DRDO RUDRAM - 1 NGARM
Neutralising enemy's radar and SAM systems is one the primary tasks performed by an attacking force. Doing SEAD/DEAD without an Anti Radiation missile is extremely dangerous and costly even with light aircarfts. Indian Airforce with an aim to bolster it's strike capabilities is spearheading development of many air launched bombs and missiles. In similar line the Airforce has taken multiple agencies in the country primarily the DRDL, ARDE, DLRL, HEMRL, RCI, TBRL, NTAF for development of NGARM Next Generation Anti Radiation missile, now named Rudram-1. Surface to Air missiles may not be 100% perfect but guarantee a strong deterrence against air raids. Chinese have made immense progress in this particular area. The deployment of SAM puts a no flying zone over a land mass. Unless air superiority is achieved an attack or defence on surface is useless.
Air Marshal (retd.) Daljit Singh, a former IAF fighter pilot and highly respected electronic warfare expert, broadly welcomes the IAF’s NGARM acquisition, although he warned MONCh that, “to be really relevant and effective, the ARM would have to be capable of multimode operations. It must also be upgradable to match emerging radar technologies.”
He stressed that the missile’s seeker must be capable of detecting and locking onto contemporary radar threats employing a myriad of low probability of deception/interception and electronic counter-countermeasure tactics and techniques to hide in the ether. AM Singh also urges the IAF to invest in escort jammers for strike packages, an area he argues where the air force is currently deficient.
DRDO NGARM / RUDRAM-1 is the effect of stringent requirements laid out by the Indian Air Force. It can be launched from a height ranging from 500 m to a height of 15 km and speeds ranging from Mach 0.6 to Mach 2.0 .Its overall range is 200 km. The Missile weighs 600 kg and it approximately 5.5 M long. Drop Flight Trial (DFT) was completed by December 2016 with the missile released by Sukhoi Su-30MKI at a speed of 0.8 Mach, from 6.5 km altitude. The Front section of the missile contains the passive homing head needed there to seek enemy RF waves, behind it their is navigation system. The fixed cruciform wings are attached to the motor casing. In the aft section we have dual pulse Solid rocket motor. Popular journalist Saurav Jha said that design is similar to dual pulse propulsion of LRSAM and both LRSAM and NGARM's rocket motors are manufactured by the same company named Primier Explosives Limited. At the end their is a nozzle surrounded by what looks like actuators for control and stabilisation. Their is almost zero information and pictures about the control mechanism that moves the missiles fins for maneuvering. Basically just an enlarged Astra mk1 with nozzle.
The Passive homing head ( PHH ) tracks sources of radiation of a wide range of frequencies. It is also equipped with a MMW seeker transmitting on frequencies of 30 Ghz or higher, to seach locate and hit moving emitters. It can lock into a target not only before launch but also after it has been launched.
The combination of Passive Homing Head , MMW seeker and INS-GPS guidance system allows RUDRAM-1 to not only engage relocatable air defence targets like mobile SAM systems but other emitting targets equipped with shutdown capability. This means that even if the enemy shuts down the radar / emitter after the missile is launched, it will still find and hit the target.
MMW seeker is especially used, if the target is a mobile SAM system which has shutoff it's emissions and is attempting to scoot. In this case the multimode seeker will fly under GPS/inertial control to a search footprint, within which the MMW seeker will search for the target, allowing a precision homing attack. Existing MMW seeker technology has the ability to recognise a specific target type by shape and fine Doppler modulations. The operational deployment of multi sensor NGARM will spell the end of the mobile SAM system, as it effectively nullifies the shoot and scoot and the go off the air tactics.
The Navigation systems usage on an Anti Radiation missile which most people believe goes in the direction of RF source is a bit tricky. In one of the operational modes of Lock On After Launch, where the location of the target is known, NGARM would fly in a area of intrest and turn on it's receives afterwards, such an operation needs guidance from other sensors. In a dense EW environment where sidelobes of the target radar and other waves from other sources limit the ability of NGARM to follow the path of generated tracks, GPS-INS guidance helps in to implement successive position corrections until the missile is near enough to see the target waves clearly. Their are a lot of technicalities in implementing a satellite based navigation system combined with inertial navigation system. The inertial navigation system provides input and output for course correction during flight. The exact photo and design details of the type of GPS-INS guidance to be used in NGARM hasn't been revealed by DRDO yet.
There is another reason why inertial navigation is needed in an ARM. ARMs are designed to home primarily upon the mainlobe and other sidelobes, mainly horizontal sidelobe and backlobe emissions of the target, attacking the target in a shallow dive trajectory. Modern radars with very low sidelobe antennas will thus present a "blinking" target to an approaching ARM, which must estimate the real position of the target from the intervals of active emission, when the antenna is radiating in the direction of the inbound missile. In the terminal phase of the NGARM's flight, a slow rotating antenna on the target may be looking away from the missile virtually emitting nothing from the source. The NGARM will follow an inertially steered trajectory based upon previous measurements of the radar's position. As a result the missile will not smash the target directly, but pass within few metres of the target, employing its proximity fuse to set off the warhead. This is why apart from satellite navigation systems whose accuracy vary for various geographical locations we also need inertial navigation in an Anti Radiation Missile.
