The world was impressed by the Fourth Generation Air Superiority fighters. Everyone watched the new advanced fighters from America, The F-15s and F-16s. Later came the Soviet Su-27 and MiG-29 which showed an another dimension of advanced combat planes. The European Nations realised they were not able to fund any fourth generation fighter program single handedly at national level. Extreme Agility, Powerful Radar, Electro Optic passive detection and targeting, Long Range operations, Heavy weapon carrying capability and Ability to perform multiple roles were key features.
The Eurofighter have a very interesting history and expanses many political and economic matters. The collaborative program also involves many companies from many European partners except the “Big Four” customers of Eurofighter. An Air Superiority fighter with multirole abilities with precision strike being one of them was everyone's anticipation.
The Eurofighter Typhoon today is a premiere European air superiority fighter with robust strike capabilities. It is a 4++ generation fighter having built in ESM and wingtip podded ECM systems along with an AESA radar and IRST. It is a twin engine canarded delta design multirole fighter, designed and is manufactured by a consortium of Alenia Aermacchi (Leonardo since 2017), Airbus, and BAE Systems that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH formed in 1986. NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency manages the project and is the prime customer.
In 1977 the British sought to replace their Jaguar strike fighters and BAE Harrier jumpjets. Also stung by the infamous title of Widowmaker the West Germany wanted their F-104 starfighters to be replaced. In the same time many European air forces were looking for a high end combat aircraft with multirole capabilities. The British were more interested to have robust air to air capabilities to be of the level of an Air Superiority fighter, they also wanted an advanced aircraft to replace jumpjets. It came later to their mind that having such wide anticipations are too ambitious for a single fighter development program. So they finalised two main requirements namely "Air Staff Target (AST) 403" for air to air roles; and a short-takeoff Harrier replacement, designated the "AST 409". In the meanwhile the British also conducted a series of small-scale technology-demonstration programs to help develop useful subsystems for such a new aircraft.
The AST 409 requirement later fructified in the form of F-35B Joint Strike Fighter. The BAE considered many concepts for the AST 403 and later selected "P.106B", lightweight fighter. It was a single engine canarded delta wing design which looks quite similar to Saab JAS-39 Gripen. The design was rejected because RAF felt that it had "half the effectiveness of the two-engined aircraft at two-thirds of the cost".
While an another proposal under AST 403 was the P-96 conventional "tailed" design, which actually came earlier in the 70s itself. This concept was quite similar to McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. It was later though out that the the P.96 design would have had little potential for growth, had it entered production, it would have had secured few exports in a market in which the Hornet would have been well established.
P.96 design iteration
At around the same time West Germany came up with concepts for multirole fighter. The Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm (MBB) in Germany was considering a number of different concepts for an air-superiority fighter under the Luftwaffe's "Taktisches Kampfflugzeur 1990 (TKF-90 / Tactical Combat Aircraft 1990)" requirement. It was also a canarded delta design. With two air intakes similar to what we later saw in Mikoyan Project 1.44. The TKF-90 was a very big inspiration for the EAP demonstrator which was later developed into Eurofighter Typhoon.
BAE and MBB then began to discuss a collaboration, resulting in 1979 in a proposed design for a "European Collaborative Fighter (ECF)", later the "European Combat Aircraft (ECA)". The ECA resembled the MBB TKF-90 design. France joined ECF in October 1979 as Dassault began to make up it's mind, although they had their own work going on in the same direction and didn't mind telling others about it. It was at this stage of development the Eurofighter name was first attached to the aircraft. The French however wanted to lead the design and were more interested to make a strike fighter platform. The British and French wanted their respecive RB199 and Snecma M-88 to power the ECA.
The ACX is said to have inspired Dassault Rafale.
The French attitude led to the collapse of intergovernmental talks on collaboration in 1980. The British government canceled AST 403 in 1981, while the West German government showed no interest in funding development of the TKF-90. That might have been the end of the whole thing, but BAE management realized that European air forces would need a new fighter sooner or later, and pressed on. BAE had been working on an export fighter-bomber design, the "P.110", basically a follow-on from the P.106B concept with ECF influence, but couldn't find a buyer to fund production.
After this collapse, In April 1982 the Panavia partners (MBB, BAe and Aeritalia) launched the Agile Combat Aircraft (ACA) programme.They decided to collaborate on another machine, the "Agile Combat Aircraft (ACA)", which was based on TKF-90 and P.110 concepts. The Italians were very interested in the ACA since they had an urgent need for a replacement for their F-104 Starfighters. A mockup of the ACA was displayed at the Farnborough Air Show in the UK in 1982 and at the Paris Air Show in 1983. As response the French started working aggressively on "Avion de Combate Experimentale (ACX)" program, which later became Dassault Rafale although prior to France's joining of the ECA, Dassault received contracts for the development of project ACT 92 Avion de Combat Tactique, meaning "Tactical Combat Airplane".
Later on ACA went ahead for the moment, with plans generated for the production of two demonstrators under the "Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP)" -- if building a new fighter seemed to be taking time, production of acronyms was at full steam. On 26 May 1983, the British Ministry of Defense awarded BAE and Aeritalia, the Italian partner, a contract for one of the EAPs, and the expectation was that the Germans would quickly commit to construction of the second demonstrator.
EAP ( Experimental Aircraft Programme ) Demonstrator.
Initially the West Germany govt was reluctant to partner the British and was more interested in French one. They even stopped funding of MBB. But MBB itself was more interested in EAP and supported it even in times of fund crunch. The EAP demonstrator performed its first flight on 8 August 1986 and conducted 259 test flights up to its retirement on 1 May 1991. Pilots were wildly enthusiastic about the machine, one of them saying: "It goes like a ferret with a firework up its bum!" It was fast, it was agile, and it was great fun to fly.
The EAP demonstrator featured the cranked-delta / canard-delta configuration of the various concepts that led up to it, but differed from them in having a single tailfin instead of twin tailfins. That was because MBB had been expected to provide the rear fuselage elements of the EAP, but when their funding was cut, BAE simply used the rear section of a Tornado, including the tailfin. The EAP also used the Tornado's twin TurboUnion RB.199 afterburning bypass turbojet engines. The intakes were placed under the belly, and had a hinged panel on the lower lip that could be dropped open to ensure airflow at high angles of attack.
