russia collapsed the nations that split out battled to control the economic downfall. Many foreign investors left and many trusted customers lost confidence. A few years later, NATO allegedly betrayed by not keeping up the promise. Their troops came close to Russian Borders. Under a dwindling economy and facing indirect cold aggression from world's largest military force, new weapons were needed. But the current economic state of then, was not able to finance much. Therefore certain amount of money was prioritised. To balance the prowess in Russia's western border the army needed formidable next generation terrain battle machines that can counter the current and upcoming advanced adversaries.
Thus a trend setting decision was made to develop a modular tank who's chassis can be quickly remodelled as a combat vehicle (although tried earlier on a Germam cancelled program ). With keen attention on crew protection and advanced active and passive protection system. Along with unmanned digitally operated turret.
The Fifth Generation Tank was born
As the Russians name tanks after the year. This one unveiled in 2014 was named as T 14. The T 14 Armata.
What does it takes to be a fifth generation tank???
( a general introduction on T-14 Armata )
T-14 has many design innovations over prior tanks. One of those is the unmanned turret. The T-14 have a crew of three all of them seated in front portion of Hull surrounded by armour from all sides. It is called as an armoured capsule. The driver sits in the left, gunner in the middle and commander in the right inside a special armoured capsule. Entry and exit are provided through three hatches in front of the hull. The engine is behind as usual. Just like previous designs an Autoloader exists inside the turret. The tank has been designed to sustain direct hit by any current Anti-Tank munitions as well as robust heat signature reduction measures. It is a modular design and can be remodelled to have a different mobile terrain battle machine. Their are many designs based on 'Armata' and would be seen soon. The design intended to be main battle tank, The T-14 has an unmanned turret which is digitally controlled by a crew member ( this may lead to development of a completely unmanned MBT ). It has a more powerful engine. It has one 125mm main gun, a 30mm cannon and 12.7 mm machine gun. The T-14 also has a Ka band AESA radar which would be a part of it's detection system.
It has 14, 700 mm wheels. It is a speculated that the suspension can be adjusted, probably only on front or on back wheels. It is suggested that their is a partial hydraulic suspension based on adjustable lever arm shock absorbers, that now double as suspension actuators. It is believed to have done to add stability while firing multiple rounds repeatedly. The tank weighs a decent 48 tons and cam be transported easily via heavy lift transport aircrafts, trains and other platforms. Being light it can easily roll through rugged terrain with ease and grace.
The tank is divided in three parts , the crew capsule at the front, the unmanned turret at the mid and engine behind.
Powerplant & Suspension
(the backside of Armata T-14 houses the engine )
T-14 has a ChTZ 12H360 (A-85-3A) electronically controlled turbocharged diesel engine capable of producing 2000 hp. It is usually not set at that much maximum speed and is restricted to 1500 hp for the sake of conserving the service life. The service life is 10,000 hrs at 1200 hp power and 2000 hrs at 1500 hp.
The turbo piston diesel engine was developed at Chelyabinsk Transdizel design bureau. It is sometimes named 2A12-3, 12CHN15/16 or 12N360 for front- and rear-positioned engine compartment. A-85-3A engine is used on an Armata universal platform. The engine has 12 cylinders arranged in X shape, direct fuel injection. It also has a turbocharger and an air intercooler. It is 813 mm long, 1300 mm wide and 820 mm high and weighs 1550 kgs. This is engine generates 2000 r.p.m. at it's. maximum capability, that powers the tank to a maximum 90 km/hr top speed at speculated range of 500 km.
( T-14 Armata in Action )
T-14 uses a common platform for Armata motor and an active suspension with the following characteristics. The engine with an automatic transmission and variable power from 1200 to 1800 hp provides movement up to 90 km / h and distance of travel up to 500 km. The active suspension provides drastic reduction in rocking the tank on the move, which increases the accuracy of shooting on the move, and movement speed rough terrain, CICS tank monitors the engine, transmission and active suspension devices to automatically make decisions on service tanks and giving voice suggestions to the crew.
The main gun of T-14 is a 125 mm smoothbore 2A82-1M (4.92 in) cannon. It can fire a variety of rounds including armour piercing discarding sabot projectiles, shaped charges, Anti Tank Guided Missiles and various other rounds. It is fed by an automatic loader. The turret carries a total of 45 rounds of ammunition, including ready-to-use ammunition. It is capable of firing all standard types of ammunition including ATGM giving it a firing range of 8km.