The NGARM has a 60 Kg pre fragmented warhead. In a typical DRDO designed PF warhead their are tungsten fragments packed in such a way that the surround an explosive filled column and wound by filament which acts as a casing. The explosive column made by filling a new explosive called DENTEX inside a FRP tube. It is detonated to disperse the high density tungsten fragments in surrounding causing severe damage. These warheads are lethal even at large distances. The high density tungsten alloy fragments are manufactured using powder metallurgy techniques. DENTEX is a new explosive DRDO which is a mixture of RDX and TNT and other substances. DRDO through these years have designed many warheads of this type and developed testing methodologies and mathematical models to predict the performance of PF warheads.
By seeing at photos of brochures available on various blogs, it seems that warhead design is highly similar to the 65 kg PF warhead of Akash SAM.
LASER PROXIMITY FUSE.
The Fuse of NGARM is very unique, and employs a laser rangefinder to asses it's distance from target. It looks like Rudram-1 is designed to dive down vertically and pass a beam on the target emitter, this specialised fusing arrangement is designed to measure the altitude of the missile precisely, and trigger the warhead detonator as the missile passes near the radar's antenna. This ensures that the warhead is as close as possible to the target when it is fired. The exact information on design of DRDO'S laser proximity fuel is not available, I tried my best to find it.Because of certain unpredictability in calculating the exact position of RF frequency source and drifting of the missile from that source due to inertia, the missile never directly smashes itself on the target. It only goes as close as possible. Because of this proximity fuses are employed to detonate the warhead once they are sufficiently close to cause damage.
Typically such devices consist of optical ranging apparatus where a laser generates light pulses illuminating a surface. The mirror arrangement inside enables a single lens to emit and receive a reflection of these pulses. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal initiates circuitry that would enable detonator. An additional circuit clarifies difference between received laser pulse and any other light reflected by target surface. The system knows type of radar it is attacking, and therefore also knows what the elevation of the antenna is above the ground. This information is then used to select the most suitable altitude for warhead firing.
NGARM uses dual pulse Solid rocket motor. The dual pulse solid rocket motor design consists of two burning chambers, separated by a bulkhead, designated as pulse separation device (PSD) and a nozzle. The pulse separation device protects the propellant grain in the second pulse chamber against high temperature and pressure impact during the first pulse operation. At initiation of the second pulse, the PSD reliably opens for the gas flow and the combustion gas from the second pulse chamber passes through the empty first pulse chamber and the nozzle. This design allows the initiation of the second pulse at any time after burn out of the first pulse. The use of one central nozzle for both pulses and the avoidance of lateral nozzles help the missile to show outstanding aerodynamic stability in manoeuvres during the second pulse phase. Number of dual pulse rocket motors were designed, manufactured and successfully tested in missile flights and the utility of this technology is demonstrated.
The first pulse chamber is filled with a fin-o-cyl shaped aluminized composite propellant. It has a moderate burn rate. moderate. In the second pulse chamber a star-shaped low aluminized composite propellant is cast. Its burn rate is high. Both chambers are screwed together. Between both chambers the PSD is jammed. A nozzle is attached to the rear of the first pulse chamber. Typical thrust time curve of a dual pulse rocket motor is shown in diagram below.
The Dual Pulse Rocket motor of NGARM is similar in design with LRSAM and is manufactured by same company.
PASSIVE HOMING HEAD
The NGARM has a passive homing head. It means that this seeker doesn't emit any radio frequency emissions it only receives them. The direction and distance of the received emissions are accurately detected and the head homes in or goes towards that direction in an attempt to hit the source of that radio frequency emission. The PHH is a wide band system with compact front end made of medium monolithic integrated circuit for identification of RF waves.
The Passive homing head on NGARM has been developed by DLRL and Astra Microwave based in Hyderabad. The passive homing head performs complex functions of detecting, direction finding and generating tracks for each target that has been detected. It has been designed to identify military operated radars in spectrum of 1 to 10 and 6 to 18 Ghz. The system has a typical design of cavity backed spiral antennas that is usually found in other passive homing heads of other nations Anti Radiation Missiles. Their is a Digital Instantaneous Frequency Measurement DIFM receiver which is used to measure frequency characteristics of target emitter. Their is also a processor which helps in direction finding, electronic support measures. It measures emitter parameters like pulse repeatation frequency, amplitude, azimuth/elevation and time of arrival. It then performs de-interleaving and generates emitter tracks identified targets.
In terms of radars Interleaving is the calculation done to find the least error value of all the multiple values collected, it is done by spacing the consecutive data collected by emitter. It is a continuous process and makes radar beams more focused. Deintreleaving puts data back into original sequence. The pulse repeatation frequency is the number of pulses repeated per unit time. The change of a variable value in a single period is called amplitude, it is the highest value achieved by wave's Crest(peak) if you see a wave on graph. Azimuth is a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian and elevation is the distance of target from horizon.
The operation of Rudram 1 or NGARM can be predicted by the fact the most of the technologies point towards western design trends. The west speaks primarily about their experience of their wars in west asia. As per reports that have come until now talks about Lock On Before Launch LOBL and Lock On After Launch LOAL. NGARM is likely to be programmed with threat liabriers of known Radar parameters, operation modes, fusing altitudes and a program that prioritizes certain targets over others. The LOAL and LOBL may have sub-modes classified amongst them.