This rear section was made mostly of aircraft alloys, but the rest was mostly graphite-epoxy composite assemblies, leading jokers to call it the "plastic plane". It also incorporated a quadruple-redundant fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system (FCS) -- which was a necessity, since the EAP demonstrator was "dynamically unstable", meaning it would quickly go out of control unless computers performed tiny flight adjustments at all times. Dynamic instability helped give the aircraft high agility, though it required many lines of tricky software.
The EAP demonstrator featured a "glass cockpit", with three Smiths Industries "multifunction displays (MFDs)" using color picture tubes; a GEC-Marconi wide-angle "head-up display (HUD)"; and center-mounted "hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS)" controls. BAE also included a voice-warning system and the company also tinkered with a "direct voice input (DVI)" command system with the aircraft. Test pilots had been part of the design team for the cockpit layout, and the result was regarded as outstanding.
Birth of Eurofighter Typhoon.
By early 1985, Britain, West Germany, Italy, and Spain had settled on a design along the lines of the EAP demonstrator, in construction at the time, Although Britain and Spain wanted a multi-role fighter, West Germany and Italy were only interested in an air-superiority machine. The group managed to hammer out their differences, with a general agreement on specifications reached in December 1985. A formal specification for the "EFA (European Fighter Aircraft)" was released in September 1987, with production expected to begin in 1992. As it turned out, this was short of the mark by a decade.
The EFA was focused on air superiority, but could perform ground attack as a secondary mission. It was to have high performance, high maneuverability, and have docile handling characteristics. It was also to have a low radar cross section (RCS) and be capable of operating from short forward airstrips. A formal development contract was awarded to the "Eurofighter" consortium on 23 November 1988, specifying delivery of eight prototypes.
The Eurofighter became politically controversial, with the German government teetering on the edge of pulling out of the project. However Luftwaffe brass insisted that they needed the aircraft, and that it was the aircraft they needed. Attempts to define a cheap-and-dirty version of the Eurofighter led to a similar result: a cheaper machine could be built, but it wouldn't do the job.
The principal manufacturers in the consortium were, in order of workshare: BAE Systems of the UK (33%); MBB (later DASA) of Germany (33%), Aeritalia (later Alenia) of Italy (21%); and CASA of Spain (13%). DASA and CASA later became part of the EADS aerospace group, now the Airbus group. The "EJ.200" engine for the new fighter was to be developed by the parallel "EuroJet" group, which includes Rolls-Royce, MTU, Fiat Avio, and SENER (now ITP) of Spain. The EJ.200 is an evolution of the RB.199, derived from the Rolls-Royce "XG40" demonstrator engine built in the early days of the Eurofighter program. The EJ.200 was to provide better performance and feature 30% fewer parts than the RB.199.
While everything was going smooth, shit just got real. The Cold War was over, Germany was re-united. The threat that the Eurofighter had been originally intended to meet had evaporated, though as it would turn out new threats would raise their ugly heads only too soon, and German reunification was proving painfully expensive. 1992 was an election year in Germany and many of the voters were pacifistic, with a strong aversion to weapons programs.
The first prototype Eurofighter, designated "DA1", finally flew on 27 March 1994. That prototype was built by DASA, wore Luftwaffe markings, and was flown by German pilot Peter Weger from an airfield at Manching, Germany. It was named EF-2000. Total 8 prototypes were built out of which DA4 and DA6 were two seaters. The formal decision to go ahead with production was made in 1997, with production contracts awarded in 1998. In September 1998, the Eurofighter organization announced the aircraft's name of "Typhoon". This name was assigned for export aircraft, and the organization stressed that member nations would be free to name it what they liked.
The Eurofighter since beginning itself was designed keeping air superiority operations in mind to provide a solution for quick reaction for securing the Euro airspace,unlike an another Eurocanard the Rafale which was designed having primary focus on air to ground operations. The Typhoon has been designed aerodynamically unstable which provides a high level of agility (particularly at supersonic speeds), low drag and enhanced lift. It features a canarded delta wing design with various control surfaces. From the perspective of airframe optimisations, the Typhoon is without doubt optimised for its two primary design objectives, which are supersonic BVR interception and close in combat at transonic speeds, with no obvious concessions made to the secondary objective of strike.
There are small strakes on the fuselage below the cockpit and above and behind the canard fins to make sure that airflow over the wing remains effective at high angles of attack. The canard fins are of "all-moving" configuration and have a strong anhedral droop. The loosely coupled canard is intended to provide high control authority at high angles of attack, by placing the surfaces ahead of the main vortices, but also to provide lower trim drag in supersonic flight. The straight-edged tailfin also differs from the curved Tornado tailfin used on the EAP demonstrator. There is a large dorsal airbrake behind the cockpit. The hinged lower lip used in the EAP demonstrator was not carried over to the Eurofighter. Unlike the EAP demonstrator, which had a compound-delta wing, the Eurofighter has a simpler cropped-delta wing. The low wing loading will confer excellent climb performance for the installed thrust, and the the delta configuration lower supersonic drag, in comparison with the F/A-18. The low wing loading is not optimal for low level strike profiles, but the gust sensitivity will be alleviated by the large sweep angle and the use of artificial stability and canards. The airframe is rated to +9/-3G at an undisclosed combat weight, pylon G ratings have also not been disclosed. The trailing edge is straight and features full-span split "flaperons (flap-ailerons)".