Noticeably the 125mm 2A82-1M does not have a fume extractor. These are normally used to pull the toxic gases from the firing process out of the muzzle after the round has exited so they do not blow back in to the turret when the breach is open so the crew avoiding breathing in the gases. As the turret is unmanned a fume extractor is not required.
The main gun is coupled to the autoloader, which Russian media has said is capable of firing 10+ rounds per minute. The Fire Control System has the latest version of thermal sighting equipment for the gunner and commander’s independent sight. The ballistic computer has the latest sensors and laser range finder and is able to track moving targets increasing the 1st hit probability of the main gun.
~Some featured Ammunitions are ..........
1. 9M119M1 Invar-M ATGM - It can also be used against low flying aerial targets. It is believed to be able to penetrate 37 in. ( 900 mm ) steel armour and has an effective range of 5 km.
2. Telnik HE-fragmentation controlled detonation shell.
3. Vacuum I sabot round - It has been specifically developed for the 2A82-1M. It has 0.9 to 1m long penetrator.
The secondary armament consists of two guns one is Kord ( GRAU index 6P49 ) and the other is PKTM ( GRAU index 6P7K ).
1. Kord 12.7 mm machine gun- It is designed to attack lightly-armoured ground targets, vehicles and group living force at the distance of up to 2000 m. It stands on bipod 6T19 (index 6P57), installed on infantry mount 6T20 (index 6P60), ensures firing in vertical and horizontal surfaces, in a lying position, on a knee and standing in a trench. It is installed above turret roof mounted commander's sight by which it does not obstructs the view. The gun is also capable of destroying incoming projectiles at a max speed of 3000 meters per second.
The gun is around 500 mm in length. It has a speculated rare of fire of around 600 to 700 shots per minute. A speculate muzzle velocity of 860 m/sec ( could be less also). A speculation made by observing says it has 300 rounds that are fed from right side. With muzzle velocity around 820-860 m/sec. The machine gun can hit targets at a distance of 2 kms.
2. The PKTM 7.62 mm gun is believed to be housed inside the turret, a peculiar slit at the turret front is speculated to be for that. It is coaxial with the main gun.
Crew protection is one big factor in tank making and is given acute attention. Their are mainly two types of protection systems active and passive. both of them protects the tank from incoming projectiles fired by an enemy. The active protection system mostly involves firing a counter projectile to hit the incoming projectile mid air, moments before or would have hit the tank. The passive protection system has the capability to bear the high kinetic energy of the incoming round and sacrifice itself to protect the crew inside. Along with that the tanks are equipped with smoke grenade launchers that produces smoke clouds around a tank to hinder enemy's laser targeting systems from getting a clear view of the tank. Modern tanks have reduced infrared signature and in case of Armata, it has reduced radar signature making it a Stealth tank.
( composite armour tiles )
Stealth capability in tanks is achieved in a different way than that on combat aircrafts. In combat aircrafts the surface is faceted to deflect radar waves away such that they don't return to it's antenna as well as usage of radar absorbent material to absorb radar waves and many other techniques. In tanks such as Armata, the approach towards achieving stealth is to make it indistinguishable from from ground clutter making it appear as good as is it's surrounding terrain, this shields that tank (to some extent) from air to ground detection from advanced airborne AESA radars making it a difficult target for modern strike fighters.
Its stealth capability is not only cardinal reduction of visibility in the infrared, radio and magnetic band, but also with the use of innovative technologies" distortion signature ", that is, its visual image distortion in these ranges difficult to find tanks GOS ATGM class Javelin, Spike or JAGM among discarded infrared traps and dipole clouds.
~The protection systems on Armata are ................
1. Nll Stali Upper Hemispherical Protection Complex. - It consists of two steerable cartridges with 12 charges and a turret top vertical launch system with two similar charges.
It could be a part of soft kill mechanism. These are likely to launch salvos of projectiles instantly creating a thick, multi-spectral smoke screens designed to defeat guided missiles, laser and targeting systems by blocking infrared, visible light. These soft-kill countermeasures are designed to protect the vehicle from 3rd and 4th generation missiles such as direct attack Hellfire, TOW and BILL, or Brimstone, JAGM, Javelin or Spike missiles, approaching at high trajectory, as well as from nearly vertical top-attack by sensor-fused weapons (SFW).