Lock On Before Launch-
A Lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) mode uses missile receiver before launch to acquire the target. This mode allows off axis attacks on emitters within the field of view of the seeker. It is typically used as an by non-dedicated strike aircraft to suppress emitters. Non dedicated strike aircraft do not carry specific emitter locator podded hardware with them and rely on RWR or missile sensor to locate enemy emitters. In LOBL defensive mode, which is a short to medium range mode NGARM engages targets within 360 degrees of the launch aircraft. The missile receives target information from aircraft's RWR and given a prioritised list of threats. The highest priority threat will be engaged after launch. Usage of RWR instead of missile sensor provides a larger FOV of emissions across the battle space.
Lock On After Launch -
A Lock On After Launch (LOAL) mode is used for standoff maximum range attacks on emitters of a known type and location, within several degrees of the missile boresight. In this mode an onboard sensor of aircraft gets information about identity, type, etc of the radar and uploads the information into missile constantly while missile is in flight. The launch aircraft will then hurls the missile to impart the best possible range. The missile flies on inertial guidance until it acquires the target, and then homes to impact. During a dense EW environment a specific mode may be applied that is more accurate in terms of target selection, and can engage off axis if required, but requires more precise target position information than the baseline LOAL mode. The de Interleaving and selection of target frequency would be more precise and the launch would likely happen at closer ranges than normal LOAL modes.
Once the missile begins terminal phase it doesnt matter which mode it had selected previously. In terminal phase it begins homing in directly and it's performance solely depends upon the homing algorithm. The optical fuse would be armed from this point and incase emitter shutoff GPS/INS and millimetres wave seeker would be used for further trajectory correction. The overall performance of this missile thus largely depends upon operation conditions and the type of aircraft used. If an aircraft podded with dedicated EW-ESM emitter detection capability the missile can be launched from a larger standoff range. The missile can also recieve data from data links.
THE DRDO NGARM RUDRAM-1 WILL BRING A PARADIGM SHIFT IN INDIAN FORCE AND MAKE IT A TRUE STRIKE CAPABLE FORCE WITH ABILITY TO CONDICT WARTIME AND PEACETIME OFFENSIVE MISSIONS AGAINST ANY TYPE OF CHINESE RADARS. NGARM WILL FURTHER ENHANCE MISSILE TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA MATURING THE ALREADY FLOURISHING MISSILE MAKING INDUSTRY.
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INDIAN NAVY NUH COMPETITION DRAMA.
Indian Navy NUH competition
Continuing the glorious traditions of DELAY in procurement the Indian Navy is still in hunt for a decent helicopter to replace HAL CHETAK. The current retirement of Navy RFI states that, The helicopter should be able to perform the following roles by day and night:-
a. Search and Rescue.
b.Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC).
c. Communication Duties.
d. Anti-Piracy and Anti-terrorism.
e. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR).
f. Surveillance and Targeting.
Until now Indian Navy has failed to care for the Naval variant of HAL DHRUV, about which a strong case has been made by HAL. Many prominent voices are lobbying for Dhruv.
India is increasing ships in it's armada and also plans to have 4 helicopter carriers and 2 - 3 aircraft carriers in future to bolster its Defence capabilities and become a net security provider in type Indian Ocean as well as station its Naval assets in Vietnam. Indian Navy is also building Missile Range Instrumentation Ship and Ocean Surveillance Ship. The modernisation plans of Navy asks for a scalable technologically advances multirole helicopter with indigenous content to manage supplychain efficiently. The foreign OEM have to enter into an agreement with an Indian company under the strategic partnership model and has to agree on Transfer of Technologies of certain critical components.
On February 27, 2019, an attack package consisting of 24 PAF (Pakistan Air Force) aircraft headed for Kashmir, aiming to attack targets in Indian territory. It was retaliation and occurred the day after IAF Mirage 2000 fighters (Indian Air Force) bombarded an alleged terrorist training camp in Balakot with SPICE bombs.
The well-organized attack package violated Indian airspace and took the IAF by surprise. In response, the Indians managed to send 8 of their aircraft, departing from closer bases, in order to fight the enemy. However, only 1 Su-30 MKI fighter and 2 MiG-21 Bison met face to face with the enemy. The Su-30 and one of the MiG-21s returned to their bases after “fury blasts” from alleged Pakistani F-16 fighters. However, one of the pilots did the unthinkable: disobeying ground control recommendations, crossed the LoC ( Line of Control ) and entered enemy airspace.
From then on, there was a succession of facts that until the present date have not been properly clarified. It is true that the MiG-21 of the bold Indian pilot Abhinandan Varthaman was shot down and that the real cause of that shot is still a mystery. The IAF, however, claims that, before Abhinandan ejected and was captured, it shot down an F-16 fighter using an R-73 missile.