The pilot sits on a Martin-Baker Mark 16A "zero-zero (zero altitude, zero speed escape)" ejection seat, under a frameless clamshell canopy. The back-seater in the two-seat version features the same control layout as the pilot, but with a "HUD repeater" instead of a HUD, and of course uses the same type of ejection seat. Roll control is primarily achieved by use of the wing flaperons. Pitch control is by operation of the foreplanes and flaperons, the yaw control is by rudder. Control surfaces are moved through two independent hydraulic systems, which also supply various other items, such as the canopy, brakes and undercarriage; powered by a 4,000 psi engine-driven gearbox. In comparing the Typhoon to established fighters, the aerodynamic design exploits basic ideas used in F-16 family, but combines them with a strongly swept delta and canard configuration to extend the supersonic envelope, although not as aggressively as GD did with the 660 ft2 cranked arrow F-16XL/E wing. The simpler wing design in the Typhoon in turn required canards to achieve the desired supersonic drag and manoeuvre envelope.
Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 (ZK349) from 29(R) Squadron painted in camouflage to represent a Hawker Hurricane from 249 Squadron during the Battle of Britain, specifically Flt Lt James Brindley Nicolson's aircraft - coded GN-A. The only Victoria Cross awarded to an RAF Fighter Command pilot during the Battle of Britain, was won by James Brindley Nicolson while serving with 249 squadron.
Engines are fed by a chin double intake ramp situated below a splitter plate. It features two-spool afterburning bypass turbojets, with the intakes on the belly of the aircraft under the cockpit. This position helps ensure airflow at high angles of attack.The paired inlet is optimised for high AoA performance, using forebody flow to promote air ingestion, as well as a boundary layer splitter above the inlet. The combination of vortex lift and inlet geometry used by the Typhoon exploits the same ideas used in the F-16A/C/XL/E. The arrangement is similar to that used on the EAP demonstrator, except that the Eurofighter's intakes curve up against the belly while the EAP demonstrator's intakes had a straight rectangular cross-section. The canard fins are of "all-moving" configuration and have a strong anhedral droop. The straight-edged tailfin also differs from the curved Tornado tailfin used on the EAP demonstrator.
Eurofighter Tranches :
Like any normal modern combat aircraft the Eurofighter was introduced into service with basic capabilities which were later to be upgraded and developed into a series called Tranches.
Tranche 1 : - This version only had the capability to do air-to-air combat, with support for AAMs like the AIM-9L Sidewinder, the ASRAAM, and the AIM-120B AMRAAM -- with a limited air-to-ground capability added at British request on a "fast track" basis. The initial units of Tranche 1 were basically for training, with an emphasis on two-seaters. They did not support or had limited suppory for advanced systems such as datalinks and DASS, and there was limited qualifications of weapons.
Tranche 2 :- It was introduced in 2008 with speed for air-to-air combat, But a later version introduced from 2010, added a proper air-to-ground capability, with additional work that brought the machine to the levels of specifications stated in brochures.
Tranche 3 :- Capability to fire new generation weapons like the Meteor BVRAAM, the Storm Shadow standoff missile, and the SPEAR series of air-to-ground munitions. Also multiple-ejector rack to allow carriage of up to three Brimstone missiles, or other small stores, on a single pylon. To deal with parts obsolescence a new processsor.
The upgrades further involve :-
Captor E radar, Provision for conformal fuel tanks (CFTs), Improvements to the EJ.200 engine, focusing on weight reduction with thrust and reliability improvements.
Their is a proposal for thrust vectoring and offers thrust deflection angles of up to 23.5 degrees. It is seen as useful for combat agility and for reducing takeoff run in "hot and high" conditions.
Having a low observable airframe to delay early detection became a key requirement in the times when Typhoon was developed. Although a high degree of stealth wasn't anticipated, several key design aspects surely make this euro canard a ‘semi stealth’ aircraft. The frontal fuselage design shows key features, like the canard's and wing's leading edge are swept back at angles where most reflected radar waves won't reach back to it's source. The EADS/DASA also developed radar absorbent materials that coat the Typhoon's wing leading edges, Rudder and strakes, edges of air intakes and it's surroundings. The manufacturers have carried out tests on the early Eurofighter prototypes to optimise the low observability characteristics of the aircraft from the early 1990s. Testing at BAE's Warton facility on the DA4 prototype measured the RCS of the aircraft and investigated the effects of a variety of RAM coatings and composites.
The four hard points beneath the fuselage of Eurofighter are semi recessed inside the aircraft so that when air to air missiles would be mounted, a partial shielding could be provided to these missiles from incoming radar waves. The usage of passive detection sensors like IRST and passive RF sensors make it possible to stay undetected at certain conditions.
Normally usage of canards is criticised for having poor stealth capability. The Typhoon has such an arrangement in flight control software that it maintains the elevon trim and canards at an angle at which they have the smallest RCS. McDonnell Douglas and NASA's X-36 featured canards and was considered to be extremely stealthy.
Strong, lightweight composite materials were key to the design of Eurofighter Typhoon to give it deliberate instability. Using them means the weight of the airframe is 30% less than for traditional materials, boosting range and performance as well as reducing the radar signature.
Carbon Fibre Composites -70%
Metals - 15%
Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) - 12%
Other Materials - 3%
Attack and Identification System
This is the sensor fusion system of Typhoon. Traditionally each sensor in an aircraft is treated as a discrete source of information; however this can result in conflicting data and limits the scope for the automation of systems, hence increasing pilot workload. To overcome this, the Typhoon employs what are now known as sensor fusion techniques (in a similar fashion to the U.S. F-22 Raptor).
In the Typhoon fusion of all data sources is achieved through the Attack and Identification System, or AIS. The AIS combines data from the major on-board sensors along with any information obtained from off-board platforms such as AWACS, ASTOR, and Eurofighter own Multi-function Information Distribution System (MIDS). Additionally the AIS integrates all the other major offensive and defensive systems such as the DASS, Navigation, ACS and Communications.
In practice the AIS should allow the Eurofighter to identify targets at distances in excess of 150 nm and acquire and auto-prioritise them at over 100 nm. In addition the AIS offers the ability to automatically control emissions from the aircraft, so called EMCON (from EMissions CONtrol). This should aid in limiting the detectability of the Typhoon by opposing aircraft further reducing pilot workload.