( if detected as being laser tagged by enemy, Armata releases a debris of cloud that confuses the laser )
These are described by the manufacturer as “The principle of operation is based on the detection of complex precision-guided munitions flew, striking the upper hemisphere, and the disruption of its guidance system or a powerful electromagnetic pulse, or the creation of securable multispectral aerosol cloud of false and IR purposes”.
2. Armour -
The hull is made up of a modular armour system made of steel, ceramics and composite materials. The low-silhouette of the tank avoids exposition of the parts to enemy fire, which significantly enhances the safety and survivability of the crew. The crew capsule is isolated from the automatic loader and ammunition to increase crew survivability during explosions.
The T-15 uses a skirt of oblique armour panels covering the exhaust from above, but these leave enough space to direct the exhaust gases away from the vehicle. The external fuel tanks (12) positioned on the engine’s sides also add protection. Unlike the jettisonable barrels used on the previous Russian tanks, these external tanks are fixed, and, therefore, are likely to be consumed first to reduce vulnerability in combat.
( the front and the top of both, hull and turret is covered with ERA tiles )
T-14’s floor is reinforced with an additional armor plate for counter-mine and counter IED protection, and it has a jamming system to detonate radio-controlled anti-tank mines. A new armoured steel plate was developed called 44C-SV-W. It’s understood that it’s lighter than normal steel and used in the vehicles construction to reduce the vehicles weight.
( mine counter measures can be seen at the bottom front ventral portion of the hull )
~Explosive Reactive Armour
Armata is protected by Malachit Dual Explosive Reactive Armour - It covers both the hull and turret from front, side and top.
The tank is anticipated to offer up to STANAG 4569 Level 5 protection. Its forward portion is covered with reactive armour. It’s claimed that the new armour offers protection levels of 1000–1100 mm vs APFSDS and 1200–1400 mm vs HEAT.
What is an explosive reactive armour ??
- The armour consists of thick tiles or plates meshed and spread out over blanketing the outer surface of a tank. Inside these plates there are explosives that perform a counter-explosion disrupts the incoming projectile so that its momentum is distributed in all directions rather than towards the target, It greatly diminishes an incoming projectile's effectiveness.
An element of explosive reactive armour consists of a sheet or slab of high explosive sandwiched between two plates, typically metal, called the reactive or dynamic elements. On attack by a penetrating weapon, the explosive detonates, forcibly driving the metal plates apart to damage the penetrator. Against a shaped charge, the projected plates disrupt the metallic jet penetrator, effectively providing a greater path-length of material to be penetrated. Against a kinetic energy penetrator, the projected plates serve to deflect and break up the rod.
( image taken from wikipedia )
An important aspect of ERA is the brisance, or detonation speed of its explosive element. A more brisant explosive and greater plate velocity will result in more plate material being fed into the path of the oncoming jet, greatly increasing the plate's effective thickness. This effect is especially pronounced in the rear plate which are away from the jet, which triples in effective thickness with double the velocity.
A complication to the use of ERA is the inherent danger to anyone near the tank when a plate detonates, disregarding that a high explosive anti-tank warhead (HEAT) warhead explosion would already cause great danger to anyone near the tank. Although ERA plates are intended only to bulge following detonation, the combined energy of the ERA explosive, coupled with the kinetic or explosive energy of the projectile, will frequently cause explosive fragmentation of the plate. The explosion of an ERA plate creates a significant amount of shrapnel, and bystanders are in grave danger of fatal injury. Thus, infantry must operate some distance from vehicles protected by ERA in combined arms operations.
~ Bar Armour / Slat Armour / Cage Armour
The rear is fitted with bar armour to provide added protection against anti-tank rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). The tank can also be hinged with additional active and passive armour.
It also disrupts the shaped charge of the warhead by either crushing it, preventing optimal detonation from occurring, or by damaging the fuzing mechanism, preventing detonation outright.
( cage armour applied at the back )
Also nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, automatic fire suppression system and smoke grenade dischargers aboard the tank further enhance the crew survivability.
3 Afghanit active protections system
It is the coolest feature on Armata family of combat vehicles. The claims themselves are so big. The Russians have tested and claimed that Afghanit can protect Armata from Depleted Uranium core sabot rounds / APFSDS rounds or crowbars ( as Russians call it ). The system is speculated to be using an AESA radar system built by the Tula Instrument Design Bureau, which lies at the heart of the Afghanit system. The millimetre wavelength radar is used to detect, track and intercept incoming projectiles.