A series of “proofs” - such as radar images from EW and ground aircraft, transcription of radio conversations between Pakistanis, testimonials from POK ( Pakistan Occupied Kashmir ) residents , videos showing two ejections, among others - was assembled by the Indian Air Force, but Pakistan strongly denies the loss of any aircraft, nor does it show evidence of the 2 Indian planes allegedly shot down (1 Su-30 and 1 MiG-21, both by J-17), nor as such clashes have occurred. Worse, at the beginning, Pakistan officially claimed the capture of 2 pilots and the non-use of F-16s in combat. A few days later, both claims were dismissed by the Pakistanis themselves.
From the list of Pakistani "tests" in this regard, the 4 missiles of the MiG-21 Bison from Abhinandan were presented - which, according to Pakistan, fell with the 4 missiles intact. The missiles were presented on top of 4 beds, in a low resolution photo. Then, other photos were shown by several sources, but with only 1 or 2 of the missiles in the same photo. However, recent research shows serious evidence of “fraudulent evidence” in ALL photos submitted as evidence. This is the main object of our analysis.
We will number the 4 missiles on tables 1 through 4, from left to right. Number 1: an almost intact R-73; number 2 is a fairly complete R-77; missile number 3 is a partially burned R-77; and number 4 is an R-73 that fell attached to the pylon and caught fire along with the fuselage wreckage. Based on a high-quality video (see below) taken at the site of the MiG-21 crash, we can identify various parts of these missiles in the wreckage.
relevant excerpt from the video “ Wreckage of Indian Air Force MiG-21 Bison Shot Down By Pakistan Air Force ” published on the Media Talk channel (if you prefer, click here to watch the full video on YouTube).
Our goal is not to say what each missile is or is not - this Pakistanis have already done - but to show where each of the parts shown on the tables can be seen in the fall scenario.
Below, all parts of missiles 2, 3 and 4, amid the wreckage, as well as the ammunition of the GSh-23 cannon (compare the photos of the missiles with the parts that are in the beds).
Missile parts 3 and 4 appear in all official Pakistani photos, just as they were seen on the scene. However, no part of missile # 1 (R-73 Archer) can be seen in the video . Precisely the missile that the IAF claims that Abhi used to shoot down the F-16. In the photo of the beds, you can see an almost new R-73 . Did the Pakistanis go to the MiG wreckage and remove just one of the missiles from the scene? Not likely.
In another photo, you can see missile # 1, and part of its serial number. The serial numbers of the R-73, however, are 13 digits. The final two digits of the R-73's serial number were purposely covered with cloth , according to the analysis of the researcher and former Indian fighter pilot Sameer Joshi.
The scary thing is to know that a replica of the R-73 can be yours for $ 225.
In addition to the R-73 in question, the IAF does not allow any other missile to be fired by any of its fighters. That's where we have the “icing on the cake”. When analyzing the photos of the missile nº 2 (R-77 Adder), it is possible to notice strong signs of adulteration. The “million dollar question” is: why adulterate parts of a missile that the IAF confirms has not been fired, instead of just taking the parts that were in the wreckage and presenting them, as was done with the missiles 3 and 4?
When comparing the pictures of the wreckage with the pictures of the beds, it can be seen that some parts of the R-77, which appear in the official photos, have been replaced by pieces in better condition. In other words, they are not burned, as can be seen in the wreckage. The missile section, just after the warhead , looks like it has just left the factory, and the fins are very aligned for a part that has suffered a major collision. In the wreckage, no similar section could be seen.
When you look at the photo of the beds, you can see that the final section of R-77 nº 2 is not burned.
The time to resolve any doubts would be after the release of a high-resolution photo of the R-77 nº 2. The photo exists, but, for an undisclosed reason, it omits the rear section of the R-77. In short: there are 3 rear sections (where the directional fins are) for only 2 missiles.
Many theories can be created after finding an R-77 tampered with. Was Abhinandan shot down by his own wingman , whose name remains secret? Did Abhinandan fire an R-77 unsuccessfully, right after his wingman was attacked with an AIM-120 shot? Was Pakistan using Chinese copies of R-77 in its fighters?
All of these issues are unlikely. Most likely, the R-77 has been tampered with to validate the fake R-73, shown in the photo of the beds. Two very well-preserved missiles on the same side of the plane give the impression that, depending on how the plane hit the ground, the parts on the same side that came off after the crash were unaffected by the fire that destroyed the other parts of the aircraft .
But, what about the tail of the plane, the nozzle, the drift and the overflow tank? These parts fell elsewhere. There is a video (see below) of Shiv Shastry, an Indian military columnist, showing all these parts being collected and placed in a Pakistani military truck. No armaments where the other parts of the wreck are.
Relevant excerpt from Shiv Shastry 's video “ The Mystery of the Missing F-16 ” (if you prefer, click here to watch the full video on YouTube).
Finding out the truth of a kill in air combat is sometimes very complicated, which can last for decades. That is not our goal! However, very quickly and conclusively, India awarded Abhinandan Varthaman a “Vir Chakra” (India’s third highest honor for heroic deeds on the battlefield) in September 2019, for understanding that his action repelled a attack that was aimed at targets in Indian territory, and that it shot down an invasive aircraft.