AIS comprises an avionic computer and a navigation computer. These identical-hardware computers, developed under Teldix leadership, are each based on Motorola 68020 central processing units (CPUs) with 68882 math coprocessors, together with RISC-based processors to facilitate floating point and matrix computations. The Typhoon includes a Smiths utilities management system (UMS), which provides stores management functions, including weapons arming and release.
Avionics and Sensors
Being a 4++ generation fighter it's heavily upgraded sensors stack up to be globally competent even comparable to fifth generation fighters to some extent giving Typhoon a clear edge over any kind of adversary it faces now or in future. The sensors and avionics suite of any 4++ generation fighter are classified into two categories the Electronic Warfare and Electro Optic. The EW sensors consist of radar and other active and passive Radio Frequency antennas. The Electro-Optic sensors consist of IRST and Targeting pods that optically detect, track and target the enemy.
1. Captor M
It is a multimode pulse doppler radar developed from the Blue Vixen radar of Harrier. Initially the Germans wanted a separate radar developed on the philosophy of AN/APG-65 radar family. But later on mergers and take overs of many companies made it one single common radar for all. The Captor M ability to "priority track", interrupting the normal scan pattern in order to concentrate on a particular area of interest. Captor is the only mechanically scanned radar that does this. Even though electronically-scanned radars can scan more quickly, searching and tracking up to 33% more quickly than mechanically-scanned radars, the Captor-M has greater range and azimuth coverage, especially towards the edges of the scan, where energy losses due to phase shifting can dramatically reduce the performance of AESA radar.
Captor-M is referred as a "high-end multifunction X-band (10 GHz) pulse-Doppler radar with a modular architecture and more than 30 operational modes for air-to-air and air-to-ground operations". The radar has a high resistance against electronic countermeasures and multitarget capability including track-while-scan.
Scanning, however, is done by mechanically pointing the radar's antenna, which means that "a lot of time is wasted moving the antenna so that relatively little time can be spent on analysing targets", Compans added, "particularly if several targets spread out in space have to be tracked.
The Captor is a digital impulse doppler multi-mode fire control radar.
- Modulare designe comprising 6 LRIs, which consist of 61 SRIs
- weight ~170 kg
- TWT with output of 30-50 kVA
- Receiver with 3 data processing channels (detection, tracking and ECCM)
- mechanically steered planar array with a diameter of 70 cm, driven by 4 smarium-cobalt servomotors.
- Data Adaptive Scanning
- X-Band frequency range (8-12 GHz)
- Variable pulse repetition frequency between 1000 and 200000 pulses/sec
- Radar computer consists of 17 processors, 5 of which are fully programmeable (including digital signal processing) and performs up to 3 bln operations/second
- Software written in ADA to the MIL STD 2167A standard consisting of a 1.2 million lines long code
- 31 operating modes and submodes and functions
The CAPTOR provides a wide range of different AA- and AG-modes. The following modes are available:
- RWS (Range While Scan)
- TWS (Track While Scan)
- VS (Velocity Search)
- Boresight Acquisition
- Vertical Acquisition
- Slaved Acquisition
- HUD Acquisition.
- STT (Single Target Track)
- DBS/SAR (Doppler Beam Sharpening/Synthetic Aperature Radar)
- GMTI/T (Ground Moving Target Indication/Track)
- PVU (Precision Velocity Update)
- TA (Terrain Avoidance).
- FTT (Fixed Target Track)
The radar also provides look up/down and shoot up/down capabilities, raid assessment and a non cooporative target recognition (NCTR) function.
It is also able to create a 3-D picture from the airspace which provides the pilot a better overview about the situation into the airspace. It features an automatic IFF system, an integrated fighter-missile datalink and automatically prioritizes all threats in TWS mode.
2. Captor E
It is an AESA radar for Eurofighter Typhoon based on the CAPTOR radar currently in service on Eurofighter production aircraft. The new generation of radar is intended to replace the mechanically steered antennas and high-power transmitters used on current Eurofighter aircraft with an electronically steered array This enables new mission capabilities for combat aircraft such as simultaneous radar functionalities, air surveillance, air-to-ground and weapon control.
Initially the AMSAR /Airborne Multi-Mode Solid-State Active-Array Radar) programme was started back in 1993 by the government founded GTDAR consortium with the aim to research and develope the AESA fighter radar technology. In 2003 german and british industry started the CECAR as a strand of AMSAR to develope a Captor specific AESA. The industry founded CAESAR (Captor AESA Radar) demonstrator developed by the EuroRadar consortium was fully integrated and tested on the ground before it made its first flight aboard a BAC-1-11 on 24th February 2006. The current modell is close to a production modell and is available since 2010 as a retrofit to the Captor-D or as a new radar for Tranche 3 aircraft. The AESA antenna consists of 1500 T/R-modules with an output of 10 W each.
The CAPTOR E radar is able to lock onto a large target (like a transporter) at distances of over 300 km and on a fighter sized target at distances above 160 km. The radar is able to track up to 20 targets at once and can engage 6 of them. All targets are tracked by priority and the radar can collect detailed informations about the primary tracked one. A target change will be automatically undertaken when a missile is fired at one target.
The array can be moved +-60° in azimuth and elevation.
The radar functions can all be handled with the VTAS controls. Much functions are automatized. The array will be normally moved automatically and the radar switches automatically between the different modes.
Multimode Air/Air and Air/Ground fire control radar with WFoR re-positioner
Increased Air-to-Air Range -Faster detection and tracking of targets
Improved Tracking Performance
Interleaved/ 'simultaneous' Air/Air & Air/Ground
Extended Missile Guidance -Increased Operational Availability
Reduced Life Cycle Cost -Growth Potential for Future Enhancements.
In modern air warfare where a large number of counters have been developed to cheat radars, passive EO systems like IRST have become an effective tool to detect enemy passively without letting them know. So here the Typhoon has something which it claims has detected the Stealthy F-22 Raptor also.
Developed by the optronics giant Thales, the Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) infrared sensor provides passive Air-to-Air target detection and tracking performance in the IRST mode for covert tracking and Air-to-Surface operations in the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) mode.Being a passive sensor, it enables the aircraft to gather early intelligence of threats and to manoeuvre stealthily into an advantageous tactical position without being detected by hostile electronic warfare systems.