It consists of five cartridges/ canisters on each side at the bottom portion of the turret. They cover 60 degrees on each side of the turret. When a threat incoming from rear side is detected the turret turns to intercept that threat projectile. In T-15 the afghanit canisters aren't arranged on turret and hence it's APS does not have 360 degrees coverage. A relevant cartridge which is near to the incoming projectile would fire an electronically activated charge towards the incoming projectile and would destroy/ damage it.
Each of the APSs has its own sensors as well, mounted on each side of the turret, covering the rear and front quadrants left and right. The sensor (5) coupled with the pedestalled and upward pointing fixed countermeasures seems to be covered by a flat panel. A source from defence.pk indicated the Armata (T14 and T15) have the capability to detect, and simultaneously track and locate 40 land targets and 25 air targets. If this is indeed that sensor, it is likely to be AESA radar panels. Certain flat objects mounted on both sides of the turret seemingly different than the turret surface are speculated to be arrays of the AESA radar. There are four such sensors on each vehicle (T-14, T-15), providing hemispheric coverage, thus detecting potential top attack threats before they enter a lethal zone.
Michael Kofman, a research scientist specializing in Russian military affairs at the federally funded Center for Naval Analyses, said he is sceptical about the Izvestia report. “I don't see it as realistic,” Kofman said. “A discarding sabot is a depleted uranium dart, the entire concept is that the material is incredibly dense to serve as a penetrator. The Afghanit APS uses a fragmentation charge and is not liable to do much to the A4—the latest variant—of U.S. munitions. I can see it possibly pushing the dart off course with some sort of hit-to-kill approach, but I doubt much can stop it—besides combinations of ERA [explosive reactive armour ] and composite armour.”
Currently the max speed of interceptable target is 1700 m/sec. ( Mach 5.0) with projected future increase upto 3000 m/sec. (Mach 8.8). This system significantly puts Armata a generation ahead in defensive technology. Similar systems are only in their infancy on British and American tanks.
The Armata platform is configured with an active mine countermeasure system, designed to detect or trigger mines ahead of the tank. Pictures show the system being mounted on the lower front edge portion of Armata. It also has a special paint that reduces the tank's IR signature.
( The Tank also have a magnetic repulsive system to repel incoming ATGMs )
Controls and Sensors
The Armata being a next generation tank have robust communication systems, detection systems and user friendly controls making it quite easy to drive. The commander and gunner have independent sights and the driver sights are a the centre.
The driver is speculated to be using the vision system seen at the center of the tank. but a full set of fixed periscopes is placed behind his position. The two headlights use lensed LEDs providing different intensity of visible or infrared lighting on demand. In total the T-15 driver has three vision blocks integrated in the cupola. For complete 360° coverage, panoramic cameras are positioned around the vehicle. The tank is also equipped with Electro Optic based laser warning receivers. The commander's sight is mounted on top of turret offers a 360° field of view, while the gunner’s sight is fitted with a direct-vision periscope and a laser designator
(the video shows Armata under tests and the Controls of Armata Explained)
~ Infrared targeting
Traditionally, tank commanders used panoramic sight for the detection of target coordinates. In the case of "network-centric tank" as the T-14 panoramic sight XM1209 is integrated with the tank’s radar and robotic mechanisms quickly rotates the panoramic sight. This infrared targeting is used not just for fire control but for examination purpose. Thus specified target coordinates compensated low resolution radar and possible loss of contact with a view to the radar because of the use of EW.
( A pic in which, the turret is without Armour )
( See below pic, the commander's sight is at the remote weapon station and can rotate independently )
The machine gun turret facilitated with an installed panoramic sight with independent rotation of the gun axis through 180 ° with high sensitivity and high-precision infrared cryogenic cooling system. This system is in production at Kazan opto-mechanical plant. Since the infrared camera is paired camera in the visible spectrum of light and laser rangefinder all together with a machine gun mount panoramic sight is able to rotate 360 °.
Independent rotation of the sight machine gun mode and was first publicly demonstrated 2 April 2016 on the T-14 test. In general, the mechanics of joint motion independent of the gun panoramic sight classical and the same solutions can be seen at the demonstrations from the company Raytheon.
~ Cameras around the Tank.
Omnidirection HD-cameras are connected to active protection "Afghanit" system, allowing it to:
• Work with off the radar
• Avoid triggering the error
• Work in conditions of electronic warfare
• Determine laser irradiation tank.