By way of comparison, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the IAF credited the Ajjimada Bopayya Devayya, then pilot of Mystére, with the shooting down of a Pakistani F-104. He would go on to become a hero, for chasing a Starfighter, to help other IAF pilots who were being lured into a trap set by the PAF. Even with the recognition of the IAF and his fellow pilots, the referred pilot only received his “Maha Vir Chakra” (posthumously) in 1988. Ajjimada died after the fall of his Mystére in Pakistani territory, due to damage suffered in the fight against F- 104. Its merits were only recognized after India was quite sure of its achievements.
Thus, it is very difficult to believe that the Indian Government would act lightly in decorating Abhinandan without any evidence of what he did. Especially at a time when collecting evidence is easier and faster due to the technologies available.
In aerial combat, shooting does not always mean taking down. It's fact! However, with each new piece of information, it becomes clear that Abhinandan actually fired at least one air-to-air missile at opposing aircraft.
WE CREATE TOP CLASS CONTENT SPARING TIME FROM OUR PERSONAL LIVES. IT IS DIFFICULT TO MAKE SUCH CONTENT AS IT INVOLVES A LOT OF BACKGROUND RESEARCH.WE WILL CONTINUE TO DO SO FOR A FORSEEABLE FUTURE AS WE ARE PLANNING TO BUY OUR OWN WEBSITE DOMAIN. IT IS ABSOLUTELY IMPORTANT THAT WE SHOULD REMAIN FINANCIALLY STRONG TO BRING SUCH CONTENT. WE REQUEST READERS TO CONTRIBUTE SOME AMOUNT FOR OUR CAUSE.
In the year 1961 this land called India successfully made an indegeneous fighter aircraft, highly capable in terms of technology, so advanced that no other asian nation except Russia possessed such. The spinoff development from HAL HF-24 Marut gave rise to many new test configurations which ultimately produced greater aerospace expertise in our country. But a huge unsustainable political pressure killed this expertise and India’s aviation sector had to be sacrificed for the sake of diverting money and attention to development of Nuclear Capable Missiles.
Since then, the air of India is waiting for formidable fighters made by Indians, to take flight and secure us. The development of HAL Tejas mk1 is nearing completion and mass production would begin soon, this means our R&D labs would have had to wait until similar development activity for HAL’s AMCA project aren't started, moreover these labs need to run more to achieve more and develop an aerospace industry so strong that it shouldn't ever get destroyed due to political pressure like what happened last time with Marut.
China has constructed 10 Naval bases in Indian Ocean. They will not just have a huge military presence in Indian Ocean, but an entire carrier battle group explicitly for the Indian Ocean. India has started to catch up to the challenge both at home and abroad by making military and diplomatic relations nations threatened by China's bullying in South China Sea as well as starting Naval base in Andaman and Nicobar and signing the LEMOA pact with US by which we can refuel and resupply our ships at Diego Garcia, situated south of Maldives. India has deep rooted cultural influence over all the Island nations in Indian Ocean, and has forayed into developing similar relations with African and Gulf nations.
But strategic purposes do need tactical tools to be successful and in this big chess board called Indian Ocean we have to place our pawns, knights, rooks, bishops and queen very tactfully so as to keep the enemy and check. India already operates INS Vikramaditya, a heavily upgraded ex Soviet carrier with MiG-29K onboard. As of today India not just have more experience in handling an aircraft carrier but India's MiG-29K is superior to China's Shenyang J-16 flying shark. The currently under construction INS Vikrant would offer just a little bit more counter offensive capability compared to Vikramaditya and would be stationed as such that it protects India's west coast while the east coast would be secured by the presence of the CBG of Vikramaditya.
Beyond Visual Range combat may not be a new phenomenon but seeing the modern doctrines of air to air combat , it can be considered to be the most effective tactic for achieving a kill in an air to air duel. Since the basic tactic of seeing the enemy and killing the enemy by our own self being out of enemy's reach is what the latest trend stimulates us to follow, nations across the world intending to achieve self sufficiency in weapon development are pursuing the development of missiles that are capable of hitting the target which is even away from the line of sight of naked eyes.
The era of Beyond Visual Range combat began with introduction of Sparrow missiles of the USAF. These missiles were simply semi active guided, where radar of the fighter would 'paint’ the target with high power radio waves which when reflected from enemy fighter would be used as 'feed’ for the seeker of the missile. To achieve this, radars would need to achieve a 'lock-on’ on the enemy fighter. As a counter tactic against a lock on by the enemy a defending fighter would then try to out maneuver the missile by flying close to ground through valleys and mountains to break lock-on. With passage of time newer missiles having 'infrared guidance’ came into existence which would home-in on reflected radiation coming from heated parts of a target aircraft, the most significantly heated part was the exhausts of jet engine. These kind of missiles relieved the launcher aircraft from following the missile, because earlier for missiles using radar guidance it was needed that target should be constantly painted in an order to guided the air to air missile. Now with heat seeking missiles available one can just shoot and scoot. But heat seeking missile's drawbacks came into foray when flare decoys were introduced. The flare decoys were heated balls of fire released by the defending aircraft in an order to divert the attention of heat seeking missiles to the flare and hence get saved. This problem could be addressed only when if we have a radar guided missile which does not need constant guidance from the aircraft which is firing it.
BAe Taranis - The god of thunder.