PIRATE operates in two IR bands, 3–5 and 8–11 micrometres. When used with the radar in an air-to-air role, it functions as an infrared search and track system, providing passive target detection and tracking. In an air-to-surface role, it performs target identification and acquisition. By supercooling the sensor even small variations in temperature can be detected at long range. Although no definitive ranges have been released an upper limit of 80 nm has been hinted at, a more typical figure would be 30 to 50 nm.
The operating modes of PIRATE are Multiple Target Track (MTT), Single Target Track (STT), Single Target Track Ident (STTI), Sector Acquisition and Slaved Acquisition.
In MTT mode the system will scan a designated volume space looking for potential targets. Up to 200 targets can be simultaneously tracked. In STT mode PIRATE will provide high precision tracking of a single designated target so that this potentially more important target could be looked upon more peculiarly. While STTI mode allows for visual identification of the target, while it provides the picture of the target much as an outline indented. The processing techniques further enhances the output, giving a near-high resolution image of targets, the resolution is superior to that of CAPTOR.
In Sector Acquisition mode PIRATE will scan a volume of space under direction of another onboard sensor such as CAPTOR. So it can just follow whatever the the radar sees, so that even an electronic attack is attempted on CAPTOR the pilot won't lose target. In Slave Acquisition, off-board sensors are used with PIRATE being commanded by data obtained from an AWACS or a friendly Typhoon the PIRATE would automatically designate it and switch to STT.
It accurately tracks multiple high-speed targets, prioritizes them and provides the on board Attack & Identification computer with target positional, velocity, acceleration, and approach/recede data. In addition it provides high-resolution images for visual identification. It provides highly reliable information for air-to-air and air-to-ground use.
It is integrated with other on-board sensor systems for maximum sensor fusion effectiveness. The continuous steerable image is provided directly on Pilot's HMD. It can perform automatic detection and multiple target tracking, track while scan and has high angular resolution & track accuracy.
It provides data and imagery to head-up and multi-function head-down displays, facilitating navigation and terrain avoidance in adverse weather conditions and also locates and provides cueing information on ground targets. Navigation and landing aid is another nice feature. Additionally PIRATE has a passive ranging capability although the system remains limited when it comes to provide passive firing solutions, as the PIRATE lacks laser rangefinder.
Electronic Warfare Systems.
Defensive Aids Subsystems
For Electronic warfare purposes,Typhoon has a sophisticated and highly integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian (formerly called EuroDASS). Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to air and surface threats, provides an all-round prioritised assessment, and can respond to multiple threats simultaneously. Although the MAWS is an electro-optic thingy.
Threat detection methods include a Radar warning receiver (RWR), a Missile Warning System (MWS) and a laser warning receiver (LWR, only on UK Typhoons). Protective countermeasures consist of chaff, flares, an electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite and a towed radar decoy (TRD). The ESM-ECM and MWS consists of 16 AESA antenna array assemblies and 10 radomes.
DASS is fully integrated with the Eurofighter's avionics systems. DASS elements include:
> A wideband "radar warning receiver / electronic support measures (RWR/ESM)" system, with antennas on the wingtips and fuselage. The system covers 360 degrees around the aircraft and spans a frequency range from less than 100 megahertz to 10 gigahertz, and can categorize radars from their operating wavelength, pulse patterns, and scan patterns.
> A set of "missile approach warning (MAW)" sensors on the wing leading edges and the tailcone, based on the GEC-Plessey PVS2000 MAW and using pulse-Doppler radar technology. RAF Eurofighters have a laser-warning sensor in front of the cockpit.
> An active jammer transmitter system in the left wingtip pod, with RWR/ESM antennas on front and back. There is an RWR/ESM antenna on the front of the right wingtip pod, but other functions in this pod vary with national user. On RAF aircraft, the right wingtip pod carries two Marconi Ariel expendable towed radar decoys. On Italian Eurofighters, the right wingtip pod contains a "crosseye" deceptive jamming module. The countermeasures fit of other users is unclear. It is possible to fit the Eurofighter with a right wingtip pod that carries crosseye and a single towed radar decoy.
> Chaff and flare dispensers, provided by SAAB and fitted at the rear of the wing in the actuator fairings for the flight-control surfaces. The chaff can be illuminated by the active-jamming system to increase its effectiveness, a scheme known as "jaff".
Elettronica Cross Eye Deception Jammer
The Italian company Elettronica is developing “ CROSS EYE “ a deception jammer that the creates significant angular deviation in the waves being reflected back to the radar of enemy aircraft or enemy's missile's active seeker. It fools the enemy into judging the exact position of Eurofighter, and the enemy sees EFT at a false position. It is for Italian Typhoons.
Crosseye targets are produced by interference between two signal sources of similar strength. The interference leads to angular glint of the same type as in complicated radar targets. If two signals nearly cancel each other the phase front will be distorted and the direction of the target is seen to fluctuate.
THE CROSSEYE PRINCIPLE
The basic idea of crosseye jamming is to produce a false target sufficiently far away from a platform using antennas onboard a ship or aircraft. The false target is produced by repeating radar signals in order to make it as realistic as possible. It is also possible to add modulations and fluctuations to make the signal similar to a real target. This process is easily performed with digital components. Analogue components have been used in many previous crosseye experiments, but digital radio frequency memories (DRFM) are superior in this application Progress was based on the appearance of digital radio frequency memories (DRFM). Improved tactical analysis was also important to clarify under which conditions crosseye jamming may be used. By selecting phase and amplitudes correctly one can produce a false target with optimal parameters instead of requiring a system to work under all circumstances.
Active lure new generation Typhoon aircraft will have the new generation of active missile decoy "BriteCloud". Once dropped, the "BriteCloud" threaten research priority using standalone digital memory technology (DRFM). The radar pulses are received in the onboard computer of the "BriteCloud" then copied using the frequency of repetitions and then simulate a "false target." This false target, so convincing that the threat system can not detect the deception. The "BriteCloud" will seduce even the most modern threats, away from the firing platform.