( One of the Cameras on the rearside of the turret )
The T-14, in addition to the optical devices included in the MSA is equipped with six cameras HD-resolution on the turret of a tank that allows the crew to monitor the situation around the tank at 360 degrees, without leaving it. The cameras are equipped with autonomous power supply system and hydrotreating optics from dust and dirt. Camcorder on the microbolometer also allow to find the target in the infrared range through the fog and smoke, which is important given the fact that the T-14 is strongly oriented to dazzle opponents smokescreens. For example, when T-14 is surrounded by an enemy infantry can put around itself smokescreen grenade to make invisible, and shoot them from the machine gun according to IR instrument.
The radar of T-14 is able to calculate the trajectory of projectiles like artillery reconnaissance radar that is capable of trajectories flying by T-14 rounds automatically calculate the coordinates of the positions of enemy tanks and artillery, and perform automatic bombardment. Indeed, in the same radar as the ELM-2133 of the Trophy supported by computing coordinates ATRA shot RPG, or a shell with the transfer of data on MSA to open return fire. However, for example in Merkava similar system can be expected that the accuracy of determining the coordinates of this method missile launch locations may be insufficient for the application on them only response artillery pin need additional exploration objective optical means.
Since the T-14 uses pulse-Doppler radar, capable of calculating the target vector velocity, the radar can give very precise angular coordinates of helicopter or air plane to indicate the sector for launching missiles for light SAM class Pine, Strela-10M4 or SAM OCA having no proper circular survey radars, but equipped equipment for external targeting and control of the radio. For a more powerful air defense system class Carapace-C1 such a scenario of external target designation is also extremely valuable, as it allows to avoid unmasking SAM through the work of its own radar to the risk of being destroyed by an anti-radar missile. Experts report that the T-14 will be able to specify the target and its escort of the many old T-90MS upgraded with the installation of noise-communication and GPS / GLONASS-navigators. It is obvious that the accuracy of the radar T-14 is excessive for such a scenario, as the T-90MS will perform the final precise guidance for its infrared sight. However, significantly more important itself implementing such a scenario, as allows T-14, the most valuable being a control computer, evade contact battlefield, and entering into contact fight not destroy its own tanks.
The roof of the turret houses a meteorological mast, satellite communications, global navigation satellite system (GLONASS), data-link and radio communications antennae. A wind sensor mounted on top. As mentioned earlier Certain flat objects mounted on both sides of the turret seemingly different than the turret surface are speculated to be arrays of the AESA radar. There are four such sensors on each vehicle (T-14, T-15), providing hemispheric coverage, thus detecting potential top attack threats before they enter a lethal zone.
It is equipped with a battlefield management system. Its computerised fire control system automatically formulates the fire control solution using the data from a muzzle reference system and a wind sensor. Software of the tank can set and track targets by itself, leaving the crew free to focus on other functions. The Fire Control System has the latest version of thermal sighting equipment for the gunner and commander’s independent sight. The ballistic computer has the latest sensors and laser range finder and is able to track moving targets increasing the 1st hit probability of the main gun.
The tank commander scans the area around and sets coordinates of the target and passes them to the gunner. The gunner later either explore the target more in detail or simply fire. The detection coordinates of both ground based and airborne targets are live broadcasted to other friendly tanks and to the mobile armoured commanding car.
The infrared sights are used for precision guidance to the weapons to guide them to target as well as inspection purpose. They are used by both Commander and Gunner. In case gunner using the interface touch screen, can press his finger to specify weather a particular target is relatively more crucial. It also helps detect a carefully disguised target. Here the computer needs assistance from a human to specify a target. Optionally targets can also be automatically detected. The only non-electronic optical periscope available on T-14 is with the driver and commander for monitoring and reviewing the driving. For driving at night the driver is using a night vision device, as well as LED lights allow the tank to switch to ‘infrared illumination of the road’ mode.
( video explaining all variants of Armata Family of combat vehicles)
T-16 Armata Armoured Recovery Vehicle
The lesser known brother of Armata family. It is also called BREM-T. The Russian acronym BREM (cyr. БРЭМ) stands for "бронированная ремонтно-эвакуационная машина", literally "armoured repair and recovery vehicle". Derived from the same main hull. It is intended to provide heavy lift support to other tanks and IFVs that may suffer breakdown in a battlefield due to severe conditions.