BAE Systems' Taranis unmanned combat air system demonstrator is designed to defeat new counter-stealth radars, and may use thrust vectoring as a primary means of flight control and an innovative high-precision, passive navigation and guidance system.
The Taranis has been designed to be operated by sophisticated on-board computers which follow a set path to avoid targets and adjust itself as required. It is designed to do this without being detected and upon identifying threats it will “request” clearance from the controller before engaging any targets. It is also a technology demonstrator which will undoubtedly lead to a future UCAV system sometime beyond 2030.
India's market is always hot and attractive. As per foreigners the always available chaotic situation in India where people are more interested to gain self glory instead of community’s interest, can be manipulated easily. Everyone is making aggressive efforts to grab the big pie and demanding high costs. India actually have a requirement of nearly 200 medium class and nearly 100 light class fighters. After the cancellation of MMRCA competition discussions were slow, projects are slow, establishment of specific requirements are slow and decision making is slow the only thing running fast is time.
India has not shown any interest in MiG-35 officially and after it's knock out from MMRCA competition anyone amongst officials rarely talked about it. All the claims of India interested in MiG-35 originate from Russian media.
The world was impressed by the Fourth Generation Air Superiority fighters. Everyone watched the new advanced fighters from America, The F-15s and F-16s. Later came the Soviet Su-27 and MiG-29 which showed an another dimension of advanced combat planes. The European Nations realised they were not able to fund any fourth generation fighter program single handedly at national level. Extreme Agility, Powerful Radar, Electro Optic passive detection and targeting, Long Range operations, Heavy weapon carrying capability and Ability to perform multiple roles were key features.
The Eurofighter have a very interesting history and expanses many political and economic matters. The collaborative program also involves many companies from many European partners except the “Big Four” customers of Eurofighter. An Air Superiority fighter with multirole abilities with precision strike being one of them was everyone's anticipation.
Sukhoi 35 - The Super flanker
In 2003, Sukhoi launched a project to produce a fighter to bridge the gap between upgraded variants of the Su-27 and Su-30MK, and Russia's fifth-generation Sukhoi PAK FA. And the result was Su-35. Su 35 is a 4++ generation aircraft. The Sukhoi Su-35 Flanker-E is the top Russian air-superiority fighter in service today, and represents the pinnacle of fourth-generation jet fighter design. It will remain so until Russia succeeds in bringing its fifth-generation PAK-FA stealth fighter into production. Distinguished by its unrivaled maneuverability, most of the Su-35’s electronics and weapons capabilities have caught up with those of Western equivalents.
( Su-30 MKI at AeroIndia 2015 )
The Russians offered Sukhoi Su-27 and MiG-29 to Pakistan at almost the same time they did it for India. The Russian negotiations team landed in Pakistan and PAF evaluated Su-27s at PAF base Mushaf in Saragodha. A point in history when India was also considering a tailor made variant of Su-30MK, The advanced Su-30 variant.
Even back then and also today certain aviation enthusiasts media reports point out this event and say that Russia offered Su-27 and MiG-29 to Pakistan just to pressurise Indians for having a bigger order of Su-30s. They are of the opinion that Su-30MKI deal was a disaster and many critical indegenisation opportunities could have been drawn out from this deal. Many journalists’ written articles on prominent news websites have also claimed that Su-30 MKI’s indegensation did not propel the development program for a homegrown fighter in a manner expected. Many serious, baseless and false accusations that Su-30 MKI is a lost opportunity or IAF is struggling to meet operational readiness has been levelled.
( Su-30 MKI at Aero India 2015 )
This “well intentioned” criticism of made in India defence equipment is affecting the minds of general public and making them have a false belief that Indians cannot be self dependent. This has led to a sense of ignorance to the painstaking efforts taken by numerous people for the development program of modern combat aircraft system and the ecosystem that keeps them flying.
Light Combat Helicopter developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited ( HAL ) is a multirole combat helicopter for use by Indian Army and Indian Air Force. It is an attack helicopter derived from the existing HAL Dhruv helicopter. The LCH can be deployed in various roles, including tracking slow-moving aerial targets, insurgency, destroying enemy defences, search and rescue, anti-tank and scouting. It is one of the best weapon systems developed in India presently and has ushered Indian defence market in a new era of modernization and Indigenisation. Read on to know more about this magnificent attack chopper :
The McDonnell Douglas YF 17 was the first defining aircraft of this family taking design experiences from F 5E. The YF 17 lost to YF 16 in the light fighter competition. But failures are stepping stones of success and here is the proof. The YF 17 airframe was bulked into a bigger F 18 A/B as a mid range complement to the bigger F 14 Tomcat. After the cancellation of Naval Advanced Tactical Fighter NATF program. The US Navy wanted a heavy class combat aircraft that could replace all it's F 14s and F/A 18 C/D Hornet aircrafts. A heavily upgraded F 14 was supposed to do the job but US congress went ahead with a more cheaper alternative of developing a bigger F 18 with powerful engines. Certainly they later found F 35 C as a fitting contender but, still their was a need of a twin engine fighter that has better range and electronic attack capability. This requirement was fulfilled by the F/A 18 Super Hornets and E/A 18 Growlers. The F/A 18 Super Hornets are the Growlers are 25% bigger in size than the original hornets. They have square cross section intakes with partial serpentine intakes, that partially hides the engine fan blades. They are powered with a more powerful engine. The E/A 18 Growler is an Electronic Attack variant based on Super Hornet airframe.