BriteCloud is expected to provide an off-board capability to decoy radar guided missiles and fire-control radars, producing large miss distance and angle break lock. Such capability is provided by self-contained coherent technique generation processing and high-power batteries that allow at least ten seconds of life after firing activation, in addition to rapid response capabilities. Dispensed in the initial format from standard 55 mm flare cartridge, BriteCloud is to equip at least three main platforms – Eurofighter Typhoon, Saab Gripen and Panavia Tornado.
Technically these sensors convert change in light into electrical signals. They measures the physical quantity of light and then translates it into a form that is readable by an instrument. An optical sensor is generally part of a larger system that integrates a source of light, a measuring device and the optical sensor. This is often connected to an electrical trigger. The trigger reacts to a change in the signal within the light sensor. An optical sensor can measure the changes from one or several light beams. When a change occurs, the light sensor operates as a photoelectric trigger and therefore either increases or decreases the electrical output.
These sensors because of their robust imaging capability have found application in the field of Defence. The ones used on Typhoon are listed and described below.
1, Raptor Recce pod.
Originally developed for Panavia Tornado. The Reconnaissance Airborne Pod for Tornado, RAPTOR is a new stand-off electro-optical and infrared (IR), long-range oblique-photography pod.
The pod contains a dual-band (visible and IR) sensor, which is capable of detecting and identifying small targets from either short range or long range and from medium or high altitudes, by day or by night. This observation system has been designed for operations at medium and high altitude (10,000- to 80,000-ft) and low subsonic and supersonic speed (0.1 to 1.6 Mach) delivering high resolution infrared and visible bands imagery at extremely long ranges.
The images received by the pod can be transmitted via a real-time data-link system to image analysts at a ground station, or can be displayed in the cockpit during flight. The imagery can also be recorded for post-flight analysis. The RAPTOR system can create images of hundreds of separate targets in one sortie; it is capable of autonomous operation against preplanned targets, or it can be re-tasked manually for targets of opportunity or to select a different route to the target. The stand-off range of the sensors allows the aircraft to remain outside heavily-defended areas, to minimise the aircraft’s exposure to enemy air-defence systems.
2, Damocles and TALIOS (targeting pod).
The DAMOCLES laser designator pod designed by THALES brings full day and night laser designation capability to the RAFALE, with metric precision. It is also proposed for Eurofighter. It permits laser-guided weapons to be delivered at stand-off range and altitude. The IR sensor of the DAMOCLES pod operates in the mid-wave infrared band, allowing it to retain its effectiveness in warm and / or humid conditions. DAMOCLES is interoperable with all existing laser-guided weapons. THALES is now working on TALIOS, a new generation multifunction targeting pod.
TALIOS is an acronym for Targeting Long-range Identification Optronic System. It is follow-on from the company’s Damocles navigation and targeting pod, for which Thales took 120 orders, two-thirds of them for export. This pod is offere
Like other such pods from competing suppliers, operators found a new role for Damocles as an imagery sensor–the so-called Non-Traditional Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (NTISR) role. Thales says that in designing TALIOS with the latest sensors and stabilization techniques, and by adding a third optical window, it has eliminated some of the shortcomings of previous pods when collecting imagery. For instance, it has a wide field of view, and is able to operate throughout the mission.
Further, Thales claims that TALIOS is the only pod to provide color imagery to NATO standards, while other new features include day or night operation from any altitude; scene-matching; and automatic detection and tracking of mobile targets. TALIOS was previously known as the Pod de Désignation Laser de Nouvelle Génération (PDL-NG). The TALIOS pod is the same shape as Damocles, and approximately the same weight, and can therefore be substituted easily.
3, Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod.
AN/AAQ-33 Sniper XR is an advanced targeting pod having capability to pick out individual enemy troops on the ground from outside jet noise ranges. It is highly reliable, having anMTBF value (mean time between failures) of over 600 (!) hours. The pod features a high-resolution, advanced third-generation mid-wave FLIR, a dual mode laser and a CCD-TV along with a laser spot tracker and a laser marker. The pod fits comfortably under the intake, just in front of countermeasure (chaff and flare) dispenser bays and does not deny their use.
The pod contains a laser designator/rangefinder to aid the delivery of precision guided munitions (PGM's) plus the software necessary to automatically track the selected target regardless of the maneuvering of its host plane. It is possible to designate for the aircraft's own weapons and for the weapons of other aircraft as well (this latter technique is called 'buddy-lasing'). In case of unguided ('dumb') bombs the laser is used to determine target range and the pod feeds this input to the aircraft's fire control system.
To be able to follow the target within wide limits, the nose section of the targeting pod can rotate all the way around, thus giving an unlimited (or continuous) field of regard in roll direction. Because of the wedge shaped 'window' at the nose of the pod, field of regard in pitch direction ranges from +35 to -155 degrees.
The laser the pod can operate in two modes: training mode and combat mode. For training purposes and in urban warfare the pod uses an eyesafe laser beam to avoid accidental damages to the eyes of people around the jet. Since the training version is much less powerful, its range is much smaller than the full range of the combat version. The combat version has a wavelength compatible with the standard LGB's currently in service, which means it should be 1.06 micron.
4, LITENING III laser targeting pod.
It is used to laser-designate ground targets for attack by other assets, and ground reconnaissance and scanning capability, even when the aircraft is flying at maximum speed at low altitudues and undertaking combat manoeuvres.
The Eurojet EJ-200
The Engine has been a very big issue in fighter aircraft making business and it's failure is always a big reason for failure of many big fighter programs. The Eurofighter is powered by twin EJ-200 afterburning turbofan jet engines. It is a collaborative effort between between Rolls-Royce, MTU, Avio and ITP, who formed in the late 1980s as EUROJET Turbo GmbH. The Eurojet EJ200 features many state of the art design elements, including integrated blade/disk construction, (blisks) wide chord fan airfoils without a need for inlet guide vanes, single crystal turbine blades, an airspray fuel delivery system, and an advanced FADEC system for engine control and onboard diagnostic systems.