Armoured recovery platforms are mostly used when armoured terrain battle machines suffer breakdown and cannot move or cannot be pulled by other tanks. Such recovery vehicles are armoured to protect the crew from unexpected hazards of a battlefield. They are equipped with a powerful engine and may also be tasked to perform on site repair works and customised support to the crew depending on specific battlefield conditions.
T-15 Armata heavy infantry fighting vehicle.
T-15 also called as Universal Combat Platform is a heavy IFV developed by Uralvaganzovd originating from the basic Armata chassis. The main difference being the relocation of the engine to the front in the case of the T-15. Interestingly The IFV weighs in at a hefty 48 tonnes which is even more than 40 tonne T-90. But surprisingly lighter than T-14 and is powered by 1500HP A-85-3A diesel engine governed to 1200HP. Despite being lighter it is slower than T-14.
The turret is also different and the counter measure dispensers of Afghanit system are also arranged differently. They do not provide a 360° protection outright but when a threat is detected approaching from backside or so, the turret turns automatically to face the threat.
Protection of T-15 :-
Armour of T-15 :-
The T-15's basic armor is a lightweight steel and ceramic composite armor and slat armor at the engine exhaust and the rear exit door.
The T-15 have heavy armour panels which are possibly Malachit ERA panels on the hull front sides protecting the engine compartment, with lighter armour panels protecting the upper hull front and rest of the hull sides. This Malachite dual-layer ERA is claimed to protect against Top-Attack ATGMs like the FGM-148 Javelin and Missile Moyenne Portée aswell as 120mm APFSDS rounds like the German DM53/DM63 and American M829A3APFSDS just as the earlier Relikt ERA.
It is unknown if the new American M829A4 APFSDS with a multi-segmented penetrator, designed to defeat the Relikt ERA can be defeated by the Malachite ERA.
Active Protection System of T-15 :-
T-15 is also protected by the Afganit Active Protection System.
While the T-14 has its Afganit launch tubes at the base of its turret, the T-15 has them arrayed along the top sides of its hull.
It uses four soft-kill launchers to deploy smoke grenades that disrupt visual and infrared guidance systems, and five hard-kill launch tubes on top of the hull, compared to the T-14's 10 hard-kill tubes on the turret which automatically turns to face a threat.
The Afganit Active Protection System's hard-kill systems is claimed to be capable of destroying ATGMs and APFSDS kinetic energy penetrators with speed's up to 1700 m/s by the use of trainable Explosively Formed Penetrator launchers.
T-15’s fire power :-
the T-15 has an unmanned turret which is remotely operated from inside the vehicle. An another new AU-220M Baikal remote turret is in development that features the AK-257 57mm semi-automatic naval gun and the 9M120 Ataka ATGM.
Its main gun is the 2A42 gas operated, dual-feed 30mm autocannon with 500 rounds of varying ammunition, 340 rounds of High Explosive and 160 Armor Piercing rounds, and a Coaxial 7.62x54R PKT General Purpose Machine Gun with 2000 rounds of ammunition. This cannon has a maximum rate of fire of 800 rpm and a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. The turret is addtionally armed with 2 9M113M-2 Kornet-EM missiles on each side of the turret. Turret is provided with both gunner's sight and commander's sight for full 'hunter-killer' capability.
The T-15 is equipped with an NBC protection system, it also uses a special paint that significantly reduces the vehicle's infrared signature. The floor is reinforced with an additional armor plate for counter-mine and counter IED protection, and it has a jamming system to detonate radio-controlled anti-tank mines.
( the mine countermeasure system can be seen here )
( Documentary Movie on Armata Combat Platform )
Combat weight, t .............................. 48
The layout .............................. "master stream"
Crew .............................. .3
Developer .............................. UKBTM
manufacturer Uralvagonzavod ..............................
years .............................. development 2009 - N / A
Year of manufacture ..................... ......... 2015
Armor type .............................. Combined multilayer
Active protection .............................. "Afghanit"
Dynamic protection .............................. "Malachite"
caliber guns and stamp .............................. 125mm 2A82-1M
gun type .............................. Smoothbore gun
gun ammunition projectiles 45 .............................. ( 32 AZ)
machinegun .............................. 1 mm × 12,7-Cord; 1 × 7,62-mm PKTM +
Engine power liter. .............................. .1500 to
speed on the highway, km / h .............................. 70-90
speed over rough terrain, km / h ..................... .. 40-60
Cruising on the highway, 500 km ..............................
Specific power, l. p. / m .............................. 31
Suspension Active ..............................
Images and Info Sources :-
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