Their are unique leading edge root extensions on the Super Hornet airframe. They provide a substantial lift to the heavy body. The Super Hornet is whole lot a new aircraft that apart from maintenance procedures and ejection seat thier is rarely any old thing taken. The Super Hornets later received heavy upgrades like an AESA radar , avionics from the cancelled X 32 and various other podded mission specific sensors.
The F / A 18 Advanced Super Hornet is an upgrade program initiated to add more capabilities to the current existing fleet of Super Hornets and Growlers. As well as possible procurement of more F / A 18s to complement the F 35 C.
Chengdu Aerospace Corporation's J 20 is an advanced fifth generation twin engine single seat Air-Superiority aircraft. It has been intended to replace the 3rd generation aircrafts in inventory of People's Liberation Army - Air Force and serve as a deterance to the deployment of advanced US fifth generation aircrafts in South China sea and anywhere around. There are no known post production variants of Chengdu J 20 and its development program has been funded entirely by Chinese Government. It features all attributes of being an advanced Chinese development which sure would challenge superiority of US , Russia and would dominate Europe in the field of fighter aircraft design.
The Chengdu J 20 has been designed keeping in mind the Chinese Anti Access / Area Denial strategy. According to this strategy, the forces must have minimum fire power to deny access to a powerful enemy over the area of interest. Chengdu J 20 may not be able to match the level of stealth of US fighters but would surely be enough to deny access. The Chinese have given equal importance to Stealth and kinematic performance of an aircraft and have made a high thrust engine, high internal fuel and more number of external fuel tanks being able to carry. The J 20 has been designed to match the level of combat effectiveness of Lockheed F 22 raptor as well as to overpower combat effectiveness of Lockheed F 35 lightning ll. The J 20 may not be able to reach the technological advancement level of F 35 but can perform more tasks and provides a kinematically superior airframe.
There is a sensible case to be made that a confrontation between opposing stealth fighters may be decided at within-visual-ranges, where elements of classic dogfighting and close in air combat manoeuvring may apply.
It is an American Single Engine, Medium Capability Fifth Generation Fighter. There is a family of different aircrafts based on F 35. The F 35 is currently being introduced in service. F 35 is a single engine, single seat, stealth, multirole, fifth generation fighter aircraft. deployed for combat by the United States Air Force and various other Air Forces allied to US. It is an outcome of the erstwhile Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program initiated by the US to replace various aircrafts in service with US military. It is also thus the most costly Fifth Generation Fighter Program because it aims to satisfy multiple requirements in a single airframe. The JSF was intended to replace F 14 Tomcat, F 16 Falcon, F/A 18 Hornet, A-10 Thunderbolt and AV-8B Harrier aircrafts and all their variants.
F-35 JSF development is being principally funded by the United States with additional funding from partners. The partner nations are either NATO members or close U.S. allies. The United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Turkey are part of the active development program; several additional countries have ordered, or are considering ordering, the F-35. All the partner nations have started receiving F 35 aircrafts.
To keep development, production, and operating costs down, a common design was planned in three variants that share 80 percent of their parts:
1 F 35A (CTOL) conventional take off and landing variant.
2 F 35B (STOVL) short-take off and vertical-landing variant.
3 F 35C catapult assisted takeoff but arrested landing ( CATOBAR ) carrier-based (CV) variant.
On 31 July 2015, the first squadron was declared ready for deployment after intensive testing by the United States.
The super-fighter for the 21st century F22 Raptor is worlds first fifth generation fighter aircraft. The first to employ stealth, supersonic cruise, agility and advanced integrated avionics into one single aircraft, it currently dominates the skies over battlefield and bring unequaled capability into the hands of US Air Force fighter pilots.
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile and comparatively lower cost F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.
Sukhoi PAK-FA abbreviated in Russian language as Prospective Airborne Complex of Front line Aviation is a program to develop fifth generation fighter aircraft. The prototype aircraft designated as T 50 which had its first flight on 29 Jan 2010. It is expected to enter service with designation Sukhoi Su 50 in Russian Airforce. The aircraft is being co-developed in collaboration with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited HAL with 50% sharing of fundings. The HAL would develop an Indian specific variant named Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) whose final contract is expected to be signed at the mid of 2017 after which aircraft will be developed within 7 years. The FGFA will be tailored for requirements of Indian Air Force according to Indian Military doctrine. While the aircraft is expected to be exported in large numbers in Asia Pacific. It was reported at Paris Air Show 2017 that the name FGFA is now completely replaced and the aircraft now be called Prospective Multirole Fighter PMF. The Sukhoi Aviation Corporation claims it to be better than any other fifth generation aircraft currently available for export. It will be the first aircraft in both Russian and Indian service to use stealth technology by which they could evade detection by enemy radar to some extent. It will replace Su 27 and MiG 29 in Russian Service and MiG 21 in Indian service.