The maximum dry thrust of this engine is 60 KN and maximum thrust with afterburner is 90 KN and T/W ratio of 9.31:1 . The new stage 2 EJ2x0 engine plan to increase the output 30% more power compared to the original EJ200. The engine will have dry thrust of around 78 kN (or 17,500 lbf) with a reheated output of around 120 kN (or 27,000 lbf). Experiments have also been done to adapt the platform for 3D thrust vectoring.
The engine is fed by a variable geometry inlet duct on the Eurofighter, making it difficult for enemy radar to home in on its spinning fan blades, while tailoring the airflow for varying inlet conditions. The air is drawn into the compressor inlet, which features no inlet guide vanes. The three stage wide chord low pressure compressor is classified as a fan, because apart from feeding the high pressure compressor in the engine core, it also feeds the bypass duct, which bypasses air around the engine core, surrounding it in a cooling blanket, which allows for higher combustion temperatures and turbine inlet temperatures. Compressor discharge air is fed to an annular through-flow burner which utilizes air spray injectors to distribute fuel into the burner. Discharge air is injected into the fuel vaporizing nozzles which aids in the atomization of the fuel, allowing for more complete fuel distribution and more complete combustion, which of course leads to better fuel efficiency.
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The aircraft is controlled by means of a centre stick (or control stick) and left hand throttles, designed on a Hand on Throttle and Stick (HOTAS) principle to lower pilot workloads.
Direct Voice Input
A workload reduction tool, the DVI system is incorporated as a speaker-dependent recognition module in the Typhoon’s communications and audio management unit (CAMU). The module employs a frequency/time ratio that maps a person’s voice sound, and it converts audio input into command words. The Typhoon Direct Voice Input (DVI) system uses a speech recognition module (SRM), developed by Smiths Aerospace (now GE Aviation Systems) and Computing Devices (now General Dynamics UK). It was the first production DVI system used in a military cockpit.
DVI provides the pilot with an additional natural mode of command and control over approximately 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to reduce pilot workload, improve aircraft safety, and expand mission cap the HOTAS.
A filter diminishes aircraft noise. Pilots push the com switch to switch back and forth between external communications and DVI communications within the aircraft. All functions are also achievable by means of a conventional button-press or soft-key selections; functions include display management, communications, and management of various systems.
Typhoon's unique HOTAS
The Typhoon pilot can control the aircraft manually using a short conventionally located hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control column. Beyond its use to control the aircraft and its twin Eurojet EJ200 digitally controlled engines, the HOTAS has some 24 finger-tip functions for sensor and weapon control, defense aids management, communications handling, target manipulation and x/y cursor control.
HOTAS is augmented by a Smiths Aerospace direct voice input (DVI) system, which permits voice selection of modes, radio and navaid management, checklist rundowns, display setups, and entry of data that is not flight safety critical. For example, to change a mode with DVI, the pilot merely says the word shown next to a button on a display menu. For verification of, say, a verbally fed data entry, corresponding text is scrolled along the bottom of the head-up display–a kind of instant proofreading.
The Typhoon features a glass cockpit without any conventional instruments. It incorporates three full colour multi-function head-down displays (MHDDs) (the formats on which are manipulated by means of softkeys, XY cursor, and voice (Direct Voice Input or DVI) command), a wide angle head-up display (HUD) with forward-looking infrared (FLIR), a voice and hands-on throttle and stick (Voice+HOTAS), a Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS), a Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS), a manual data-entry facility (MDEF) located on the left glareshield and a fully integrated aircraft warning system with a dedicated warnings panel (DWP).
Reversionary flying instruments, lit by LEDs, are located under a hinged right glareshield. Access to the cockpit is normally via either a telescopic integral ladder or an external version. The integral ladder is stowed in the port side of the fuselage, below the cockpit.
User needs were given a high priority in the cockpit’s design; both layout and functionality was created through feedback and assessments from military pilots and a specialist testing facility. Emergency escape is provided by a Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seat, with the canopy being jettisoned by two rocket motors.
In the event of pilot disorientation, the Flight Control System allows for rapid and automatic recovery by the simple press of a button. On selection of this cockpit control the FCS takes full control of the engines and flying controls, and automatically stabilises the aircraft in a wings level, gentle climbing attitude at 300 knots, until the pilot is ready to retake control. The aircraft also has an Automatic Low-Speed Recovery system (ALSR) which prevents it from departing from controlled flight at very low speeds and high angle of attack.
Helmet Mounted Symbology System.
Earlier pilots had to point the aircraft in the direction they want to fire to get the enemy in a field of view before they engage their weapons. The HMSS allows the pilot to let his helmet do the pointing without having to waste vital time manoeuvring the aircraft,giving a big advantage in combat.
The bumps (infra-red LED’s) are used to calculate the pilot’s head position and its angle. The LEDs on the helmet flash and the 3 sensors in the cockpit detect the flashing. The data is then used to calculate where the pilot is looking. As the pilot turns his head, the system continually re-configures to use the best sensor and LED combination to give the most accurate result. Accurate targeting is immediate; there’s no delay.
Wherever the pilots head turns, his sensors and weapons face the same direction. Imagery projected onto the pilot’s visor gives, amongst other information, speed, heading and height – and crucially, it also gives the precise position of any enemy aircraft or missiles. The imagery, which remains stable and accurate at all viewing angles, means the pilot can make rapid decisions without ever having to take their eyes off the target.
Pilot can even lock-on the enemy who is flying beneath the Typhoon, who is out of field of view of the pilot.
Eurofighter has the capabilities of an Air Superiority fighter. It can carry 7,500 kgs of load on its 13 hard points the load may also include external fuel tanks and targeting pods and also wingtip ECM pods. As Eurofighter has been adapted as a multirole fighter based on type of missions it's payload configuration has been categorised. Except the British one all Typhoon carry 27mm Mauser cannon.
Their are six configurations as per the images on Eurofighter’s official website.
Air Superiority - 6 BVRAAMs , 2 SRAAMs, 3 external fuel tanks.
Interdiction / Strike - 4 Laser Guided Bombs, 3 BVRAAMs , 2 SRAAMs, 1 targeting pod, 3 fuel tanks.
Suppression / Destruction of Enemy Air Defence - 2 Laser Guided Bombs, 2 Anti Radiation Missiles, 3 BVRAAMs, 2 SRAAMs, 1 targeting pod, 3 fuel tanks.
Multirole / Swing Role - 2 stand-off range air to ground missiles, 4 BVRAAMs, 4 SRAAMs, 1 fuel tank.
Close Air Support - 4 air to ground rocket launchers, 2 Laser Guided Bombs, 3BVRAAMs, 2 SRAAMs , 1 targeting pod, 1 fuel tank.
Maritime Strike - 2 Anti-Ship Missiles, 4 BVRAAMs, 4 SRAAMs, 1 fuel tank.
Apart from these their can be more combinations with more new weapons appearing in.
Apart from these, It is planned to equip Eurofighter with many amazing weapons in future as per future requirements some of these weapons have been featured below and carefully explained in detail. An anti ship capability has also been anticipated for Eurofighter beyond 2017, Eurofighter is studying integrating the Boeing Harpoon or MBDA Marte or Sea Brimstone missiles onto the Typhoon for a maritime attack capability.The Typhoon can accommodate two RBS-15 or three Marte-ERP under each wing but neither has been integrated yet.
1 MBDA Meteor.
Meteor is the next generation of Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system designed to revolutionize air-to-air combat in the 21st Century. The weapon brings together six nations with a common need to defeat the threats of today as well as the future emerging ones developed by MBDA. Guided by an advanced active radar seeker, Meteor provides all weather capability to engage a wide variety of targets from agile fast jets to small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and cruise missiles.
The Meteor is installed with an active radar target seeker, offering high reliability in detection, tracking and classification of targets. The missile also integrates inertial measurement system (IMS) supplied by Litef.The missile has a range in excess of 100km. It is designed for a speed greater than Mach 4. The missile has a large no escape zone.
The Meteor missile is powered by a solid fuel variable flow ducted rocket (ramjet) supplied by Bayern-Chemie. The ramjet provides the Meteor missile with a capability to maintain consistent high speeds. This ability helps the missile to chase and destroy fast moving flexible targets. The Meteor includes an electronics and propulsion control unit (EPCU). The EPCU adjusts the rocket’s air intake and duct covers based on the cruise speed and the target’s altitude.
2 AIM-132 ASRAAM
AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air to Air Missile ASRAAM design and featuresThe ASRAAM air-to-air missile can outperform all existing short-range missiles in close-in combat missions. It features low-drag design concept incorporating body lift technology. The tail-controlled missile measures 2.9m in length, 166mm in diameter and 88kg in weight. It is fitted with high-explosive blast fragmentation warhead with impact and laser proximity fuses. The missile is also equipped with seeker detector cooling and self contained cooling engine.
The missile can be deployed using lock before launch capability to engage targets in the forward hemisphere. It can be launched in ‘lock after launch’ mode to engage targets beyond the seeker acquisition range.
The missile gathers target positional data from aircraft sensors including radar or helmet mounted sight during close-in combat missions when target is located outside the off-boresight and visual limits of seeker. This capability ensures the aircraft’s crew to perform over-the-shoulder firing in ‘lock after launch’ mode.
Missile guidance and sensors
The ASRAAM weapon is guided by an advanced, accurate focal plane array Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) seeker developed by Raytheon. The passive homing guidance system provides the ability to significantly track, acquire and engage targets beyond visual range (BVR) under severe clutter and countermeasures environmental situations.
Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) seeker developed by RaytheonThe missile collects the target data using fibre optic gyro sensors and solid state accelerometers, stabilised in three axes. It can also gather target information from autonomous infrared search and track system.
Propulsion for the short range air-to-air missile
A low signature rocket motor is fitted to drive the ASRAAM short range missile. It provides superior acceleration and range throughout the flight. The motor also allows ASRAAM to quickly intercept any target and gives it a speed of about Mach 3.
3 MBDA Spear 3.
Spear 3 is a mini cruise missile intended for precision strike and can be carried in large numbers for targeting specific small sized targets. SPEAR is equipped with the latest generation precision effects warhead, designed to meet the demands of the future combat mission. This next generation air launched Surface Attack Weapon reduces the numbers of different weapons within inventory while also extending the operator’s ability to engage mobile, fleeting and re-locatable targets far beyond the horizon.
Fitted with the latest generation multi sensor seeker designed to operate in all combat conditions and to be able to engage a wide range of target types both on land and sea. SPEAR is effective against:
• Naval vessels
• Air Defence Units
• Defended structures
• Ballistic Missile launchers
• Fast moving and manoeuvering vehicles
• Main Battle Tanks, Self-Propelled Guns, Armoured Personnel Carriers
This 80 kg mini-cruise missile can be launched even when not facing the target (differently from SDB) and with more freedom regardless of launch height and weather conditions that affect gliding. The weapon is to be able to engage fixed and mobile targets alike, with a data link enabling post-launch control and retargeting.The propulsion is also fundamental in order to achieve the range of at least 100 km that the British MOD wants. SDB is a 45 nautical miles glide weapon, while the UK MOD and MBDA believe they can achieve north of 62 nautical miles for SPEAR.
4 MBDA Storm Shadow.
Storm Shadow also known as SCALP EG in France is a long range precision stike heavy air launched cruise missile. It was designed earlier as an upgraded version of APACHE missile. The SCALP EG/Storm Shadow is 5.1 m in length, 0.63/ 0.48 m in body width/height diameter, and 1,300 kg in launch weight. The payload is slightly less than the APACHE at 400 kg. The notable distinction between the APACHE and the SCALP/Storm Shadow missiles are the warhead types and the effective range. The SCALP carries a single HE penetrator warhead, making it a far more versatile system than the submunitions carried by the APACHE. Additionally, the range for the SCALP/Storm Shadow is 250 to 400 km.
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