After the unveiling of J 31 or FC 31's new model and a new flying prototype of J 31. There were significant improvements being analysed about it. These improvements would catapult J 31 in the export market and would fulfill the Chinese dream of ending the monopoly of US in sale of fifth generation fighter aircrafts. Unlike old juice in a new bottle the Shenyang J 31 has the capability to outrun any regional adversaries like F 15 of Japan or Su 30 MKI of India. It is therefore very important to analyse the capabilities of this new aircraft and to see how it shifts the power balance equations.
Believe in yourself You will be successful. Believe in ISRO India will be successful. The Indian Space Research Organisation is now readying itself to jump to the next level. Once again putting everyone in a surprise. After the testing of Indegeneous Cryogenic Engines like CE 7.5, CE 20 and SCE 200. ISRO is putting them and their variants in use to make our larger dreams into reality. ISRO has taken up the challenge to develop Unified Launch Vehicle and Heavy Launch Vehicle. These new series of Rockets shows ISRO'S modular approach where the rockets can be customised to certain limits to make them capable for variety of space launch applications. The output of a cryogenic engine is pure H2O so we won't even be doing any pollution either. Here we introduce these two in a descriptive, balanced, interesting and easy to understand manner.
After The Announcement of India selling BrahMos missile to Vietnam and probably Philippines also, Many Fanboys went gala over it. It is true that BrahMos is a very effective antiship weapon. But without technical comparison it will be a daydream to think that BrahMos can stop an Invasion on Vietnam's Waters. To know the effectiveness it is important to study how BrahMos performs against Chinese Ship Based SAMs and how much punch does it pack. For that purpose we must study the PLAN ships deployed at it's Borders with Vietnam and their effectiveness. It is very important for India to contain China and create more troubles for it in it's own backyard. Hats Off to the Indian Govt.'s decision to sell BrahMos to Vietnam and even perform Oil exploration there. This would keep China too busy in their own backyard where they would increase the concentration of their assets and won't be able to deploy any formidable force in Indian Ocean.
Thank You everyone for the amazing response we had yesterday. Hope you all enjoyed now here are more details. The exact thing we all want.
The Phase 2 system will have longer range radars (Detection range of 1,500km as opposed to 600 km for LRTR radar), and new hypersonic interceptor missiles flying at Mach 6-7 (As opposed to Mach 4-5 for Phase 1 missiles) with agility and the capability to discriminate against ballistic missile defence counter measures. Unlike the Phase 1 Swordfish radar developed by India in partnership with Israel, the radar to support Phase 2 interception will have 80% indigenous component, DRDO chief VK Saraswat told the press on May 15, 2011.
"Only some of the equipments and consultancy would be provided by Israel," Saraswat said
The Ballistic Missile Defence shield prepared by India's DRDO involves India's extensively funded works in defence fields and Top class scientists involved. It is one of the most ambitious projects of DRDO. India is the 4th country to develop a Ballistic Missile Defence Shield. Development of BMDS in India began in 1999 as after the Kargil conflict India realised that it's cities need to be protected from Nuclear Tipped Ballistic missiles of Pakistan and China. India's worst fears are that their will be a radical change of Power in Pakistan that would throw Pakistan's Nukes in the hands of Insurgents. Practically a Democratic Pakistan never had any war with Democratic India (except kargil). War has happened only when Pakistan had been under Military Dictatorship. Right now Democracy is in strong phase in Pakistan but The future is always uncertain. Seeing the strategic depth of this matter Indians want a permanent solution to counter the Nuclear threat. Definitely BMDS then becomes a strategic weapon.
Gripen E VS F 16 block 70 which one is best choice for replacement of MiG 21??
Now once again here we are where we have to chose between some more new variants of the 4Gs. After cancelling MMRCA tender because of being fucked up by Dassault's price changes. The new tender floated to locally manufacture single engine fighter aircraft have fighters for it. The tender has attracted two wonderful aircrafts throwing a whole new competition for Indians. And of course a whole new debate topic for Aviation geeks. The F 16 Block 70 which is dubbed to be the most advanced variant of F 16 and The Saab Gripen NG/ E.
Here we are bringing to you the full spectrum of EW capabilities, Weapons and Other warfare capabilities plus potential weaknesses. So that we can make a proper choice as to which one could be better.
Keeping Alive the legacy of having most accurate Missiles made by the Missile Man Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. India has now made missiles that are more capable than the previous ones. These missiles have been designed keeping in mind the terrain at India's national borders, road connectivity, weather and Cold Start Military doctrine. For the sake of cold start it is very critical that Indians should be able to deploy missiles within minimum time. The missiles are..................
4 BrahMos ll.
Many articles have been written and many debates with filthy language has gone , but nobody has talked about tactical comparisons of both. Indian authors are seen always presenting only those points in which LCA scores better than JF 17. Indian authors rarely discuss about the small weapon package of LCA, While Pakistani authors neglecting the contribution of Chinese talk like JF 17 is just theirs, they also claim JF 17 to be 'semi stealth' just because it has DSI inlets...........huh.
Nobody talks about how would they work in battlespace. Many people escape argument by saying comparison cannot happen between LCA and JF 17 as both are of Different class/category. Yes it is true that both are of different category but comparison can happen as we all know they may face each other in a battle and many countries may buy them so comparison is necessary.